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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
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Photo shows adults with their dimorphism differentiation (down left: long-winged morph; up right: short-winged morph) of the rice planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens  (Hemiptea: Delphacidae) infesting the stem of rice, Oryza sativa. In this issue, the cloning, identification and functional analysis of the peroxidase gene NlPOD1 inthe brown planthopper, N. lugens (pp. 958-966) and the ex [Detail] ...
Current Issue
20 August 2022, Volume 65 Issue 8
RESEARCH PAPERS
Identification and expression profiling of genes of odorant-binding proteins and chemosensory proteins in adult antennae of Lytta caraganae (Coleoptera: Meloidae)
LIU Pan-Jing, WEI Hong-Yi, GUO Kun, MA Guang-Yuan, ZHANG Tao
2022, 65(8):  927-936.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.001
Abstract ( 146 )   PDF (4785KB) ( 103 )     
【Aim】 This study aims to establish the adult antennal transcriptome database of Lytta caraganae, and explore and identify genes of olfactory-related odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs) in its adult antennae. 【Methods】 Transcriptome analysis of adult antennae of L. caraganae was performed on Illumina HiSeq platform. Assembled genes were annotated by alignment against public databases NR, NT, KO, Pfam, Swiss-Prot, GO and KOG. OBP and CSP genes of L. caraganae were screened according to the annotation results. Structural characteristics and evolutionary relationship of OBP and 
CSP genes were analyzed by ClustalX 1.83 and MEGA 7.0 software, respectively. The expression levels of OBP and CSP genes in female and male adult antennae of of L. caraganae were determined by qRTPCR. 【Results】 A total of 51 028 transcripts and 41 998 unigenes were obtained from the adult antennal transcriptome of L. caraganae. Gene annotation results showed that L. caraganae genes have the highest match (87.3%) to those of Tribolium castaneum. Twenty-wo OBP genes and seven CSP genes were screened. Sequence alignment result showed that 13 LcarOBPs are classified into classic OBPs, which contain six conserved cysteine residues. Phylogenetic tree showed that LcarOBPs and LcarCSPs show the highest amino acid sequence identity with OBPs and CSPs of Hycleus cichorii and H. phaleratus, respectively, indicating the closest evolutionary relationship. qRT-PCR results showed that two LcarOBP genes and two LcarCSP genes were highly expressed in the male adult antennae of L. caraganae, while ten LcarOBP genes and two LcarCSP genes highly expressed in the female adult antennae. 【Conclusion】 The OBP and CSP genes in adult antennae of L. caraganae have been identified for the first time, providing a theoretical basis for further study on the mechanism of olfactory recognition in L. caraganae.
Screening and expression profiling of highly expressed genes in the mandibular glands of Apis mellifera foragers
LI Qiu-Fang, GAO Yan, LIANG Li-Qiang, LI Zheng-Han-Qing, ZHU Ya-Nan, ZHANG Juan, YANG Shang-Ning, FU Yun-Xi, SU Song-Kun, NIE Hong-Yi
2022, 65(8):  937-948.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.002
Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (2095KB) ( 91 )     
【Aim】 Thisstudyaimstoscreenhighlyexpressed genes in the mandibular glands of Apis mellifera foragers, so as to provide the basis for further screening and study of genes related with the foraging behavior of honey bees. 【Methods】 Differentially expressed 
genes (DEGs) in the mandibular glands of foragers were screened based on previously sequenced transcriptome data of mandibular glands of five kinds of workers of A. mellifera with different tasks (3-day-old worker bees, 10-day-old nurse bees, 10-day-old forager bees, 21-day-old nurse bees and 21-day-old forager bees), and GO and KEGG analyses of these DEGs were performed. qRTPCR was used to detect the expression levels of eight randomly selected DEGs in the mandibular glands of 10dayold nurse bees and 
10dayold forager bees, and two key DEGs including Δ-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase gene Amp5cs and cytochrome P450 9e2 gene CYP9Q3 in different developmental stages of workers and tissues of foragers. 【Results】 The expression levels of 22 DEGs in the mandibular glands of 21-day-old foragers were significantly higher than those of 3-day-old workers, 10-day-old nurses and 21-day-old nurses. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the above 22 DEGs in the mandibular glands of 10-day-old foragers of A. mellifera were also significantly higher than those of 10-day-old nurses. GO and KEGG enrichment showed that these DEGs were mainly enriched in cholesterol metabolism, galactose metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism, apoptosis-fly, and biosynthesis of amino acids. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression patterns of eight 
DEGs (LOC100576395, LOC411983, LOC410235, LOC725581, LOC410527, LOC406131, LOC408453 and 
LOC410253) were consistent with those of the transcriptome data. Two key DEGs Amp5cs and CYP9Q3 were expressed in various developmental stages of workers, with the highest expression level in foragers. The expression levels of Amp5cs in abdomen, thorax, 
mandibular glands and antennae of foragers were higher, and those of CYP9Q3 were significantly higher in antennae and legs than those in other tissues of foragers. 【Conclusion】 In this study, 22 highly expressed DEGs in the mandibular glands of A. mellifera foragers were screened under the condition of decreasing the interference of day-age. And these DEGs may be mainly involved in the physiological development of mandibular glands of forager bees, as well as metabolic pathways including energy supply, detoxification of exogenous substances, and nectar transformation, affecting the foraging behavior of honey bees. These results not only provide a theoretical reference for the functional study of mandibular glands of A. mellifera, but also lay a foundation for the cultivation of new lines with strong foraging ability.
