Biological characteristics of the solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
ZHI Fu-Ying1,2, HUANG Fang3, HUANG Jun2,*, LI Wei-Di2, LU Yao-Bin1,2,*
(1. College of Chemistry and Life Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, Zhejiang 321004, China; 2. Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hangzhou 310021, China; 3. Huzhou Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, Huzhou, Zhejiang 313000, China)
Abstract 【Aim】 The solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a new record species in China, and supposed to be a great potential threat to agricultural production and ecological environment. This study aims to reveal the biological characteristics of P. solani. 【Methods】 The reproductive mode, developmental duration, fecundity and morphological characteristics of various developmental stages of P. solani on the host Solanum tuberosum were investigated under laboratory conditions (27±1℃, RH 70%±5% and a photoperiod of 12L∶12D). 【Results】 P. solani is a parthenogenetic, thelyotokous species, and no male individual could be found in the population. There are five stages (egg, 1st-3rd instar nymphs and adult female) in the life cycle. Eggs are laid in a scattering mode, and hatched within ca. 24 min. Female adults also produce some eggs that are unhatchable. The nymphal stage lasts 14-22 d and the total life span is 33-64 d. Adult female has strong fecundity, with the number of eggs laid per female ranging from 135 to 337 (244 on average). The main morphological characteristics of each developmental stage: egg, oblong, yellow and transparent in appearance, with one pair of reddish brown compound eyes; the 1st instar nymph, also yellow in color, and moves fast; the 2nd instar nymph, protuberances appear on the marginal surface of body; the 3rd instar nymph, dark yellow in color, its protuberances become visible, and caudal valve protrudent; adult female, covered with a thick layer of white waxy powder, protuberances become more visible, body color becomes darker, and legs dark red in color. 【Conclusion】 The main biological characteristics of P. solani were clarified from the aspects of reproductive mode, developmental duration, and fecundity. The results imply that P. solani is an important and potential dangerous insect pest.