AbstractBactrocera fruit flies are an enormous threat to fruit and vegetable production throughout the world, causing great economic loss. Although chemical control based on conventional insecticides and biotechnical tools including sterile insect technique (SIT) and male annihilation technique (MAT) have been the main weapons used in most control programs, they still have many restrictions, and ecofriendly control tools against Bactrocera spp. are urgently needed. Thus, current knowledge about sexual communication and related behaviours in Bactrocera spp. was reviewed in this article to help build behaviour-based control strategies. Two different polygynous mating systems in Tephritidae and behavioural sequences of males before courtship in lekking sites were summarized, and some mated female behaviours in oviposition sites, including oviposition marking behaviour and fighting behaviour for single oviposition sites, were elaborated. Future perspectives were also outlined. The knowledge about sexual communication is expected to provide new insights and references for integrated pest management programs for tephritid pests.