Analysis of differentially expressed genes in the middle pupal stage of Apis mellifera workers in response to low temperature stress
LI Han, XU Xin-Jian, ZHOU Shu-Jing, ZHOU Bing-Feng, ZHU Chen-Yu, XU ​Hong-Zhi, YAO Dan, LIU Yi-Ming, WANG Qing, LI Xiang, WANG Ming-Qi, ZHU Xiang-Jie
2022, 65(8):  949-957.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.003
Abstract ( 34 )   PDF (1521KB) ( 99 )     
【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the possible coping mechanism and the adverse effects in response to low temperature stress during the middle pupal stage of Apis mellifera workers. 【Methods】 The 8-d-capped broods of A. mellifera workers were exposed to cold temperature (20℃) for 96 h (T), with those unexposed to cold stress used as the 
control (CK), and then subjected to transcriptomic sequencing (RNA-seq) and differentially expressed gene (DEG) screening. In addition, GO classification and KEGG pathway analyses of DEGs were performed. The expression levels of  five randomly selected DEGs were verified by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 A total of 1 101 DEGs were detected in the 8-d-capped brood workers of A. mellifera exposed to cold temperature (20℃) for 96 h. GO classification showed that the GO terms with the largest number of DEGs were metabolism process (142 DEGs) and cellular process (142 DEGs), followed by binding (131 DEGs), catalytic activity (120 DEGs) and single-organism process (118 DEGs). The KEGG pathway analysis result showed that DEGs were significantly enriched in peroxisome pathway, D-glutamine metabolic pathway, D-glutamate metabolic pathway, and glutathione metabolic pathway, which are related to oxidative damage. In addition, DEGs were also significantly enriched in insect hormone metabolism pathway, mTOR signaling pathway and FoxO pathway related to hormone regulation. The results of RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR of the five randomly selected DEGs were consistent. 【Conclusion】 In this study, it has been found that the mid-staged pupae of A. mellifera cope with low temperature via regulating endogenous hormones, slowing down or stopping the development. In the pupae oxidative damage may accumulate by reducing the expression of antioxidant enzymes in low temperature stress, consequently causing detrimental effects on honeybees after emergence. The results of this study are helpful to understand the coping 
mechanism to low temperature in insects with narrow temperature ecological amplitude during developmental stage and the adverse effects of low temperature on them.
