Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Top Read Articles
Published in last 1 year |  In last 2 years |  In last 3 years |  All
Please wait a minute...
For Selected: Toggle Thumbnails
Comparison of volatiles released from the host Juglans mandshurica in different damaged states and the GC-EAD and behavioral responses of Apriona germari (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to these volatiles
MA Yan, SHI Li-Yang, ZHAO Yi, XU Hua-Chao
null    2018, 61 (5): 574-584.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.007
Abstract656)      PDF(pc) (2393KB)(194)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to explore the volatiles from the host plant Juglans mandshurica, which affect the behavioral response of the brown mulberry longhorn beetle Apriona germari, and to provide a theoretical basis for screening plant-originated attractants or repellents of this insect. 【Methods】 Volatiles released from J. mandshurica in different damaged states [healthy (CK), and feeding, oviposition and boring damage by A. germari] were collected by using dynamic headspace adsorption, and those causing electrophysiological and behavioral responses in A. germari were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography-electrophysiological antennal detecting system (GC-EAD) and Y-tube olfactometer. 【Results】 In different damaged states, the main volatiles released from J. mandshurica included terpenes and aromatic compounds, and significant differences existed in the relative contents of several components of them. There were one or several unique volatile components in each damaged state. However, A. germari adults only had significant electrophysiological responses to six volatiles, including (1R)-(+)-alpha-pinene, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, nonanal, α-terpineol, 2-ethylhexyl acrylate and hexadecane, but had no responses to the other volatiles. Female adults had the strongest electrophysiological responses to nonanal, while male adults had the strongest electrophysiological responses to cis-3-hexenyl acetate. The olfactory reaction showed that 2-ethylhexyl acrylate had a significant attractivity to the female adults of A. germari (P<0.05), while cis-3-hexenyl acetate had an extremely significant attractivity to the male adults (P<0.01). And nonanal had a significant attractivity to both female and male adults (P<0.05), while α-terpineol had a significant repellent activity to them (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 These results indicate that cis-3-hexenyl acetate, nonanal and 2-ethylhexyl acrylate show strong attractivity to A. germari adults, while α-terpineol shows good repellent activity.
Related Articles | Metrics
Analysis of genetic differentiation of different geographical populations of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucuribitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) in China based on microsatellite molecular markers
ZHANG Ya-Nan, NIU Li-Ming, ZHOU Shi-Hao, GONG Zhi, LI Lei, ZHANG Fang-Ping, HAN Dong-Yin, FU Yue-Guan
null    2018, 61 (5): 613-619.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.011
Abstract355)      PDF(pc) (1074KB)(183)       Save
【Aim】 The melon fly, Bactrocera cucuribitae is an important invasive pest with wide host range, causing serious harm. This study aims to explore its population differentiation and genetic variation in China. 【Methods】 The genetic diversity of a total of 190 individuals collected from 21 regions of 7 provinces in China was analyzed using nine polymorphic microsatellite loci as the molecular markers. 【Results】 For the 21 geographical populations of B. cucuribitae, the average percentage of polymorphic loci was 97.08%, Shannon’s diversity index(I) was 0.8841, and the genetic differentiation coefficient among populations (FST) was 0.12806, suggesting that genetic differentiation occurs among the 21 geographical populations. The UPGMA cluster analysis showed that the populations of Hainan (excluding Sansha), Guangdong, Guangxi, Yunnan and Sansha of Hainan were clustered into one clade, while the populations of Fujian, Jiangxi and Sichuan clustered into separate clades, respectively. 【Conclusion】 A certain degree of genetic differentiation has occurred among the melon fly populations in China, but the accumulated variability is limited.
Related Articles | Metrics
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of N-β-alanyl-dopamine hydroxylase gene in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
DU Xiao-Yan, FU Kai-Bin, XU Qing-Yu, Tursun AHMT, DING Xin-Hua, HE Jiang, GUO Wen-Chao
null    2018, 61 (6): 637-645.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.002
Abstract298)      PDF(pc) (3374KB)(193)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the function of N-β-alanyl-dopamine (NBAD) hydrolase gene important in melanin biosythesis in the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata by RNA interference. 【Methods】 The NBAD hydrolase gene in L. decemlineata was characterized by data mining based on its transcriptome, its cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR, and the gene completeness and phylogeny were determined by multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis, respectively. The expression levels of NBAD hydrolase gene in different developmental stages, tissues of the 4th instar larvae and male gonad and ovary of adults of L. decemlineata were detected by qPCR. The color change during larval growth was observed after RNAi, and the mechanism how the expression of NBAD hydrolase gene was influenced by juvenile hormone (JH) and molting hormone (MH) was assayed .【Results】 An NBAD hydroxylase gene was cloned from L. decemlineata and named Ldtan (GenBank accession no.: KY221866). Its encoded protein shows the highest amino acid sequence identity with the homologous proteins from Tribolium castaneum and Dendroctonus ponderosae and clustered into the same clade with them. The spatial expression profiles showed that Ldtan were highly expressed in ventral nerve cord, hindgut and cuticle of L. decemlineata, with the relative expression levels of 99.36±0.95, 17.79±3.11 and 9.21±0.12, respectively, while the temporal expression profiles showed that its expression level increased along with larval growth and reached the peak at the adult stage. Knockdown of Ldtan gene by feeding dsLdtan to the 2nd instar larvae not only led to tanned color, but also a degree of lethal effect. Knocking down the expression of JH synthesis and signal-related genes by RNAi downregulated the expression of Ldtan, while knocking down the expression of MH synthesis and signal-related genes by RNAi upregulated the expression of Ldtan. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that Ldtan is involved in melanin synthesis in L. decemlineata, and JH and MH probably regulate its expression.
