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2017 Vol.  60 No.  2
Published: 2017-02-20

Photos show the life history of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): egg (A), 1st instar nymph (B), 2nd instar nymph (C), prepupa (D), pupa (E) and adult (F). As one of the most common and significant thrips pests, T. hawaiiensis has become the major pest on banana and mango in tropical crops. In this issue, the biological characteristics and fitness costs of a moderate spinetoram-resistant in T. hawaiiensis population are reported (pp. 180-188). Photos were taken by FU Bu-Li at a banana plantation at Dala town, Chengmai, Hainan and Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Haikou, Hainan in May, 2016.

RESEARCH PAPERS
RESEARCH PAPERS
127 ZHANG Yuan-Chen, Liu Xiang-Dong
Cloning and expression analysis of lysozyme gene AgLYS in the cotton-melon aphid,Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
【Aim】 This study aims to clone the lysozyme gene of the cotton-melon aphid Aphis gossypii Glover, to construct the expression system of this gene in Escherichia coli, and to analyze its expression profiles in aphids of different day-old and reared on different host plants, so as to further research the biological function of this gene and to illustrate the relationship between lysozyme and symbionts in aphids. 【Methods】 The total RNA was extracted from apterous adults of A. gossypii and used as the template to clone lysozyme gene and to obtain the full-length cDNA sequence using RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The gene fragment of lysozyme gene in A. gossypii without signal peptide sequence was linked to the expression vector pET-30a and then transformed into E. coli to express. The qRT-PCR method was used to examine the relative expression levels of the lysozyme gene in A. gossypii of different day-old (1-19-day-old) and reared on different host plants (zucchini, cucumber and cowpea). 【Results】 A lysozyme gene was cloned from apterous aphids of A. gossypii and named AgLYS with the GenBank accession no. KY575341. The full-length cDNA of AgLYS is 680 bp, and its ORF is 516 bp which encodes 172 amino acid residues. A signal peptide sequence with 36 amino acid residues was found at the N-terminus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the lysozyme of A. gossypii belongs to i-type and has 90% amino acid sequence identity with that of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. AgLYS was expressed in E. coli, and the expressed protein has the molecular weight of approximate 20 kD. AgLYS could be expressed in 1-19-day-old A. gossypii aphids. Its expression levels were lower in 1-9-day-old aphids, but increased extremely significantly in 11-19-day-old aphids (P<0.01). The expression levels of AgLYS were extremely significantly higher in A. gossypii aphids reared on zucchini than in those reared on cucumber and cowpea (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 Lysozyme i-type was found in A. gossypii, and AgLYS was cloned and expressed in E. coli. The expression of AgLYS is influenced by developmental stages of A.gossypii and host plants. It is inferred that AgLYS might be involved in the regulation of population density of symbionts in A.gossypii.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 127-135 [Abstract] ( 91 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4184KB] ( 186 )
136 MEI Ting, He Zheng-Bo, Wang Xiao-Ting, Wang Ting-Ting, Chen-Bin
Genome-wide identification and characterization of genes of the chemosensory protein (CSP) family in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