RESEARCH PAPERS
Cloning, identification and functional analysis of the peroxidase gene NlPOD1 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
LI Mu-Yu, WANG Yan-Dan, WANG Zheng-Liang, YU Xiao-Ping
2022, 65(8):  958-966.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.004
Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (2070KB) ( 96 )     
 【Aim】 To clarify the molecular characteristics, expression patterns and biological function of the peroxidase gene NlPOD1 from the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome data of N. lugens, the full-length cDNA sequence of NlPOD1 was cloned by PCR, and its nucleotide and protein sequences were subsequently characterized using bioinformatics tools. The expression patterns of NlPODacross different developmental stages (egg, 1 st-5th instar nymphs and newly emerged female and male adults), in different tissues (head, fat body, hemolymph and gut) of the 5th instar nymphs, and in the 5th instar nymphs at different time post injection of different microbes (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Metarhizium anisopliae) at the concentration of 1×107/mL were determined by qRT-PCR. The target gene NlPOD1 in the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens was further silenced by RNAi, and the survival rates and the median lethal time (LT50) values of the nymphs after target gene silencing and infection with M. anisopliae (1×108 conidia/mL) were determined by bioassay. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of NlPOD1 (GenBank accession no.: MZ682107) was successfully cloned from N. lugens. Its open reading frame (ORF) is 2 049 bp in length, encoding 682 amino acids with a typical animal heme peroxidase domain (An_ peroxidase domain) and a predicted signal peptide consisting of 29 amino acid residues at the N-terminus. The phylogenetic analysis showed that NlPOD1 is closely related to the PODs of other hemipteran insects, and has the highest homology with the POD of Halyomorpha halys. Developmental expression profiling showed that NlPOD1 was expressed in various developmental stages of N. lugens, with the lowest and highest expression levels in the eggs and the 5th instar nymphs, respectively. Tissue expression profiling revealed that NlPOD1 was expressed in different tissues of the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens, with significantly higher expression levels in the gut and haemolymph than in the head and fat body. The expression patterns under microbial induction showed that the expression level of NlPOD1 in the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens was significantly up-regulated within 48 h post injection with E. coli as compared to the control group injected with PBS. However, the expression level of NlPOD1 increased firstly and then stabilized when the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens were challenged by S. aureus and M. anisopliae. The RNAi results showed that the expression levels of NlPOD1 could be significantly inhibited by microinjection of dsNlPOD1. Inhibition of NlPOD1 expression by RNAi caused no changes in the survival rate of the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens.  However, the LT50 of the combined treatment with dsNlPOD1 injection and M. anisopliae infection to the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens was 4.5 d, which was significantly shorter than that of the control group (5.4 d) of combined treatment with dsGFP injection and M. anisopliae infection, indicating that silencing of NlPOD1 could significantly decrease the resistance of N. lugens to the infection with M. anisopliae. 【Conclusion】 NlPOD1 plays important roles in the pathogen defense of N. lugens and can be used as a potential target in the development of N. lugens biocontrol technology mediated by RNAi and entomopathogenic fungi.
Expression and functional analysis of the autophagy-related gene NlATG13 in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
WU Jian-Gen, JIAO Qi-Qi, YU Fei-Fei, ZHENG Yuan-Yuan, CHEN Tong-Tong, HAO Pei-Ying, YU Xiao-Ping
2022, 65(8):  967-976.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.005
Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (6250KB) ( 98 )     
【Aim】 Autophagy participates in various physiological processes of cells. The autophagy-related protein ATG13 is a component of the Atg1/13 complex and plays an important role in initiating the autophagy. This study aims toanalyzethefunctionofATG13inthebrownplanthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, and to evaluate its potential as a pest control target. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome data of N. lugens, the full-length cDNA sequence of NlATG13 in N. lugens was cloned via RACE method. The nucleotide and amino acid sequence characteristics of NlATG13 were analyzed with bioinformatics technology. RT-qPCR technology was used to detect the expression patterns of NlATG13 in different developmental stages (1st-5th instar nymphs, and female and male adults) and different tissues (the head, thorax, midgut and fat body of the 5th instar nymphs and the ovary of newly emerged female adults) of N. lugens. The expression of NlATG13 was knocked down by RNAi through microinjection of dsNlATG13 into the 3rd instar nymphs to explore its effect on the survival, and autophagy in the midgut cells of N. lugens. RT-qPCR was used to detect the expression levels of NlGSK3, NlGS and NlGP related to glycogen synthesis and metabolism in the 3rd instar nymphs after RNAi for 4 d. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of NlATG13 (GenBank accession no.: MF805752) was cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 1 203 bp in length, encoding a protein of 400 amino acids (GenBank accession no.: AWW05678.1). The phylogenetic analysis showed that NlATG13 protein was closely related to ATG13 proteins of Cimex lectularius and Halyomorpha halys among the analyzed species. Developmental expression profiling showed that the expression levels of NlATG13 in the 3rd and 5th instar nymphs were significantly higher than those in the 1st-2nd instar nymphs, female adults and male adults of N. lugens. Tissue expression profiling revealed that the relative expression level of NlATG13 was higher in the head and fat body, but the lowest in the thorax of the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens. RNAi results showed that in the dsNlATG13 treatment group, glycogen granules were accumulated in midgut cells, the expression levels of NlGS, NlGSK3 and NlGP had no significant change, the ATP content in tissues was significantly decreased and the survival rate of N. lugens significantly decreased as compared to those in the dsGFP control group. The survival rate of N. lugens on day 10 post dsNlATG13 treatment was 41.4%, while that in the dsGFP control group remained at a higher level of 85.6%. 【Conclusion】 RNA interference targeting NlATG13 gene has a significant inhibitory effect on the survival and autophagy of midgut cells in of N. lugens, and NlATG13 gene could be used as a potential target in controlling N. lugens.