Related Articles | Metrics
Cloning, prokaryotic expression and tissue expression profiling of an odorant binding protein gene BminOBP25 from Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
SI Pin-Fa, ZHOU Qiong, CUI Zhong-Yi
null    2018, 61 (5): 537-545.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.003
Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (3417KB)(227)       Save
【Aim】 The odorant binding proteins (OBPs) of insects are closely related to olfactory recognition and play a key role in the successful delivery of fat-soluble odorant molecules in the lymph nodes of the antennal sensory receptors to the olfactory receptors. In order to understand the roles of OBPs in olfactory recognition and to lay foundation for studying the molecular mechanisms of olfactory transmission in Bactrocera minax, an OBP gene was cloned and its expression profiles were analyzed. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of OBP gene was cloned from B. minax using RT-PCR and RACE techniques, and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The recombinant expression vector pET28a(+)-BminOBP25 was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The expression profiles of OBP gene in different tissues of B. minax adults were detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). 【Results】 An OBP gene was cloned from B. minax and named BminOBP25 (GenBank accession no.: MH181875). Its ORF is 447 bp in length encoding 148 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 17.5 kD. The encoded protein has typical six conserved cysteines and six α-helices. The recombinant expression vector pET28a(+)-BminOBP25 was constructed and the target protein was stably expressed in host bacteria in the form of 6×His tag fusion protein after IPTG induction. qPCR analysis showed that BminOBP25 mRNA was expressed in antennae, head (without antennae), thorax, abdomen, leg, wing and ovipositor of adults, with higher expression levels in antenna, head (without antennae), leg and ovipositor.【Conclusion】 BminOBP25 has high transcriptional activity in antennae, heads, legs and ovipositors of B. minax adults, suggesting that BminOBP25 may also have physiological functions in non-olfactory tissues, and especially may play important roles during the selection of insect feeding and spawning sites. Its functions need further study. In this study, the prokaryotic expression of BminOBP25 was achieved, laying a foundation for further study of its functions.
Related Articles | Metrics
Mating behavior of Sclerodermus guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
LUO Li-Lin, LI Li
null    2018, 61 (5): 604-612.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.010
Abstract284)      PDF(pc) (2080KB)(191)       Save
 【Aim】 The semiectoparasitoid Sclerodermus guani tends to parasitize solitary wood-boring insects in concealed habitat (trunk or seed). Effective mating tactics are critical for population colonization and expansion of S. guani. This study aims to explore the mating behavior of S. guani and to unveil its mating tactics. 【Methods】 The mating process of both male and female adults of S. guani (♀∶♂=1∶1) was recorded with dissecting microscope, video camera and insect behavior tracker in the laboratory, and the differences in behavior performance, time allocation and speed of mating between female and male adults during the whole mating process were compared. 【Results】 The mating process of S. guani adults can be divided into three phases, i.e., pre-copulation, copulation and post-copulation, and the mating behavior shows a series of characteristic procedures including antennal drumming, mounting females, walking on the back of females, probing and copulation. In the pre-copulation phase, males walk around quickly, touch and drum females by antennae, and touch females by mouthpart. After mounting females, males walk on the back of females and still keep tapping females with antennae or touching with mouthpart. Females always keep a stereotypical posture of being stationary with head down. The total lasting time for the pre-copulation phase was about 653.617±54.160 s (mean±SE). During copulation, males insert their aedeagi, their forelegs incline to the front-end of abdomens of females at an angle of 45°, while their mid legs and hind legs hold the abdomens of females, and the mating duration was about 43.567±7.120 s. In the post-copulation phase, males signal the end of copulation by dismounting and moving away from the copulation site while females keep immobile for approximately 172 s. Both male and female adults exhibit multiple mating behaviors in the whole mating process. With the increasing of mating frequency, the mating duration increases at first and then decreases. In the whole mating process, the mating behavior of male and female adults is first decelerated and then accelerated. The mean mating velocities of S. guani in precopulation, copulation and post-copulation were 3.111, 0.595 and 1.016 cm/s for female adults and 2.754, 0.895 and 1.314 cm/s for male adults, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Male adults of S. guani behave actively during the mating process, suggesting that they play leading roles in spouse search, recognition and selection. The results of this study provide the theoretical basis for artificial reproduction, release and population rejuvenation of S. guani in the field.
Related Articles | Metrics
Composition and diversity of microbes in the infrabuccal pocket of Camponotus japonicus (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
ZHANG Kai-Xuan, WEI Cong, NAN Xiao-Ning , WANG Yun-Guo, HE Hong
null    2018, 61 (6): 686-697.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.007
Abstract279)      PDF(pc) (3909KB)(179)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the microbe composition (actinomycetes, bacteria and fungi) and the diversity of bacteria in the infrabuccal pocket of the Japanese carpenter ant, Camponotus japonicus, so as to explore their potential functions in food utilization and population immunity. 【Methods】 The culturedependent method and HiSeq high-througput sequencing technique were combined to analyze the microbes in the infrabuccal pocket, digestive tract and cuticle of C. japonicus workers collected in Yangling, Shaanxi, northwestern China. 【Results】 Ten actinobacterial strains were isolated from the infrabuccal pocket of C. japonicus workers, among which five strains belong to Streptomyce with the average isolation frequencies of 73.3%-96.7%. Seven bacterial strains were isolated and four of them were Bacillus, and the average isolation frequencies of the strains N-B1 and N-B4 were both above 70%. Three fungal strains were isolated, and the isolation frequency of the dominant strain P-F1 (Wickerhamiella) was up to 96.7%. All strains isolated from the crop, midgut and cuticle could be found in the infrabuccal pocket, and the species number of the strains and the number of microbial colonies isolated from the infrabuccal pocket were higher than those isolated from the cuticle, crop and midgut. The results of HiSeq high-throughput sequencing showed that the dominant bacterial groups in the infrabuccal pocket mainly belong to Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria, but in the crop and midgut the dominant bacterial groups belong to Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. The dominant genera with high abundance were more in the infrabuccal pockets and crops than in the midgut, and the bacterial composition in the midgut was relatively simple. The dominant genera in infrabuccal pocket included Fructobacillus, Bacterium, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Sphingtomonas. The microbial abundance and diversity in the infrabuccal pocket were higher than those in the crop and midgut. 【Conclusion】 Actinomycetes, Bacillus, yeasts and other predominant microbes generally exist in the infrabuccal pocket of C. japonicus, and their abundance and diversity levels are significantly higher than those in the digestive tract (crop and midgut). The potential roles of these microorganisms in food utilization, nutrient digestion and population immunity of ants need to be further studied.
Related Articles | Metrics
Research progress in bumblebee nutrition and feed
WANG Huan, XU Xi-Lian
null    2018, 61 (5): 620-626.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.012
Abstract272)      PDF(pc) (855KB)(218)       Save
  Bumblebees are one group of the most important commercial pollinators. Domestication and utilization of bumblebee would make up for the decline of natural bee-pollinators and meet the demands of modern agriculture pollination. Nutrition and feed is one of the key issues to realize the domestication and industrial production of bumblebees. In this article, we reviewed how natural pollen, artificial diet with single or mixed pollen gathered by honeybee, feed with different ratios of protein and fat, feed with different amino acid levels, and feed with nutrient elements or royal jelly added affect the bumblebee development. The mixed pollen has promoting functions on larval weight as compared to the single pollen. The optimal ratio of protein to fat ingested by Bombus terrestris is 14∶1. High amino acid level can promote the oviposition of queens and maturity of larvae. Carbohydrates with nutrient elements added can promote the oviposition of queens and foundation of colonies. The royal jelly added in feed can enhance the survival and spawning rate of queens. We proposed that the future research should focus on the feed meeting the nutrient needs of different developmental stages of the local bumblebees and the intestinal symbiotic bacteria which may affect the metabolism and development of bumblebees.