【Aim】 The study aims to identify the genes of the chemosensory protein (CSP) family in Anopheles sinensis whole-genome, to predict the characteristics of these CSP genes, and to investigate the phylogenetics and evolution of the CSPs in representative dipteran species. 【Methods】 We searched, identified and named the CSP genes in An. sinensisAn. gambiaeAedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes with Blast and HMM methods using CSP amino acid sequences downloaded from NCBI database as inquiry entry, analyzed the characteristics of the CSP genes in An. sinensis using bioinformatics methods, including the structure, location, splicing and Ka/Ks ratio of these genes, conservative domains and protein structures, and deduced the phylogeny of CSP genes using maximum likelihood (ML) method with MEGA software. 【Results】 The genomes of An. sinensisAn. gambiaeAe. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus contain 8, 8, 43 and 27 CSP genes, respectively. The CSP genes identified in An. sinensis (AsCSPs) are all supported by fulllength transcripts, encoding 116 (AsCSP7) to 335 (AsCSP5) amino acids. Out of them, seven AsCSPs are located on Scaffold 51 and AsCSP8 on Scaffold116. AsCSP1-AsCSP8 possess 3, 2, 1, 1, 1, 2, 1 and 2 splicing variants, respectively, and AsCSP3 shows the highest expression level with a FPKM value of 385.46. All AsCSPs each has a N-terminal signal peptide consisting of 17-37 amino acids, and contains 4 conserved cysteine sites (CYS68, CYS75, CYS94 and CYS97), which define two disulfide bonds (CYS68-CYS75 and CYS94-CYS97). Phylogenetic analysis results showed that eight CSP genes in four mosquito species are each grouped into a significant clade, and were named as CSP1-CSP8 group, respectively. Thirty-five and 18 CSP genes in Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, respectively, are grouped into a special clade without homologous genes with Anopheles species, and was named as the Culicinae-specific group in this study. The Ka/Ks values of orthologous gene pairs between An. sinensis and An. gambiae were all less than 1, suggesting that the CSP gene family mainly experienced purifying selection during evolution. 【Conclusion】 The study provides an information frame of the CSP gene family in mosquito species, especially An. sinensis, and lays the foundation for further functional analysis of these genes.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 136-147 [Abstract] ( 63 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 8113KB] ( 95 )
148 WANG Hong-Min, Yang Meng-Meng, Zhang Yao-Wen, Zhang Xian-Hong
Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchuidae) adults to volatiles from mung bean (Vigna radiata) pods Hot!
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the plant volatiles attracting Callosobruchus chinensis. 【Methods】 The electroantennogram and behavioral responses of C. chinensis adults to volatiles from mung bean (Vigna radiata) pods were tested by using electroantennographic (EAG) detector and Y-tube olfactometer, respectively. 【Results】 The EAG bioassay results showed that the respective EAG values of mated female adults of C. chinensis to 23 tested volatiles from V. radiata pods were different, among which the EAG values to benzaldehyde, 2-hexenal, caproaldehyde, octanal and salicylaldehyde were relatively high, with the maximum value (20.68) to 2-hexenal. EAG values showed that the antennal response strengthened with the increasing of concentration of the test componds, but the EAG values had no significant difference between mated and unmated adults. The results of behavioral response tests showed that the mated male and female adults of C. chinensis showed significantly positive taxis to benzaldehyde and 2-hexenal and significantly negative taxis to caproaldehyde, whereas showed no significant taxis to octanal and salicylaldehyde when the concentrations of these five compounds were 100 μg/μL. 【Conclusion】 Among volatiles from V. radiata pods, benzaldehyde and 2-hexenal may be the main attractants for C. chinensis.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 148-154 [Abstract] ( 58 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4065KB] ( 118 )
155 CHEN Shi-Liang, Xiao Sheng-Yan, Pan Qiu-Ling, Li Yong-Mou, Yang Rong-Gui, Gao Jian-Hua, Gao-Xiang, Xu-Jin-Shan
Infectivity and transmissibility of Nosema sp.CP isolated from Catopsilia pyranthe (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) in the domestic silkworm (Bombyx mori)