Gene cloning and ligand binding characterization of the odorant-binding protein HvarOBP2 in Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
TANG Hao-Yu, LIU Jing-Tao, XIE Jiao-Xin, YI Chao-Qun, LIU Xiao-Xu, ZHANG Yong-Jun, SUN Yang
2022, 65(8):  977-985.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.006
Abstract ( 50 )   PDF (4551KB) ( 26 )     
【Aim】 The objective of this study is to clone the odorant-binding protein (OBP) gene HvarOBP2 of Hippodamia variegata and to analyze the ligand binding characteristics of this protein. 【Methods】HvarOBP2 of H. variegata was screened from the antennal transcriptome of H. variegata by BLAST and other bioinformatics technologies and its full-length cDNA sequence was amplified by PCR. The recombinant HvarOBP2 was expressed by prokaryotic expression and purified by affinity chromatography, and its binding characteristics to 40 plant volatile compounds and 24 aphid-related volatile compounds were determined by fluorescence competitive binding assay. The molecular docking simulation between the recombinant HvarOBP2 and four ligands (β-ionone, dibutyl phthalate, octadecenoic acid and nerolidol) was performed using PyMOL1.9.0. 【Results】 HvarOBP(GenBank accession number: OK340816) has an open reading frame of 447 bp in length. Its encoded protein has a signal peptide consisting of 17 amino acids at the N-terminus, belonging to the classical OBPs subfamily with six conserved cysteine sites. The results of fluorescence competitive binding assay indicated that the recombinant HvarOBP2 had strong binding capabilities with plant volatile compounds octadecenoic acid, dibutyl phthalate, nerolidol, and β-ionone, with the dissociation constants (Ki values) of 1.68±0.04, 8.77±0.19, 15.93±0.33 and 10.79±0.24 μmol/L, respectively. Molecular docking of the recombinant HvarOBP2 with the above four ligands showed that Phe12 and Phe118 of HvarOBP2 are the key amino acid residues binding to multiple ligands. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that HvarOBP2 may be involved in the recognition of plant volatiles and indirectly locating prey habitat, and these active binding compounds to HvarOBP2 play an important role in the process of searching and locating hosts for H. variegata.
Analysis of differential proteins in Reticulitermes perilucifugus (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) workers fed with different diets
SU Li-Juan, ZHAO Peng-Fei, DU Yun-Liang, GUAN Yu-Liang, GUO Rui-Yao, YIN Zheng-Xing, SONG An-Dong
2022, 65(8):  986-998.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.007
Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (5614KB) ( 136 )     
【Aim】 This study aims to provide the basis at the protein level for exploring the mechanism of nutrient digestion and absorption in termites by comparing the differences in protein composition and expression in the fore-midgut and hindgut contents of Reticulitermes perilucifugus workers fed with diets with different lignocellulose contents. 【Methods】 R. perilucifugus workers were fed with three diets (pine, straw and filter paper) with different lignocellulose contents. The proteins in contents of different parts of their gut were analyzed by two dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and the differiential proteins were sequenced and bioinformatically analyzed by MALDI-TOF/MS. 【Results】 The results of 2D electrophoresis showed that the number of visible protein spots in the fore-midgut of R. perilucifugus workers fed with the same diet was significantly higher than that in the hindgut, while those in the fore-midgut and hindgut of workers fed with pine were the highest, those in the fore-midgut and hindgut of workers fed with filter paper followed, and those in the fore-midgut and hindgut of workers fed with straw were the least. The sequencing results of 115 protein points showed that the mainly differential proteins between the fore-midgut and hindgut were proteins with catalytic activity including enzymes related to amino acid metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, carbon metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, TCA cycle, glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and cellulose degradation and proteins involved in cellular components and signal transduction. 【Conclusion】 The differential proteins in the gut of R. perilucifugus workers fed with different diets are 
mainly proteins with catalytic activity, and proteins involved in cell composnents and signal transduction, indicating that different diets affect the composition of intestinal proteins of R. perilucifugus. These results provide data for revealing the degradation mechanism of lignocellulose in termites.