Related Articles | Metrics
Molecular cloning and function analysis of ATP synthase b subunit gene ATPSb in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
FENG Ya-Lin, HAO Pei-Ying, YU Fei-Fei, LU Chao-Feng, ZHU Jia-Jun, YU Xiao-Ping
null    2018, 61 (5): 519-526.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.001
Abstract261)      PDF(pc) (2578KB)(307)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the functions of the ATP synthase b subunit gene in the rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens by RNAi and to explore the potential using the gene as a target to control this pest. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of ATP synthase b subunit gene was cloned from the BPH reared on rice variety TN1 by RACE according to the sequence information available in the transcriptome data previously obtained by our laboratory. The expression profiles of this gene in different developmental stages and different tissues of the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens were detected with real-time quantitative PCR, and the RNAi experiments of the gene were carried out with the 2nd instar nymphs of N. lugens by using feeding method. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of the ATP synthase b subunit gene of the BPH named ATPSb (GenBank accession number: MF973493) was successfully cloned. It contains an ORF of 843 bp, encoding a protein of 280 amino acid residues. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the ATPSb gene was highly expressed in the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs, and its relative expression level decreased with the developmental stage. The mRNA level of ATPSb was higher in male adults than that in female adults. In the 5th instar nymphs, the mRNA level of ATPSb in the thorax was the highest among different tissues, while relatively low in the head, midgut, ovary and fat body. The RNAi results showed that the mRNA level of ATPSb was significantly decreased in the dsATPSb treatment group from the 6th day, and the RNAi treatment led to distinct mortality of the BPH nymphs. At 18 d after RNAi, the survival rate in the control group kept 80%, while no individual survived in the dsATPSb treatment group. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the ATPSb gene is essential to the survival of the BPH, and the RNAi of ATPSb shows an effective inhibition of the BPH. ATPSb may serve as a potential target gene for BPH control.
Related Articles | Metrics
Distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine in the optic lobes of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidotpera: Noctuidae)
GUO Pei, MA Bai-Wei, ZHAO Xin-Cheng, WANG Gao-Ping, XIE Gui-Ying
null    2018, 61 (6): 668-675.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.005
Abstract252)      PDF(pc) (3085KB)(193)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the anatomy of the optic lobes of adults of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidotpera: Noctuidae) and the distribution of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the neuroplis of the optic lobes. 【Methods】 The tissue embedding and section, immunohistochemical staining with synaptic protein antibody and anti-5-HT serum were used to label the neuropil structure of the optic lobe and 5-HT in M. separata adults, respectively. The digital images of the optic lobes were obtained by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. The identification of neuropils and the grouping and counting of 5-HT immunoreactive (5-HTi) cell bodies were performed using image software. 【Results】 The optic lobe of M. separata adults is composed of five neuropils, i.e., lamina, medulla, accessory medulla, lobula, and lobula plate. There are about 40 5-HTi cell bodies in each optic lobe, and all the five neuropil regions contain 5-HTi neural processes. 5-HTi neural processes in lamina are originated from the tangential neurons of the optic lobe, and the processes of medulla are from the tangential neurons, centrifugal neurons and amacrine neurons. Medulla is distributed into mainly three layers, in which the middle layer possesses the densest 5-HTi processes. A few of 5-HTi processes exist in accessory medulla. In the lobula and lobula plate, the 5-HTi processes are originated from the centrifugal neurons. At least two layers of 5-HTi processes in lobula and lobula plate were observed. A few of neural processes project to medulla and connect lobula, lobula plate and medula. 【Conclusion】 5-HT immunoreactive fibers are widely distributed in the optic lobe of M. separata. The results provide the basic knowledge of neural anatomy for further studying the role of 5-HT in the visual system of M. separata.
Related Articles | Metrics
Molecular cloning, tissue expression profiling and binding characterization of the pheromone binding protein SlitPBP4 from Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
SUN Jia-Bin, LIU Nai-Yong, LI Shuang-Mei, YAN Qi, DONG Shuang-Lin
null    2018, 61 (6): 657-667.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.004
Abstract243)      PDF(pc) (4017KB)(191)       Save
 【Aim】 This study aims to identify the new pheromone binding protein (PBP) gene of Spodoptera litura, to clarify its tissue expression pattern and to explore its functions. 【Methods】 Based on the sequence characteristics of PBP4 homologues and their vicinity with other PBP genes on the chromosome in four non-noctuid species (Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, Danausplexippus and Melitaea cinxia) reported previously, a PBP4 gene was obtained from S. litura by analyzing S. litura PBP/GOBP genes previously cloned by our laboratory. The tissue expression patterns of this gene in male and female adults were determined by RT-PCR and qPCR. The binding properties of the recombinant PBP4 protein to sex pheromone components and plant odorants were measured by fluorescence competitive binding assay. 【Results】 The first PBP4 gene in Noctuidae was identified from S. litura and named SlitPBP4, which was deposited in GenBank under accession number MG356847. The cDNA sequence of SlitPBP4 encodes 210 amino acids, with the typical sequence features of PBPs, including an N terminal signal peptide, several hydrophobic regions, six conserved cysteines, and two introns inserted at the conserved positions in the genomic DNA. However, SlitPBP4 has a C terminus much longer than that of the other three reported SlitPBPs. SlitPBP4 showed predominantly high expression level in the male abdomen (the reproductive systems) but nearly undetectable in the antennae and other adult tissues. Fluorescence competitive binding assay showed that SlitPBP4 protein had no obvious binding ability to the tested pheromone components and plant odors. 【Conclusion】 The first PBP4 gene of noctuids was reported. SlitPBP4 is likely to be involved primarily in the reproduction-related physiological processes in male adults, rather than the olfactory function of other reported PBP genes in noctuids.