【Aim】 To identify the morphological and molecular characteristics of microsporidium Nosema sp. CP isolated from Catopsilia pyranthe, and then to assess the infectivity and transmissibility of this Nosema sp. CP in the domestic silkworm, Bombyx mori. 【Methods】 After purification of Nosema sp. CP spores isolated from wild C. pyranthe butterflies, the shape, sizes and axial ratios of the spores were measured under the microscope, respectively. The DNA fragments of 16S rDNA from this microsporidian species were amplified by PCR and then sequenced to confirm its classification status. The Nosema sp. CP isolated and N. bombycis was fed respectively to B. mori larvae of day-1 2nd instar and day-1 4th instar to survey the infectivity and transmissibility via embryo during different developmental stages of B. mori. 【Results】 Oblong shape and diplokaryotic nuclei of the isolated microsporidia in this study were visualized under the microscope. Molecular analysis of 16S rDNA sequence showed more than 99% identity to that of the previously reported microsporidian spores isolated from C. pyranthe. The total infection rates of Nosema sp. CP and N. bombycis to B. mori were 68.8% and 98.3%, respectively. In the second generation of B. mori after vaccination, the detection rates of sporozoans of Nosema sp. CP and N. bombycis in newly-hatched larvae were 100% and 100%, and those of their eggshells were 92.9% and 100%, respectively. The embryo transmissibilities of Nosema sp. CP and N. bombycis to B. mori were 9.6% and 23.2%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The microsporidia isolated in this study are Nosema sp. CP and have typical characteristics of Nosema diplokaryotic nuclei. The Nosema sp. CP isolated can infect B. mori and has transmissibility via embryo in this insect. However, in B. mori both the infection rate and transmission rate of Nosema sp. CP isolated in this study are lower than those of N. bombycis. Thus, it is necessary to prevent and control the prevalence of Nosema sp. CP in sericultural industry.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 155-162 [Abstract] ( 80 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2142KB] ( 65 )
163 YANG Sen, Li-Yan, Mai Yan-Na, Ruan Run-Tian, Song An-Dong, Wang Feng-Qin, Chen Hong-Ge
Isolation and identification of egg-associated bacteria of Hermetia illucens (Diptera:Stratiomyidae) and their effects on its adult oviposition behavior Hot!
【Aim】 To screen and identify bacterial strains isolated from Hermetia illucens eggs inducing the oviposition of Hermetia illucens adults and to discover the way of improving the egg collection efficiency in the process of artificial breeding of this insect. 【Methods】 Separation and pure culture of egg-associated bacteria were fulfilled by using brain heart infusion broth (BHI) medium, and the screened solo bacteria strain was fermented in shaking flask to verify the effects of these fermentation broths on adult oviposition behavior of H. illucens with the sterilized BHI medium as the negative control. 【Results】 Fifteen strains were obtained and numbered as EEAM-1, EEAM-2, EEAM-3, EEAM-5, EEAM-6, EEAM-7, EEAM-8, EEAM-9, EEAM-10A, EEAM-10B, EEAM-11, EEAM-12, EEAM-13, EEAM-14 and EEAM-15, respectively. It was found that five strains including EEAM-3, EEAM-6, EEAM-7, EEAM-10A and EEAM-10B significantly improved the fecundity of H. illucens adults, and they were identified as Bacillus tequilensisSerratia marcescensEnterococcus faecalisBrevibacterium sp. and Bacillus methylotrophicus, respectively,  through the morphology comparison, characteristics of colonies, 16S rDNA sequence analyses and phylogenetic tree construction. Especially, the fermentation broth of Enterococcus faecalis (EEAM-7) had the highest inducing effect on adult oviposition, 7.400-fold as high as that of the control group. The oviposition amounts in the treatment groups of the fermentation broths of B. methylotrophicus (EEMA-10B), S. marcescens (EEMA-6),  Brevibacterium sp. (EEAM-10A) and B. tequilensis (EEMA-3) were 6.531-, 5.100-, 4.187-and 2.636-fold as high as that of the control group, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that the egg-associated functional bacteria of H. illucens affect the fecundity of H. illucens adults. This study will provide a theoretical basis for establishing the stable feeding system of H. illucens.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 163-172 [Abstract] ( 63 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4322KB] ( 80 )