Wolbachia regulates the egg hatching of hybrids of Ectropis obliqua and E. grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
WANG Zhi-Bo, LIU Yong-Jian, BAI Jia-He, ZHANG Xin-Xin, XIAO Qiang
2022, 65(8):  999-1009.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.008
Abstract ( 35 )   PDF (7696KB) ( 13 )     
【Aim】 The objective of this study is to reveal the impacts of Wolbachia on the egg hatching of hybrids of two sibling tea geometrids and the underlying mechanism. 【Methods】 A subset of Ectropis grisescens larvae were fed with fresh tea leaves soaked in 2.5 mg/mL tetracycline solution for 1 min to remove Wolbachia. E. grisescens populations without Wolbachia were established after being fed with tetracycline-treated tea leaves for three generations. E. obliqua adults were hybridized with E. grisescens adults with and without Wolbachia to produce hybrids for the investigation of the impacts of Wolbachia on the egg hatching. The iTRAQ technique was used to detect and analyze the differences in sperm proteins between E. grisescens with and without Wolbachia. 【Results】 When Wolbachia was removed from E. grisescens, the egg hatching rates of hybrids between E. grisescens and E. obliqua were significantly increased from 3.92% to 56.20%, indicating that Wolbachia induced cytoplasmic incompatibility. Results of differential sperm proteins analysis showed that a total of 128 proteins were confirmed to have significantly different expression levels in sperms of E. grisescens with and without Wolbachia. According to the KEGG database, 45 differential proteins were enriched in 106 pathways, including sphingolipid metabolism, salivary secretion, lysosome, sphingolipid signaling, sphingolipid biosynthesis, etc. Among them the expression levels of ceramidases and phosphatases related to ceramide synthesis in the sphingolipid metabolic pathway were significantly up-regulated. 【Conclusion】 The symbiotic bacterium, Wolbachia, mediates the prezygotic reproductive isolation between the two sibling tea geometrids through cytoplasmic incompatibility, leading to a significant decrease in the egg hatching rate of hybrids. The observed cytoplasmic incompatibility may be attributable to the modification of the male sperm proteins caused by the impacts of Wolbachia on the sphingolipid metabolism pathway.
Susceptibility of Xinjiang and Yunnan populations of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) to six insecticides and its relationship with detoxification enzyme activities
LI Xiao-Wei, MA Lin, LU Yao-Bin
2022, 65(8):  1010-1017.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.009
Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (1188KB) ( 68 )     
【Aim】 The South American tomato pinworm, Tuta absoluta, is a newly invaded devastating pest in China, causing severe damage to tomatoes. However, the current status of insecticide resistance in newly invaded T. absoluta populations in China has not been reported. The objective of this study is to clarify the susceptibility of the field populations of T. absoluta from Xinjiang and Yunnan to six commonly used insecticides and its relationship with the activities of detoxification enzymes. 【Methods】 Laboratory toxicities of six frequently used pesticides to the 2nd instar larvae of Xinjiang and Yunnan populations of T. absoluta were tested by using leaf-dip method. The synergistic effects of three synergistic agents including the  CYP450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO), the esterase inhibitor triphenyl phosphate (TPP) and the GST inhibitor diethyl maleate (DEM) on chlorantraniliprole were determined in the bioassay against the 2nd instar larvae of T. absoluta, and the activities of detoxification enzymes including cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenase (CYP450), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and carboxylesterase (CarE) in the 2nd instar larvae of the laboratory susceptible population and resistant field population (Xinjiang population) of T. absoluta were determined by enzyme activity assay, to ascertain the relationship of insecticide resistance with detoxification enzyme activities. 【Results】 The susceptibility of Yunnan population of T. absoluta to the six insecticides from high to low was emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, spinosad, indoxacarb, chlorantraniliprole, and beta-cypermethrin, while that of Xinjiang population to the six insecticides from high to low was emamectin benzoate, chlorfenapyr, chlorantraniliprole, spinosad, indoxacarb, and beta-cypermethrin. Compared with the laboratory susceptible population, both Yunnan and Xinjiang populations showed the highest level of resistance to chlorantraniliprole, with the resistance ratios of 212.7 and 169.3, respectively. The bioassay results revealed that the three synergistic agents PBO, TPP and DEM showed no obvious synergistic effect on chlorantraniliprole. The enzyme activity assays showed that the activities of CYP450, GST and CarE in the 2nd instar larvae between the laboratory susceptible population and resistant field population of T. absoluta were not 
significantly different. 【Conclusion】 Both Xinjiang and Yunnan populations of T. absoluta show different levels of resistance to the tested six pesticides, with the highest resistance level to chlorantraniliprole, and the insecticide resistance of T. absoluta is unrelated to the activities of detoxification enzymes. The results of this study provide valuable information for the field control and insecticide resistance management of T. absoluta.