Related Articles | Metrics
Sequence analysis and expression profiling of pheromone binding protein genes in the litchi fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensi (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
LI Peng-Yan, LIU Yan-Ping, WANG Si-Wei, SUN Hai-Bin, BAI Jian-Shan, PENG Gang, GONG Xue-Hai
null    2018, 61 (5): 527-536.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.002
Abstract242)      PDF(pc) (2596KB)(198)       Save
 【Aim】 This study aims to clone three pheromone binding protein (PBP) genes from the litchi fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensis, and to analyze their sequences and expression characteristics, so as to provide essential basis for better use of sex pheromone for control. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of three PBP genes were cloned from the antennae of C. sinensis adults by transcriptome and RACE-PCR technique after extracting total RNA. The putative amino acid sequences were analyzed by bioinformatics software. The software I-TASSER was used to simulate 3D models, the software TM-align was used in protein homology modeling and the software COACH was used to speculate the binding sites. The expression profiles of the three genes in different developmental stages (larval and pupal stages), and different tissues of the 3 d-old female and male adults (antennae, head without antennae, thorax, abdomen, legs and wings) were analyzed by real-time PCR. 【Results】 Three PBP genes were cloned from the antennae of C. sinensis adults. They were named CsinPBP1, CsinPBP2 and CsinPBP3, and deposited under GenBank accession numbers MF093145, MF093146 and MF093147, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the encoded proteins of the three genes have typical characteristics of odor binding proteins. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CsinPBP1 has 72% amino acid sequence identity with PBP of Yponomeuta cagnagellus, CsinPBP2 has 55% amino acid sequence identity with PBP1 of Plutella xylostella, and CsinPBP3 has 39% amino acid sequence identity with PBP3 of Sesamia inferens. Software simulation analysis revealed that the 3D structures of CsinPBP1, CsinPBP2 and CsinPBP3 were the most similar with GOBP2 of Bombyx mori (PDB: 2wc6A), PBP1 of Amyetois transitetella (PDB: 4inxA) and PBP of B. mori (PDB: 2p70A), and were predicted to have 10, 7 and 8 binding sites, respectively. Expression profiling revealed that the three genes were only expressed in adult antennae, but neither in larval and pupal stages nor in other adult tissues including the head without antennae, thorax, abdomen, legs and wings. The relative expression levels of CsinPBP1, CsinPBP2 and CsinPBP3 in the antennae of male adults were 1.94, 28.19 and 32.94 times as high as those in the antennae of male adults, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Three PBP genes were cloned in C. sinensis. Their sequence and expression analysis suggest that they are related to sex pheromone sensing in males.
Related Articles | Metrics
cDNA cloning and expression profiling of small heat shock protein genes and their response to temperature stress in Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
LI Hui, HE Xuan-Yu, TAO Rong, CHEN Hong-Jian, GONG Xin-Yue, LI Shou-Yin, HAO De-Jun
null    2018, 61 (7): 749-760.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.001
Abstract240)      PDF(pc) (4018KB)(256)       Save
【Aim】 Monochamus alternatus, an important stem borer in pine forests in southern China, is a major vector of pine wilt disease. It has a wide range of distribution and strong resistance to temperature stress. The study aims to better understand the molecular mechanism of resistance to temperature stress in M. alternatus. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA encoding small heat shock protein (sHSP) was cloned
from M. alternatus by RT-PCR and RACE techniques. The sequence characteristics of this sHSP were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression patterns of this gene in different developmental stages, various tissues of the 4th instar larvae and the 4th instar larvae stressed under different low and high temperatures were detected by qPCR, and the stability of the reference genes at different temperatures was analyzed by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper tools. 【Results】 The complete cDNA of the gene encoding sHSP was obtained from M. alternatus, and named MaltHSP21.20 (GenBank accession no.: MH091811). The complete cDNA (871 bp) encodes a protein of 187 amino acids, with a signal peptide of 18 amino acids in N-terminus, the molecular weight of 21.20 kD and the theoretical pI of 8.65. The domain prediction conforms to the characteristics of the sHSP family, containing 10 β-sheets and 7 β-sheets in the α-domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that the sHSP sequence shares high homology with sHSP of Anoplophora glabripennis. The most stable reference gene was different identified by different methods, and assessed by three methods the most stable reference gene was RPL10. MaltHSP21.20 was expressed in all developmental stages of M. alternatus, with the highest expression level in diapause larvae, and moderate in egg and pupal stages. MaltHSP21.20 was expressed in different tissues of the 4th instar larvae, with the highest expression level in fat body. The expression of MaltHSP21.20 in the 4th instar larvae showed no response to low temperature, while was up-regulated significantly at 35℃, reached the maximum after exposure to 45℃ for 2 and 3 h, and down-regulated at 50℃. 【Conclusion】 RPL10 is a more stable reference gene under different temperature stress. Compared to other heat shock protein genes, MaltHSP21.20 is less sensitive to low temperature and presumably plays an important role in larval diapause during overwintering and the resistance to high temperature.
Related Articles | Metrics
Molecular cloning of a serine protease gene DdSP and its response to temperature stress in Galeruca daurica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
DAN Yan-Min, ZHANG Yu, HUO Zhi-Jia, PANG Bao-Ping, SUN Xue-Tao
null    2018, 61 (7): 761-770.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.002
Abstract231)      PDF(pc) (4164KB)(139)       Save
【Aim】 Serine protease (SP) is an important proteolytic enzyme, with serine as its active center. This study aims to clone a serine protease gene from Galeruca daurica and to analyze its expression levels in response to temperature stress so as to lay a foundation for further investigation on the regulation mechanisms of temperature tolerance and other physiological functions in G. daurica. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome data of the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica, the full-length cDNA of the serine protease gene was cloned from G. daurica by RACE, and its sequence was subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Its expression profiles in the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica exposed to different temperatures (-10, -5, 0, 5, 25, and 35℃) for 1 h and recovered at 25℃ for 30 min were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 A serine protease gene was cloned from G. daurica, and named GdSP (GenBank accession no.: MG797556). GdSP is 1 110 bp in length with an open reading frame (ORF) of 969 bp, encoding a protein of 322 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 35.41 kD and pI of 5.61. The encoded protein shares the typical structural features of serine proteases, with a transmembrane domain but no signal peptide. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that GdSP has the highest amino acid sequence identity (30.53%) with Anoplophora glabripennis SP. qPCR results showed that the expression levels of GdSP had no significant difference in the 2nd instar larvae of G. daurica exposed to different temperatures whereas increased significantly after recovery from the low (except -10℃) and high temperature stresses. 【Conclusion】 Rapid cold-hardening has no significant effects on the expression of GdSP while recovery from cold shock elicits its up-regulated expression.