173 LIU Wei, Zhang-Ke, LI En-Hui, XU Hao-Zhe, Zhang-Ce
Escherichia coli alters the oviposition preference in Drosophila
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of the microbe Escherichia coli on the oviposition preference and survival rate of Drosophila melanogaster. 【Methods】 The 2-choice apparatus was used to examine the oviposition and position preference of wild-type D. melanogaster, and bacterial cells and supernatants were utilized to explore the reason for this behavior. D. melanogaster mutants of visual, gustatory and olfactory systems were applied to screen the corresponding sensing to E. coli,  and the survival rates of pupae and adults of D. melanogaster  were assessed to evaluate the potential effects of  E. coli on oviposition selection. 【Results】 The female adults of D. melanogaster dramatically avoided to lay eggs on the fly diet fermented by E. coli,  with an oviposition index of -0.89. The female adults avoided to oviposit on the supernatant of E. coli mixture, with an oviposition index of -0.52,  but did not avoid to oviposit on the bacterial cells, with an oviposition index of 0.02. The Orco2 mutant was deficient in oviposition repellency to E. coli-associated diet with an oviposition index of -0.25. E. coli decreased the survival rate of D. melanogaster progeny,  with less than 5% individuals surviving,  and the scarification on food surface rescued the survival rate of pupae and adults of D. melanogaster. 【Conclusion】 Female adults of D. melanogaster select the E. coli fermented food as the favored oviposition site. The oviposition preference of flies stems from the metabolites rather than E. coli cells. The olfactory system is required for D. melanogaster to distinguish the favored oviposition site. The oviposition repellence to E. coli consequently increases the survival and adaption of their offspring,  because E. coli forms the aquatic layer on food surface and deprives larvae of oxygen.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 173-179 [Abstract] ( 79 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2428KB] ( 70 )
180 FU Bu-Li, Li-Qiang, Xia Xi-Ya, Tang Liang-De, Qiu Hai-Yan, Xie Yi-Xian, Zeng Dong-Qiang, Liu Kui
Moderate resistance to spinetoram reduces the fitness of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
【Aim】 This study aims to compare the differences in demographic characteristics between susceptible and moderate spinetoram-resistant populations of Thrips hawaiiensis (Morgan), and to make clear the resistance regularity and resistance risk of this insect to spinetoram, so as to clarify its disaster rule and to provide theoretical basis for its scientific control. 【Methods】 The resistant population was developed by spinetoram selection, and compared with the susceptible population by using the age-stage, two-sex life table. Moreover, the relative fitness (Rf) was calculated based on the intrinsic rate of increase. 【Results】 Compared with the susceptible population, the moderate spinetoramresistant population had a longer duration of immature stages, shorter adult longevity and lower fecundity. The net reproductive rate R0, intrinsic rate of increase r,  finite rate of increase λ, and mean generation time T for the spinetoram-resistant population were 44.12 offsprings, 0.1554 d-1, 1.1681 d-1, and 24.37 d, respectively, while those for the susceptible population were 56.96 offsprings, 0.1753 d-1, 1.1916 d-1, and 23.06 d, respectively. Based on the R0 values, the relative fitness of the spinetoram-resistant population was 0.886. 【Conclusion】 This study revealed the biological fitness costs in T. hawaiiensis population with moderate resistance to spinetoram. It is suggested that the calculation of relative fitness should be based on the intrinsic rate of increase. Moreover, fitting the survival curve to Weibull distribution should be carried out with caution.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 180-188 [Abstract] ( 91 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1461KB] ( 103 )
189 ZHANG Bo, Liao Chun-Hua, Hu Jing-Hua, Wu Xiao-Bo
Effects of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability and memory-related traits of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Hot!