Effects of Tomato chlorosis virus on the host preference and feeding behaviors of Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) adults on different host plants
FAN Xiao-Fan, LIU Yong, TAN Xin-Qiu, ZHANG Zhan-Hong, ZHANG Zhuo, SHI Xiao-Bin, ZHANG De-Yong
2022, 65(8):  1018-1025.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.010
Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (1209KB) ( 107 )     
【Aim】 Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) is transmitted by whiteflies and breaks out heavily. At present, ToCV has spread to most regions of the world, and can harm a variety of crops and cause serious damage to agricultural and forestry economic production. Virus infection can influence the host preference and feeding behaviors of vector insects, thus influencing virus transmission. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ToCV on the host preference and feeding behaviors of Bemisia tabaci MED adults on different host plants. 【Methods】 The host selectivity of ToCV-infected and non-infected B. tabaci MED female adults was determined by Y-tube olfactometer, and the feeding behaviors between ToCV-infected and ToCV-non-infected female adults of B. tabaci MED on four healthy host plants including tomato, pepper, cotton and cowpea were compared with electrical penetration graph (EPG). 【Results】 The preference of ToCV-non-infected female adults of B. tabaci MED to tomato and pepper was the highest, that to cotton followed and that to cowpea was the least. The preference of female adults of B. tabaci MED infected by ToCV to tomato, pepper and cotton was higher than that to cowpea. The numbers of probes of the ToCV-infected female adults of B. tabaci MED on the four plants were significantly increased, their first time to probe phloem was significantly delayed, and their total feeding time and phloem feeding time significantly decreased as compared with those of the ToCV-non-infected female adults. 【Conclusion】 ToCV significantly changes the host preference and feeding behaviors of B. tabaci, thus increases the probability of its own transmission among host plants.
EAG and behavioral responses of adults of Adoxophyes orana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) to volatiles of its major host plants
LI Guang-Wei, CHEN Yu-Xin, YAN Rui, LEI Yi-Xue, CHEN Xiu-Lin, LI Bo-Liao
2022, 65(8):  1026-1037.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.011
Abstract ( 40 )   PDF (2264KB) ( 95 )     
 【Aim】 Adoxophyes orana is an important insect pest endangering apple, peach, pear, jujube and other fruit trees. In recent years, the occurrence area of A. orana in the apple and jujube orchards of Shaanxi has increased by years, causing increasing harm to fruit production. The objective of this study is to clarify the roles of host-plant volatiles in the olfactory communication of A. orana adults, so as to provide basic data for the development of botanical attractants for A. orana. 【Methods】 The electroantennogram (EAG) responses of the 2-day-old unmatched female and male adults of A. orana to 51 host-plant volatile compounds were determined using EAG apparatus, and the behavioral responses of A. orana adults to 15 volatile compounds with strong EAG amplitude were measured with the device developed by our laboratory for testing the olfactory behavior of tiny moths. 