Related Articles | Metrics
Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to essential oils from three non-host plants
ZHANG Fang-Mei, QIAO Li, PAN Peng-Liang, WANG Guo-Jun, YIN Jian, CHEN Li-Jun
null    2018, 61 (5): 565-573.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.006
Abstract220)      PDF(pc) (1911KB)(233)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to screen the chemical attractants and repellents produced by non-host plants, which are potentially used for developing ‘push-pull’ strategy for controlling a common tea pest, Ectropis grisescens. 【Methods】 The behavioral and electroantennogram (EAG) responses of male and female adults of E. grisescens to essential oils from three non-host plants including Chenopodium ambrosioides, Mentha spicata and Artemisia annua were evaluated by using Y-tube olfactometer and EAG. 【Results】 Both sexes of E. grisescens adults showed EAG response to the essential oils from C. ambrosioides, M. spicata and A. annua in a dose-dependent manner, with the antennal response strengthening first and then decreasing with the concentration of essential oil, and reaching the maximum at the concentration of 1, 100 and 100 mg/L, respectively. Male adults showed slightly greater EAG response than females to the essential oils from C. ambrosioides and M. spicata, while their response to the essential oil from A. annua was opposite. The results of behavioral response tests showed that both sexes of E. grisescens adults displayed non-significant taxis to the essential oils from C. ambrosioides and A. annua and significantly negative taxis to the essential oil from M. spicata. 【Conclusion】 E. grisescens adults show significant EAG responses to the essential oils from the non-host plants C. ambrosioides, M. spicata and A. annua, and the essential oil from M. spicata has repellent activity against E. grisescens.
Related Articles | Metrics
Genetic differentiation and distribution of two sibling species of tea geometrids in tea-growing areas in Zhejiang, eastern China
BAI Jia-He, WANG Zhi-Bo, XIAO Qiang
null    2018, 61 (6): 741-748.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.013
Abstract217)      PDF(pc) (1686KB)(126)       Save
【Aim】 To reveal the distribution of the sibling species of Ectropis grisescens and Ectropis obliqua in tea-growing areas in Zhejiang, eastern China. 【Methods】 A total of 533 specimens of tea geometrids collected from 17 counties in Zhejiang were identified by using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (mtCOI) gene as the molecular marker, and the geographical distribution of E. grisescens and E. obliqua in Zhejiang was also analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that among the 17 surveyed localities, the tea geometrids from 11 localities in Zhejiang were all identified as E. grisescens, those from other three localities (Anji, Yuhang, Longwu) were all E. obliqua, and the rest three localities (Xihu, Lin′an and Fuyang districts of Hangzhou) were identified as the co-occurrence areas of the two sibling species. 【Conclusion】 E. grisescens is widely distributed in tea-growing areas in Zhejiang, the distribution of E. obliqua is narrower, and there exist co-occurrence areas of the two sibling species.
Related Articles | Metrics
Identification and expression profiling of chemosensory protein genes in Galeruca daurica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) (In English)
LI Ling, ZHOU Yuan-Tao, TAN Yao, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, PANG Bao-Ping
null    2018, 61 (6): 646-656.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.003
Abstract216)      PDF(pc) (3130KB)(181)       Save
 【Aim】 Galeruca daurica is a new pest with outbreak status in grasslands of Inner Mongolia, northern China. The chemosensory proteins (CSPs) of insects are a class of small and water soluble proteins whose functions are to recognize and transport environmental chemical stimuli to receptors, participating in many aspects of insect behavior. The objective of this study is to identify the chemosensory protein genes and to analyze their expression profiles in G. daurica. 【Methods】 The chemosensory protein genes in G. daurica were identified by screening the transcriptome data of G. daurica assembled in our laboratory, and qPCR was conducted to analyze their expression levels in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-3rd instar larva, pupa and adult) and adult tissues (antenna, head with antennae removed, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing). 【Results】 Ten chemosensory protein genes were identified from G. daurica, and named as GdauCSP1-10 (GenBank accession numbers: KY885471-KY885480), respectively. The amino acid sequence identity between the 10 GdauCSPs ranges from 17.27% to 62.79% with a high divergence between each other. The results of Blast in NCBI showed that GdauCSPs have the highest amino acid sequence identity (90%) with PmacCSP from Pyrrhalta maculicollis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that four of the 10 GdauCSPs were firstly clustered into a clade with PmacCSPs from P. maculicollis. The qPCR results proved that the expression levels of GdCSPs were significantly different in different developmental stages, and five GdCSPs including GdauCSP4-5, GdauCSP7-8, and GdauCSP10 had significantly higher expression levels in the adult stage than in other developmental stages while GdCSP2 had significantly higher expression level in the egg stage than in other developmental stages. GdauCSPs were also expressed in the head with antennae removed, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing besides in the antenna, and 10 GdauCSPs had different tissue expression profiles but five out of 10 GdauCSPs, including GdauCSP2, GdauCSP4, GdauCSP5, GdauCSP8 and GdauCSP9, had significantly higher expression levels in female antennae than in other tissues. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that GdauCSPs may play different roles in the development and chemosensory process of G. daurica. This study lays the necessary foundation for further research on the physiological function of CSPs and the molecular mechanism of chemical communication in G. daurica.
Related Articles | Metrics
Morphological characteristics for instar identification of Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
LI Hui, LIU Xiao-Xia, ZHI Hai-Jian, LI Kai, ZHANG Qing-Wen, LI Zhen
null    2018, 61 (7): 877-884.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.015
Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (2207KB)(147)       Save
 【Aim】 This study aims to accurately determine the instars of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines based on morphological characteristics. 【Methods】 Eight morphological indices of the wingless and winged A. glycines, including body length, body width, head width, the number of antennal segments, antenna length, cornicle length, cauda length and hind tibia length, were measured under the ultrawide area 3D microscope. 【Results】 The results indicated that the morphological characteristics are different among various instars of both wingless and winged A. glycines. The hind tibia length and cauda length of the wingless individuals and the hind tibia length, body length, antenna length, cauda length of the winged individuals displayed either no or low overlap between adjacent instars and thus could be regarded as remarkable criteria to identify instars of both morphs. Additionally, the cauda shape could be regarded as the representative morphological characteristics to differentiate the nymph and adult, and the number of antennal segments could be regarded as the morphological characteristics to differentiate the 1st instar nymph, 2nd instar nymph and the other instars. 【Conclusion】 The instars of A. glycine can be accurately and quickly identified according to the hind tibia length and cauda length of the wingless individuals and the comprehensive analysis about the hind tibia length, body length, antenna length and cauda length of the winged individuals. In addition, such morphological indices as the number of antennal segments, shape of cauda, body width, cornicle length and wing pad development facilitate the instar identification of this insect.