【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of three low doses of lambda-cyhalothrin on the viability, learning and memory of the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, so as to provide theoretical reference for healthy breeding of bee colony and further research on the mechanisms of colony collapse disorder (CCD) phenomenon in bees. 【Methods】 Lambda-cyhalothrin at various doses (1/2 LD50, 1/4 LD50 and 1/8 LD50) was dripped on the backs of newly emerged bees of A. mellifera through the drop method, respectively, and those dripped with pure acetone were treated as the control group. Bees were cultured in cages after treatment and the mortality rates in various groups were recorded daily. Effects of various doses of lambda-cyhalothrin on the learning and memory ability of worker bees were determined through proboscis extension response (PER) at 7 d after treatment. The newly emerged bees treated with different doses of lambda-cyhalothrin were put into the original bee colonies, and their homing ability was determined at 20 d after treatment. The relative expression levels of learning and memory related genes including glutamate receptor gene (GluRA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor gene (Nmdar1) in 20day-old worker bees were assayed using real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】  The results showed that the average life span of worker bees in the 1/2 LD50  group was significantly lower than those in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group, while there was no significant difference among the latter three groups. The success rate of PER of worker bees in the 1/2 LD50 group was significantly lower than those in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group, while there was no significant difference among the latter three groups either (P>0.05). The homing rates at 1 000 m in the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups (P<0.05), but there was no significant differences between the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups, as well as between the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group (P>0.05). The relative expression levels of GluRA gene in 20-day-old worker bees in the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than those in the 1/2 LD50 and 1/4 LD50 groups (P<0.05), and that in the 1/4 LD50 group was also significantly higher than that in the 1/2 LD50 group (P<0.05), but there was no significant differences between the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group (P>0.05). The relative expression levels of Nmdar1 gene in worker bees in the 1/4 LD50 group, the 1/8 LD50 group and the control group were significantly higher than that in the 1/2 LD50 group (P<0.05), but there was no significant difference among the former three groups (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 Lambda-cyhalothrin has certain effects on the viability and memory and behavior characteristics of A. mellifera, and its unreasonable application may affect healthy breeding of bees.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 189-196 [Abstract] ( 84 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2081KB] ( 96 )
197 DU Yuan-Peng, Gao-Zhen, Fu Qing-Qing, Guo Shu-Hua, Di-Heng
Evaluation on phylloxera resistance and cold hardiness of roots of two grape hybrid combinations
【Aim】 To screen cold-tolerant and phylloxera (Daktulosphaira vitifoliae Fitch)-resistant grape rootstocks for grapevine industry. 【Methods】 Laboratory bioassays were conducted on 45 strains (series A) of hybrid combination Vitis amurensis Rupr. Zuoshan No.1×SO4 and 27 strains (series B) of hybrid combination V. amurensis Rupr. Zuoshan No.1×101-1 to evaluate their resistance classes to phylloxera. A system of differential thermal analysis (DTA) was used for low temperature exotherms (LTE) analysis of roots of these strains, and the temperature-injury (LT-I) regression functions were established to evaluate the cold hardiness of roots. 【Results】 Phylloxera produced less eggs on these hybrid strains than on the susceptible strain Kyoho, and 18 strains from series A and 11 strains from series B with no tuberosities were classified with the resistance class 0, and nine varieties from series A and four varieties from series B with less than 10% tuberosities were classified with the resistance class 1. Twenty-seven strains from series A and three strains from series B, whose root, phloem and xylem subordination values were all lower than those of Beta, were selected for phylloxera resistance comparison. 【Conclusion】 In this study 15 strains from series A and 2 strains from series B with high phylloxera resistance and cold hardiness were selected, and the resistance class of A14, A16, A18, A22, A23, A28, A34, A35, A38, A44, A50, B24 and B26 was 0, and that of A11, A15, A17 and A27 was 1.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 197-203 [Abstract] ( 56 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 4315KB] ( 70 )