【Results】 The EAG test results showed that there were significant differences in the relative EAG response values of A. orana adults to the tested 51 hostplant volatile compounds. Both sexes showed strong EAG responses towards cis-3-hexen-1-ol, trans-2-hexen-1-ol, 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, heptanal, octanal, nonanal, butyl acetate, isopentyl acetate and cis-3-hexenyl acetate. In addition, male adults also displayed strong EAG responses to 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-penten-3-ol, benzaldehyde, butyl butyrate, ethyl acetate, ethyl trimethylcrotonate, ethyl hexanoate, butyl propionate, cis-3-hexenyl isovalerate, benzonitrile and lemonile. Obvious differences existed in the EAG response values towards 29 compounds of the tested 51 volatile compounds between the females and the males, and female adults showed significantly higher EAG responses to (-)-α-phellandrene and camphene than males, while male adults exhibited significantly higher EAG responses to the other 27 volatile compounds than females. When the doses of volatile compounds ranged from 0.02 μg to 20 μg, the relative EAG response values did not increase significantly, however, when the doses of volatile compounds increased from 20 μg to 200 μg, the relative EAG values in both female and male adults significantly increased. The olfactory behavioral tests revealed that the female adults showed obvious preference to hexanal, heptanal, octanal and cis-3-hexenyl acetate, with the selection rates to them all exceeding 58%, while the males showed obvious preferences to 1-hexanol, heptanal, isopentyl acetate and benzonitrile. 【Conclusion】 The unmated male adults of A. orana show higher sensitivities towards host-plant volatiles in the EAG responses than the unmated females. 1-Hexanol, hexanal, heptanal, octanal, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, isopentyl acetate and benzonitrile have obvious attractancy to female or male adults of A. orana and can be applied in developing botanical attractants for this pest.
Risk assessment of gene flow in rice mediated by the housefly Musca domestica (In English)
PU De-Qiang, LIU Jia-Fu, REN Shao-Peng, GAO Ming-Qing, YANG Fan, SHI Min, YE Gong-Yin, WEI Shu-Jun, CHEN Xue-Xin
2022, 65(8):  1038-1044.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.012
Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (3005KB) ( 16 )     
【Aim】 Ecological risk assessment of transgenic crops is a necessary step before large-scale planting. There are hundreds of species of flower visiting insects in ricem(Oryza sativa), including the housefly (Musca domestica). This study aims to assess the potential risk of rice gene flow mediated by flowervisiting M. domestica. 【Methods】 We conducted field experiments with the genetically modified (GM) rice lines B1, B6 and G8-7 as the pollen donors, the parental non-GM rice lines Jiazao 935 and Wuyunjing 7 as the pollen recipients, and M. domestica as the pollinator in Huajiachi and Changxing testing base of Zhejiang University in 2010. All harvested rice offspring seeds were planted in the laboratory and the plants were used for the detection of transgenic hybrids by the hygromycin B and glyphosate treatments, and then the surviving plants were further detected for hygromycin- and glyphosate-resistant genes by PCR to test the gene flow of GM rice mediated by M. domestica. 【Results】 The results based on the examination of over 216 500 geminated seeds from the three GM rice lines in the two testing bases in Zhejiang showed that there were few hybrids, indicating low frequencies (0-0.64%) of transgene flow from GM to non-GM rice at close spacing both in plots with and without M. domestica. 【Conclusion】 It is concluded that the frequency of transgene flow from GM to non-GM rice mediated by M. domestica is low and M. domestica does not increase the risk of gene flow of rice.
