›› 2017, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (9): 1074-1082.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.09.011

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


贺春玲1,*, 朱朝东2, 吴燕如2     

  1. (1. 河南科技大学林学院, 河南洛阳 471023: 2. 中国科学院动物研究所, 动物进化和系统学院重点实验室, 北京 100101)
  • 出版日期:2017-09-20 发布日期:2017-09-20

Morphology and nesting behavior of Xylocopa rufipes (Hymenoptera: Apidae)  

HE Chun-Ling1,*, ZHU Chao-Dong2, WU Yan-Ru2   

  1. (1. College of Forestry, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, Henan 471023, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Online:2017-09-20 Published:2017-09-20

摘要: 【目的】研究绒木蜂亚属赤足木蜂Xylocopa rufipes Smith的形态特征和筑巢行为,为进一步保护和管理木蜂资源提供理论依据。【方法】采用网捕法采集赤足木蜂成虫;采用目测、拍照等方法记录赤足木蜂在不同地区的筑巢场所和筑巢基质;用游标卡尺测量赤足木蜂的形态指标和巢室结构指标;采用破坏巢室法和野外巢口观察法测定赤足木蜂的巢内行为。【结果】赤足木蜂雌雄形态区别明显。雌蜂后足胫节胫基板的二叉状分支是其所属的绒木蜂亚属区别其他木蜂的主要特征。赤足木蜂筑巢场所为旧房屋的木桁梁、临时木棚架的木梁或柴火堆,筑巢基质主要为干枯的杉木、泡桐和杨木等。巢建筑有不分枝型和分枝型两种类型,分别占26.09%和73.91%。巢口近圆形,从巢口向内挖掘的主隧道相对于木材纹理呈现一定弧度的夹角(锐角);每巢有1~10个分支隧道,每个分支隧道内巢室数为1~8个,平均3.63±2.08个。巢室长度为10.66±21.98 mm,平均为15.37±0.22 mm;巢室直径为9.79±14.40 mm,平均为12.33±1.08 mm;巢室隔板厚度为1.87±8.31 mm,平均为5.09±0.13 mm。解剖巢室法观察到每个巢内居住着0~6头繁殖后代的雌蜂(n=13巢),平均2.08±1.61头。观察雌蜂进出巢口的数量,发现每个巢室内居住有1~5头繁殖雌蜂(n=23巢),平均2.48±1.24头。【结论】同一种群的赤足木蜂具有独栖性到社会性生活的社会多态性。  

关键词: 赤足木蜂, 形态特征, 巢室结构, 筑巢基质, 筑巢行为

Abstract:  【Aim】 To study the morphology and nesting behavior of Xylocopa rufipes Smith, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the conservation and management of carpenter bees. 【Methods】 A sweep net was used to collect X. rufipes adults. The nesting sites and nest substrates of X. rufipes were observed through visual observation and photographing in different regions, and the morphological indexes and the structure and composition of nests of X. rufipes were measured with vernier caliper. The number of foundresses within nests was determined by counting the number of foundresses contained within destructively sampled nests and by observation of female adults as they entered or exited nest entrances. 【Results】 Male and female adults of X. rufipes exhibited some important differences in body shape. Two spines on the outer apex of the hindtibia of female adults distinguished females of subgenus Bomboixylocopa, to which X. rufipes belongs, from all other Xylocopa species. Under natural conditions, X. rufipes chose nesting sites in wood girder trusses on old houses and temporary wood sheds, or firewood piles. Nesting substrates of X. rufipes were mainly dry woods of spruce, paulownia and cotton wood. Nest structure of X. rufipes was mainly divided into two types, i.e., the branched and unbranched, which were accounting for 73.91% and 26.09%, respectively. The entrance hole of nests penetrates the wood inclined to the grain (acute angle). It was nearly round. There were 1-10 tunnels per nest, with 1-8 cells (3.63±2.08 on average) per branch tunnel. The cell length was 15.37±0.22 mm (10.66-21.98 mm on average), the cell diameter was 12.33±1.08 mm (9.79-14.40 mm on average), and the thickness of cell partition was 5.09±0.13 mm (1.87-8.31 mm on average). Destructively sampled nests contained 0-6 live female adults with a mean of 2.08±1.61 live foundresses per nest (n=13 nests). Based on the observed female adults entering and exiting nests in the field in 2014, 2015, and 2016, the average number of females per nest was 2.48±1.24 (n=23 nests). 【Conclusion】 X. rufipes is socially polymorphic with both solitary and social nests in the same population.  

Key words:  Xylocopa rufipes, external morphology, nest structure, nest substrate, nesting behavior