205 QIN Hua-Wei, Men Xing-Yuan, Yu-Yi, Lu Zeng-Bin, Sun Ting-Lin, Zhou Xian-Hong, Li Li-Li
Effects of host plants on the cold hardiness of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae
【Aim】 This study aims to assess the influence of host plants on the cold hardiness of Athetis lepigone mature larvae. 【Methods】 The 4th instar larvae of A. lepigone were fed with leaves of cotton, peanut, soybean, sweet potato and maize, respectively, for 6 d to maturity. The supercooling point, freezing point, fresh body weight, water content, and fat, glycogen and sorbitol contents of A. lepigone mature larvae were measured. 【Results】 The freezing point, fresh body weight, and the contents of fat and glycogen significantly differed among mature larvae of A. lepigone fed with leaves of different host plants. The larvae fed with soybean leaves had the highest freezing point (-2.80℃) and the lowest fresh weight (0.056 g) and fat content (12.47%). The larvae fed with cotton leaves had the lowest freezing point (-5.45℃), and the highest fat (32.12%) and glycogen contents (54.07 mg/g). The fresh body weight of larvae fed with maize leaves was the highest (0.118 g). There were no significant differences in the supercooling point, water content and sorbitol content among mature larvae fed with different plant leaves. 【Conclusion】 The host plants have no significant influence on the supercooling point of mature larvae of A. lepigone, but have significant influence on their fresh body weight and fat and glycogen contents.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 205-210 [Abstract] ( 58 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 980KB] ( 76 )
211 FENG Bo, Guo Qian-Shuang, Zhu-Feng, Wang-Xiao, Liu Wan-Cai, Jiang Yu-Ying, Zhong-Ling, Du Yong-Jun
Ovarian development and synthetic sex pheromone lure trapping of adults of the rice leaf folder,Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
【Aim】 The physiological status of migratory insects is complex, and this influences the stability and accuracy of synthetic sex pheromone lure trapping. This study aims to study the efficacy of sex pheromone lure trapping on monitoring the population dynamics of the rice leaf roller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis during different migration periods, and the relationship between sex pheromone lure trapping and ovarian development of female adults of this moth. 【Methods】 Synthetic sex pheromone lures and sweeping net were used to monitor the population dynamics of C. medinalis in four localities, i.e., Ningbo city and Wenzhou city of Zhejiang province, Binyang county of Guangxi autonomous region and Ningdu county of Jiangxi province, from September 2015. The female ovaries were dissected and the features of female ovaries for gradation were photographed. Bivariate correlation analysis was conducted to analyze the relationship between sex pheromone lure trapping and ovarian development of female adults. 【Results】 From late June to mid July, the rice leaf roller in Binyang county was the mixed population of the emigrant and local breeding generations. Various stages of ovaries were found in Binyang county but the proportions of stagesⅠand Ⅱ ovaries were higher than those of other stages. In early July, the rice leaf roller in Ningdu county was the immigrant generation, and most ovaries (>70%) were in stage IV and the proportion of mated adults was 91.3%. Adults were moving out from Beilun district of Ningbo city in late September, and the number of adults reduced gradually till they all disappeared. The ovaries of female adults in Beilun were immature and no mating was found. The adults collected in Ouhai district of Wenzhou city in early October might be the transit generation from Ningbo city, and the number of adults reduced gradually till they all disappeared, too. Stages II and III were the main ovarian stages of C. medinalis in this region. Mating was found in some female adults in Wenzhou, but oviposition was not found. For the immigrant generation, the transit generation and the local breeding generation, the population dynamics monitored with sex pheromone lure trapping was similar to that monitored with sweeping net. Sex pheromone lure did not trap emigrant male adults, because they were sexually immature. However, emigrant adults could be collected by sweeping net. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant correlation between the number of male adults trapped by sex pheromone lure and the number of adults collected by sweeping net (P<0.05), and there was also an extremely significant correlation between the number of male adults trapped by sex pheromone lure and the number of sexually mature female adults (P<0.001). 【Conclusion】 Sex pheromone lure can be used for accurate monitoring of the population dynamics of C. medinalis. Due to the extremely significant correlation between the population dynamics monitored with sex pheromone lure and the ovarian developmental stages of female adults, sex pheromone lure trapping might be better than the disturbing and counting method for predicting the population levels and control time of C. medinalis.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 211-221 [Abstract] ( 99 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 7361KB] ( 104 )