Related Articles | Metrics
Weissella paramesenteroides facilitates the systemic growth of Drosophila melanogaster by modulating ecdysone and insulin signaling pathways (In English)
LI En-Hui, WANG Xiao-Yang, ZHANG Le-Xiao, BAI Peng, ZHAO Xin, LIU Wei, ZHANG Ce
null    2018, 61 (6): 676-685.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.006
Abstract213)      PDF(pc) (2160KB)(177)       Save
【Aim】 To investigate the effects of lactic acid bacteria Weisellas paramesenteroides on the growth and development of Drosophila melanogaster. 【Methods】 Bacterium was isolated from the gut of D.melanogaster adults with selective medium and identified by BLAST analysis of 16S rRNA gene. The developmeantal duration of D. melanogaster was quantified by counting the time to puparium formation and adult eclosion, and the growth rate was calculated as the body surface area of larvae. The expression levels of genes involved in hormoral (dib, E74B and PTTH) and insulin signaling(DILP2, DILP3 and InR)of D. melanogaster at different time after egg deposition were assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. The glucose level in the hemolymph of the 3rd instar larvae was measured by glucose oxidase assay. 【Results】 W. paramesenteroides was isoloated and efficiently colonized in the gut of D. melanogaster adults. W. paramesenteroides shortened the time to puparium formation and adult eclosion of D. melanogaster by enhancing the growth rate of flies. W. paramesenteroides increased the expression levels of dib, E74B and PTTH, as well as the expression of DILP2 and DILP3, while decreased the expression levels of InR and the glucose level in larval hemolymph.【Conclusion】 W. paramesenteroides is the symbiotic bacterium of D. melanogaster, and promotes its development by activting the ecdysone and insulin signaling pathways.
Related Articles | Metrics
Formulation optimization of crop straw feed of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) based on extreme vertex mixing design method
LI Xiao-Long, XIONG Xiao-Li, LI Ning
null    2018, 61 (5): 596-603.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.009
Abstract206)      PDF(pc) (1505KB)(184)       Save
【Aim】 A large quantities of crop straws produced annually are not effectively used, causing waste of resources. Some crop straws are fermented into animal feed, but they are rarely adapted as feed of insects. This study aims to extend the utilization of crop straw and to reduce the feed cost for breeding Tenebrio molitor. 【Methods】 Different feed formulas made from the conventional feed of T. molitor, fermented corn stalk and fermented sweet potato straw were designed by extreme vertex mixing design method, and the optimal feed formulation was screened by determining the effects of the feed formulation on the growth indexes (biomass increment rate, mortality, body length, feed utilization rate and conversion rate) and physiological indexes (moisture content, ash content, crude fat content, crude protein content, SOD activity, total sugar content, phosphorus content, content of medium and trace elements, and heavy metal content). 【Results】 The results showed that a certain amount of fermented corn stalk and fermented sweet potato straw added in the conventional feed was more beneficial to the growth of T. molitor. In the experimental groups with higher biomass increment rate, T. molitor had higher feed utilization rates and conversion rates. The higher the proportion of sweet potato straw in the formula, the higher the mortality trend of T. molitor. Different feed formulation had no obvious effect on the body length and physiological indexes of T. molitor larvae. The optimal feed formulation for T. molitor was as follows: conventional feed∶fermented corn stalk∶fermented sweet potato straw=37.24∶20.72∶42.04. Compared with the conventional feed formulation, the feed cost of the optimal feed formulation was decreased by 56.94%. The biomass increment rate of T. molitor larvae reared with the optimal feed formulation reached 32.52%, higher than that reared with the conventional feed (25.17%). Moreover, the mortality rate of T. molitor larvae reared with the optimal feed formulation was low and the utilization of crop straw feed was high. 【Conclusion】 Based on a reasonable formulation, the crop straw can be used as the feed of T. molitor, which can not only reduce the feed cost for breeding T. molitor, but also raise the utilization rate of crop straw. So the formulation is of great application prospective.
Related Articles | Metrics
Fine mapping of mutant gene in the chinese translucent (oc) mutant of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
YIN Ya-Ru, HU Jian, HU Wen-Bo, YANG Cheng-Fei, WANG Kun, LIU Chun, LIN Ying, ZHU Yong, WANG Ling-Yan
null    2018, 61 (6): 627-636.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.001
Abstract200)      PDF(pc) (3791KB)(252)       Save
【Aim】 The chinese translucent (oc) mutant is one of the translucent mutants in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Its responsible gene has been mapped at 40.8 cM on chromosome 5. The purpose of this study is to fine map and clone the candidate gene for oc mutation and to explore the molecular mechanism of the oc mutant. 【Methods】 A BC1 generation was got by hybridizing male F1 (the mutant strain oc×the wild-type strain Dz) with female oc. The markers were designed according to reference genomes, and those showing polymorphism between oc and Dz were used for the genetic analysis of 1 397 BC1 individuals. The candidate genes in the oc tightly linked region were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qPCR, and the target candidate gene was identified, cloned and sequenced. The cause of oc mutation was analyzed. 【Results】 The oc locus was mapped to the 234 kb region between markers M10 and M11 using 1 397 BC1 individuals and 11 polymorphic markers. There are five predicted protein-coding genes in this region. The expression analysis of the five predicted genes in the integument of ten strains of B. mori indicated that only BGIBMGA003572 was severely suppressed in the oc mutant as compared with in the wildtype strain. The sequence homology analysis indicated that the encoded protein of BGIBMGA003572 is homologous to the human monocarboxylate transporter 9, a possible uric acid transporter, which might be the candidate gene for oc mutation. The cloning and sequencing results of BGIBMGA003572 showed that five amino acids changed in the oc mutant as compared with the wild-type strain. 【Conclusion】 In this study, the oc locus was mapped to the 234 kb region by positional cloning technique, in which BGIBMGA003572 encoding a monocarboxylate transporter 9 might contribute to the phenotype of oc mutant.
Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of pest insect feeding and mechanical damage on the defensive enzyme activities in leaves at different parts of kidney bean plants
YUE Wen-Bo, ZHI Jun-Rui, LIU Li, YE Mao, ZHANG Xiang-Qian, ZENG Guang-
null    2018, 61 (7): 860-870.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.013
Abstract194)      PDF(pc) (1059KB)(150)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to explore the systematic defense mechanism of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plant against different insect pests. 【Methods】 Central leaves of each plant of P. vulgaris were fed by Spodoptera litura, Tetranychus urticae, Frankliniella occidentalis, or pricked manually with an insect needle for 6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, respectively, while the upper and lower leaves of each plant were left untreated. The changes in the activities of peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the upper, central and lower leaves were determined. 【Results】 In the central leaves fed by the three insect species, the activities of POD, CAT and SOD changed significantly, and their changing trends varied with insect species. Compared with the control, the POD activity in central leaves fed by the three insect species increased firstly and then decreased to the level of the control after insect infestation. The POD activity reached the maximum at 24 h after T. urticae infestation, which was 4.6 times as high as the control. However, the POD activity in the central leaves increased obviously and reached the peak at 48 h after both mechanical damage and F. occidentalis infestation. The POD activity in the central leaves ingested by S. litura displayed a slowly increasing trend, and reached the maximum at 72 h after infestation. The changing trends of the CAT activity were different among mechanical damage and feeding of the three insect species. Mechanical damage induced the CAT activity obviously at 24 h after treatment, while all three insect pests caused changes of the CAT activity at earlier time, which rose significantly at 6 h and then changed in different modes with feeding time. In the central leaves, the SOD activity increased significantly only at 96 h after mechanical damage, while T. urticae infestation obviously induced the SOD activity after 24 h. Moreover, the SOD activities were significantly inhibited at 72 h in the leaves fed by S. litura or F. occidentalis. In the undamaged upper and lower leaves, the activities of POD, CAT and SOD also changed significantly after insect infestation or mechanical damage. The POD activities in undamaged upper leaves were inhibited at 96 h. However, the POD activities in lower leaves were induced to different levels. In both upper and lower undamaged leaves, the CAT activities were activated obviously at 24, 6, 6, and 24 h after mechanical damage, the infestation of S. litura, T. urticae and F. occidentalis, respectively. Mechanical damage, and S. litura and T. urticae infestation resulted in prominent increase in the SOD activity in undamaged upper and lower leaves at 96, 72 and 72 h, but F. occidentalis infestation led to the SOD activity being inhibited obviously at 48 and 72 h. 【Conclusion】 Infestation of S. litura, T. urticae and F. occidentalis can induce the activities of defensive enzymes (POD, CAT and SOD) significantly in both damaged central leaves and undamaged upper and lower leaves, which leads to systematic defensive reactions in bean plant, but the changing trends of the enzyme activities vary among treatments. These results indicate that the temporal and spatial effects of the defense are related to the species of insect pests.
Related Articles | Metrics
Isolation and identification of insecticidal compounds from Curcuma longa roots against Aphis craccivora (Hemiptera: Aphididae) adults
ZHANG Min, LIU Jia, FU Wei-Jie, DAI Guang-Hui
null    2018, 61 (6): 698-703.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.008
Abstract191)      PDF(pc) (1153KB)(166)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to determine the insecticidal activity of the ethanol extract from Curcuma longa roots against Aphis craccivora adults, to identify the structure of the active compounds, and to evaluate the control effect of the active compound against this insect so as to establish basic data for its application in a botanical pesticide. 【Methods】 Insecticidal compounds were isolated and purified from the extract of C. longa roots with activity-guided fractionation by extraction, silica gel column chromatography, thin layer chromatography and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography, and their structures were identified based on NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and MS (mass spectrometry) data. The insecticidal activities of the extract and the active compounds against apterous adults of A. craccivora were evaluated by dipping method and topical application, respectively. 【Results】 The 95% ethanol extract of C. longa roots had an contact activity against the apterous adults of A. craccivora, with the LC50 value of 3 226.27 mg/L at 24 h after treatment. The active compound (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone isolated from the extract of C. longa roots exhibited good contact activity against the apterous adults of A. craccivora, with the LC50 value of 706.10 mg/L at 24 h after treatment. 【Conclusion】 The 95% ethanol extract of C. longa roots has certain insecticidal activity against A. craccivora adults, and (+)-(S)-ar-turmerone is the main active compound.
Related Articles | Metrics
Cellular location of antisense oligonucleotide of snoRNA Bm-15 and its interference efficiency with Bm-15 in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells
LI Xin-Mei, QIU Wu-Jie, CUI Bin, YANG Zong-Lin, SHEN Ya-Wen, LU Yi-Ping, HAN Yun-Chao, LI Dan-Dan
null    2018, 61 (7): 795-800.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.005
Abstract188)      PDF(pc) (1808KB)(132)       Save
【Aim】 To study the interference efficiency of antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) with insect small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) Bm-15, and to investigate the intracellular delivery of ASO in cells. 【Methods】 Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells were transfected with Cy5-labeled, 2′-O ribosomal methylation and phosphorothioate-modified ASO of Bm-15 through liposome. Co-localization of Bm-15 ASO (labeled with Cy5) and lysosome as well as mitochondria was screened by immunofluorescence. The interference efficiency of ASO with snoRNA Bm-15 was analyzed by detecting the expression level of Bm-15 in Sf9 cells transfected with Bm-15 ASO using real-time PCR. 【Results】 The proportions of ASO fluorescence signals inundating the whole cell and at the cell edge were 34% and 66%, respectively, in the transfected Sf9 cells after 48 h transfection of Bm-15 ASO, suggesting that ASO might be delivered into different subcellular organelles. Further co-localization analysis showed that Bm-15 ASO was transported into lysosomes but not mitochondria. qPCR result showed that the expression level of Bm-15 decreased by 47% in Sf9 cells transfected with Bm-15 ASO. 【Conclusion】 ASO can not escape from the cellular endogenous degradation machinery even after various chemical modifications, and this effectively explains the low interference efficiency of ASO with target gene in some circumstances.
Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of starvation stress on the glucose and lipid metabolism and the role of BmFoxO in Bombyx mori
MENG Zhu, WEN Mao-Yu, KANG Xiao-Li, LU Zhong-Yan, ZHAO Ping, XIA Qing-You
null    2018, 61 (8): 895-904.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.08.002
Abstract185)      PDF(pc) (2440KB)(139)       Save
【Aim】 Starvation is one of the main stress signals for organisms in their developmental cycle. The purpose of this study is to understand how the silkworm (Bombyx mori) adjusts the metabolism conditions to survive after starvation and to explore the role of forkhead box transcription factor O gene (FoxO) in this process. 【Methods】 The 5th instar day-2 larvae of B. mori were subjected to chronical starvation for 72 h, the contents of triglyceride and glycogen in the fat body and the concentration of trehalose in the hemolymph were measured every 12 h, and the expression levels of BmFoxO, insulin receptor gene (InR) and protein kinase B gene (Akt) of insulin pathway and genes related to lipid metabolism were detected in the fat body by qPCR. A vector overexpressing BmFoxO was constructed and transfected into BmE cells, and the expression levels of genes related to glucose and lipid metabolism in BmE cells were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 The contents of glycogen and triglyceride in the fat body of the silkworm larvae continuously decreased within 72 h after starvation, and the concentration of trehalose in the hemolymph increased during 48 to 72 h after starvation. qPCR results revealed that the expression levels of genes of insulin pathway such as BmFoxO, InR and Akt and those linked to lipid metabolism enhanced remarkably during starvation stress, accelerating lipolysis. After overexpression of BmFoxO in BmE cells, the genes BmFoxO, InR and Akt showed a similar expression trend to that in B. mori larvae under starvation stress. 【Conclusion】 BmFoxO can regulate the glucose and lipid metabolism, and participate in the resistance to starvation in the silkworm. This study provides a basis for further studying the function of BmFoxO in the growth and metabolism in the silkworm.