Pheromonebaited intelligent monitoring system of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) based on machine vision and deep learning
ZHANG Zhe-Yu, SUN Guo-Jia, YANG Bao-Jun, LIU Shu-Hua, LU Jun, YAO Qing, TANG Jian
2022, 65(8):  1045-1055.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.013
Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (37973KB) ( 18 )     
 【Aim】 In order to reduce the workload of forecasting technicians, improve the precision and the real-time of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis forecasting and realize the traceability of monitoring pest data, a pheromone-baited intelligent monitoring system of C. medinalis based on machine vision was established. 【Methods】 The pheromone-baited intelligent monitoring system of C. medinalis includes an intelligent pest trap based on machine vision, a detection model of C. medinalis based on deep learning, a system Web front-end and a server. Several devices including an industrial camera, a light source and an Android pad were integrated into the machine vision system of pheromone-based intelligent trap. A two-layer network detection model based on improved YOLOv3 and DBTNet-101 was developed. HTML, CSS, JavaScript and Vue were adopted to build the Web front-end for displaying the results of detecting and counting the pests in the trap. Django framework was used to build a server to receive the images from the intelligent traps uploaded through 4G network and provide feedback. MySQL database was used to store the images, model detection results and other information.【Results】 The pheromone-baited intelligent monitoring system of C. medinalis based on machine vision used the intelligent trap to automatically upload the images of C. medinalis to the server on a regular time. The object detection model deployed on the server performs could automatically detect C. medinalis adults in real time, with the precision rate and recall rate of 97.6% and 98.6%, respectively. Users could check the detection results of C. medinalis images through the Web front-end. 【Conclusion】 The pheromone-baited intelligent monitoring system of C. medinalis can automatically capture the images, and accurately detect and count C. medinalis adults. This system can realize the real-time and intelligentized monitoring of C. medinalis by pheromonebaited trap, reduce the workload of forecasting technicians, and trace back the data easily.
Observation on the external morphology and ultrastructure of compound eyes of adult Eutectona machaeralis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
YUAN Peng-Yu, HU Ke-Yan, QIAN Chen-Yu, WANG Sheng-Kun, WEN Xiu-Jun, WANG Cai, MA Tao
2022, 65(8):  1056-1067.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.014
Abstract ( 35 )   PDF (70282KB) ( 23 )     
【Aim】 Eutectona machaeralis mainly feeds on teak, a precious tree species. This study aims to observe and study the morphology, tissue structure and ultrastructure of the compound eyes of E. machaeralis adults, and to analyze the structural characteristics of the compound eyes, so as to lay a foundation for a better understanding of the relationship between the complex visual behavior and the photosensitive mechanism of this species. 【Methods】 Optical microscope, and scanning and transmission electron microscope techniques were used to observe the morphology, tissue structure and ultrastructure of compound eyes of E. machaeralis adults. 【Results】 The compound eyes of E. machaeralis adults are symmetrical compound eyes, born at the base of head antennae, and ellipsoidal in shape. The compound eyes of females and males have 2 300-2 755 and 1 950-2 316 ommatidia, respectively. The ommatidium is hexagonal, its surface is densely covered with corneal nipples, and there are occasional interfacetal hairs in the gap. Each ommatidium is composed of one cornea, four crystalline cone cells, one pair of primary pigment cells, six secondary pigment cells, 12 retinal cells distributed in different horizontal planes, and basement membrane. The centripetal cell membranes of 11 retinal cells along the longitudinal axis of the ommatidium are specialized into filamentous microvilli, forming radially arranged rhabdomere, which combine into a confluent rhabdom. The 12th retinal cell is located at the base of the ommatidium. Above the basement membrane, the ends of retinal cells and secondary pigment cells swell up, passing through the basement membrane in the form of axons. 【Conclusion】 The compound eyes of E. machaeralis are typical superposition eyes. There are no obvious differences in the arrangement and internal structure of ommatidia between the female and male adults, but the number and size of ommatidia in females and males present obvious sex dimorphism.
Development and function of halteres in insects 
DONG Wei, WU Wen-Jun, ZHANG Xu-Bo
2022, 65(8):  1068-1074.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.08.015
Abstract ( 56 )   PDF (1394KB) ( 306 )     
 The halteres in dipteran insects evolved from the hindwings and play an important role in flight. The sensilla at the base of halteres detect the inertial force and provide feedback to motor neurons that subsequently balance body during flight. The haltere of insects is developed from imaginal disc and regulated by the HOX gene (Ultrabithorax, Ubx). Mature haltere is composed of two layers of epithelial cells. The bulb is filled with vacuolar cells, while the base possesses various sensilla. Interestingly, the halteres controlled by independent muscles move antiphase relative to ipsilateral wing. However, the winghaltere coordination is essential for departure and maintaining balance. Recently, the navigation principles of halteres have been increasingly applied in bionics, and navigation devices of aircrafts have been developed based on the structure and functions of halters of flies. In this article we reviewed the progress in the research on the development, morphological structure, function and bionics application of halteres with the goal of providing a theoretical basis for further understanding the developmental meachanisms and biological functions of halteres in insects.
CONTENTS
 Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 8
2022, 65(8):  1075-1075. 
Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (518KB) ( 10 )     
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