Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability and memory-related traits of the western honey bee, <em>Apis mellifera</em> (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
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ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA  2017, Vol. 60 Issue (2): 189-196    DOI: doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.02.008
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Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability and memory-related traits of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
ZHANG Bo#, LIAO Chun-Hua#, HU Jing-Hua, WU Xiao-Bo*
 (Honeybee Research Institute, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang 330045, China)
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Abstract 【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of three low doses of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability, learning and memory of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, so as to provide theoretical reference for healthy breeding of bee colony and further research on the mechanisms of colony collapse disorder (CCD) phenomenon in bees. 【Methods】 Lambda-cyhalothrin at various doses (1/2 LD50, 1/4 LD50 and 1/8 LD50) was dripped on the backs of newly emerged bees of A. mellifera through the drop method, respectively, and those dripped with pure acetone were treated as the control group. Bees were cultured in cages after treatment and the mortality rates in various groups were recorded daily. Effects of various doses of lambda-cyhalothrin on the learning and memory ability of worker bees were determined through proboscis extension response (PER) at 7 d after treatment. The newly emerged bees treated with different doses of lambda-cyhalothrin were put into the original bee colonies, and their homing ability was determined at 20 d after treatment. The relative expression levels of learning and memory related genes including glutamate receptor gene (GluRA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor gene (Nmdar1) in 20-day-old worker bees were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】  The results showed that the average life span of worker bees in the 1/2 LD50  group was significantly lower than those in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group, while there was no significant difference among the latter three groups. The success rate of PER of worker bees in the 1/2 LD50 group was significantly lower than those in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group, while there was no significant difference among the latter three groups either (P>0.05). The homing rates at 1 000 m in the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups (P<0.05), but there was no significant differences between the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups, as well as between the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group (P>0.05). The relative expression levels of GluRA gene in 20-day-old worker bees in the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups (P<0.05), and that in the 1/4 LD50 group was also significantly higher than that in the 1/2 LD50 group (P<0.05), but there was no significant differences between the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group (P>0.05). The relative expression levels of Nmdar1 gene in worker bees in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than that in the 1/2 LD50 group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference among the former three groups (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 Lambda-cyhalothrin has certain effects on the viability and memory and behavior characteristics of A. mellifera, and its unreasonable application may affect healthy breeding of bees.
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ZHANG Bo
Liao-Chun-Hua
Hu-Jing-Hua
Wu-Xiao-Bo
Key wordsApis mellifera; colony collapse disorder   lambda-cyhalothrin; viability; homing rate; learning and memory     
Cite this article:   
ZHANG Bo, Liao-Chun-Hua, Hu-Jing-Hua et al. Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability and memory-related traits of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae)[J]. ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA, 2017, 60(2): 189-196.
URL:  
http://www.insect.org.cn/EN/doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.02.008      or     http://www.insect.org.cn/EN/Y2017/V60/I2/189
 
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