222 WANG He, Wang-Hui, Wang Wei-Jie, Li-Jia, Zhao Wen-Ai, Qi Li-Li
Pupal morphogenesis of Lucilia cuprina (Diptera: Calliphoridae) under natural conditions and its significance in forensic medicine
【Aim】 This study aims to examine the changing trend of puparium color and the pupal morphogenesis of Lucilia cuprina so as to provide relatively systematic pupal developmental data of this insect for the estimation of the postmortem interval (PMI). 【Methods】 Ten pupae were sampled at 12 h intervals from prepupa to emergence under natural conditions. The sampled pupae were fixed and observed, and the corresponding color indexes of puparium were collected and analyzed by digital image processing system. Then the pupae were dissected and their puparia were removed, and the external morphological changes of the pupae were observed and photographed under stereomicroscope. The morphological characteristics of pupae were described. 【Results】 The color of L. cuprina puparium gradually deepened with the developmental time, and obvious changes were observed at the beginning and final time of the pupal period. Based on the analyzed RGB indexes, a standard color plate of puparium was made. The pupal morphogenesis can be divided into eight stages, including cryptocephalic stage, phanerocephalic stage, brown thorax setae stage, tanned thorax setae stage, tanned abdomen setae stage, part pigmented eye stage, entire pigmented eye stage and preadult stage. 【Conclusion】 At the crime scene, the standard color plate of puparium can be used to preliminarily estimate the pupal stage through visual comparison, and based on the chronometrical morphology of L.cuprina pupae, the postmortem interval can be deduced.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 222-228 [Abstract] ( 73 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 2561KB] ( 62 )
229 MEN Jin, Cao Dan-Dan, Zhao-Bin, Wang Wei-Chao, Liu Peng-Cheng, Wei Jian-Rong
Behavorial responses of adults of Dastarcus helophoroides (Coleoptera: Bothrideridae) populations originated from different hosts to larval frass of Aromia bungii (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and their control effect on A. bungii population
【Aim】 Aromia bungii Faldermann is a main wood borer of peach, apricot, plum and cherry in China. Dastarcus helophoroides (Fairmaire) is an important insect natural enemy of large-body longhorned beetles and has six different host-originated populations by now. This study aims to screen a suitable D. helophoroides population to control A. bungii. 【Methods】  The behavioral responses of adults of different populations of D. helophoroides to larval frass of A. bungii were assayed with Y-tube olfactometer. The control effects of different populations of D. helophoroides on A. bungii populations in the peach logs were also tested by releasing parasitoid adults under the semi-field conditions. 【Results】  D. helophoroides populations originated from Batocera horsfieldi and Monochamus alternatus were significantly attracted to larval frass of A. bungii, but other populations of D. helophoroides were not attracted to larval frass of A. bungii. Consecutive observation of the control effects in two years showed that D. helophoroides population originated from Anoplophora glabripennis caused the highest mortality of A. bungii (52.86%±5.97%). D. helophoroides populations originated from M. alternatusB. horsfieldiMassicus raddei Apriona swainsoni caused the mortality rates of A. bungii of 35.14%±5.55%, 32.88%±5.50%, 26.09%±5.29% and 10.94%±3.90%, respectively. D. helophoroides population originated from Anoplophora chinensis did not cause higher mortality of A. bungii individuals than the control. 【Conclusion】 Based on the results it is suggested that three D. helophoroides populations originated from M. alternatusB. horsfieldi and A. glabripennis could be chosen as the biological control agents of A. bungii.
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 229-236 [Abstract] ( 51 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 1528KB] ( 96 )
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Contents of Vol. 60 Issue 2
2017 Vol. 60 (2): 237-237 [Abstract] ( 92 ) [HTML 1KB] [PDF 296KB] ( 74 )
ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA
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