Related Articles | Metrics
Temporal and spatial distribution of Wolbachia infection in the poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
ZHANG Xiao-Chen, FENG Ji-Nian
null    2018, 61 (7): 843-850.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.011
Abstract185)      PDF(pc) (1274KB)(138)       Save
【Aim】 To demonstrate spatio-temporal infection dynamics of Wolbachia in the poinsettia thrips, Echinothrips americanus. 【Methods】 Specific primers were designed based on the sequence of Wolbachia surface protein gene (wsp) to construct the standard plasmid. The absolute real-time quantitative PCR was used to determine the copy number of wsp in different developmental stages (egg, nymph, prepupa, pupa and adult) and adult tissues (head, thorax, abdomen and terminal three segments of abdomen) of both sexes of the thrips. 【Results】 The copy number of Wolbachia increased with the development of E. americanus, and the copy number of Wolbachia in female adult was significantly higher than those in egg and nymphal stages. The copy numbers of Wolbachia in different adult tissues were different. In female adults the copy number of Wolbachia in abdomen was significantly higher than those in head, thorax and the terminal three segments of abdomen, while in male adults the copy numbers in thorax and abdomen were significantly higher than those in head and the terminal three segments of abdomen. Sex and tissue had significant interactions with the copy number of Wolbachia in E. americanus. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that the infection of Wolbachia in E. americanus is affected not only by the developmental stage of host, but also by host sex and tissue. This study provides a theoretical basis for understanding the occurrence, establishment and spreading of this thrips.
Related Articles | Metrics
Expression, purification and characterization of galectin AcGalectin in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
YUE Jin-Jin, MA Yu-Chi, LIU Quan, Jiang-Li-Li, Fei-Dong-Liang, ZHANG He, SUN Li, LI Ming, MA Ming-Xiao
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2018, 61 (5): 546-554.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.004
Abstract182)      PDF(pc) (3918KB)(184)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to explore the function of galectin in Apis cerana cerana and its interaction with the honeybee virus. 【Methods】 Galectin gene was amplified from A. cerana cerana by RT-PCR using the extracted total RNA as the template, and then the sequence and structural characteristics of deduced amino acids were analyzed by using bioinformatics tools. The codons of the galectin gene were optimized based on the codon bias of Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was produced in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The binding activities of the recombinant protein with Chinese sacbrood virus (CSBV), Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) and Deformed wing virus (DWV) were analyzed by far-western blotting. 【Results】 A galectin gene was cloned from A. cerana cerana and named AcGalectin (GenBank accession no: MG557559), and its full-length cDNA is 1 473 bp in length. AcGalectin has a stable spatial structure containing a Gal-bind_lectin domain. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the amino acid sequences from AcGalectin and the previously reported galectins indicated that galectins form two clusters, one related to galectins from the Hymenoptera, and the other related to galectins from other insects. The codon-optimized AcGalectin gene could be highly expressed in host bacteria BL21 (DE3), and the purified recombinant AcGalectin protein could bind with CSBV and CBPV, but not with DWV. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that AcGalectin can bind with CSBV and CBPV, and this lays a foundation for the further study on the function of AcGalectin in the process of CSBV and CBPV infections.
Related Articles | Metrics
Molecular cloning, expression profiling and binding characterization of a Minus-C odorant binding protein from the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
CHEN Xiu-Lin, SU Li, CHEN Li-Hui, LI Yi-Ping, WU Jun-Xiang, LI Guang-Wei
null    2018, 61 (7): 771-783.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.003
Abstract177)      PDF(pc) (5573KB)(165)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to clone the Minus-C odorant binding protein (OBP) gene of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, and to measure its expression profiles in different adult tissues and the binding affinities of its recombinant protein with different ligands, so as to clarify its olfactory functions. 【Methods】 Based on the next generation sequencing of the female adult antenna of G. molesta, the complete coding sequence of a Minus-C OBP gene was cloned by using RT-PCR. The expression levels of this gene in different adult tissues (antenna, head with antennae removed, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing) of G. molesta were measured by qPCR. The recombinant protein was expressed by prokaryotic expression system and the purified protein was verified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot. The binding affinities of the recombinant protein with 35 ligands were analyzed using fluorescence competitive binding assay. 【Results】 A Minus-C OBP gene was successfully cloned from G. molesta and named GmolOBP14 (GenBank accession no. MF066361). The cDNA sequence of GmolOBP14 contains an ORF of 411 bp that encodes 136 amino acids including four conserved cysteine residues, and the encoded protein belongs to Minus-C OBPs subfamily. GmolOBP14 was expressed in different tissues of male and female adults, and had significantly higher expression levels in male wing and female antenna than in other tissues. The purified recombinant GmolOBP14 (rGmolOBP14) displayed binding abilities with 16 of the 35 tested ligands, and had higher binding affinities to pear ester and lauraldehyde with the dissociation constant Ki values of 6.92 and 12.74 μmol/L, respectively. rGmolOBP14 had medium binding abilities to decanal, tetradecanal, (E)-3-hexene-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and butyl hexanoate with the Ki values of 25.54, 20.61, 24.35, 23.44, and 23.33 μmol/L, respectively. rGmolOBP14 showed no binding activities to sex pheromones, suggesting that this protein is not involved in the perception and recognition of sex pheromones. 【Conclusion】 Based on the expression profiles of GmolOBP14 and the binding affinities of its recombinant protein to ligands, it is speculated that GmolOBP14 not only selectively binds and transports volatiles of the host plant but also participates in other physiological processes except for olfaction.
Related Articles | Metrics
Feeding preference and taxis behavior of adult Holotrichia oblita (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) on three plants
RE Zi-Wan-Gu-Li-·A-Bu-Du-Ke-Re-Mu, CAO Ya-Zhong, ZHANG Shuai, YIN Jiao, LI Xue, LI Ke-Bin
null    2018, 61 (5): 585-595.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.008
Abstract174)      PDF(pc) (1752KB)(201)       Save
 【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the relationship between feeding preference and taxis behavior of Holotrichia oblita adults on three plant species. 【Methods】 The taxis and feeding amount of H. oblita adults to Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia), wild cotton (Abutilon theophrasti), and castor-oil plant (Ricinus communis) were measured by the scanned leaf image device and Y-tube olfactometers. The volatiles from the three plants were collected by the dynamic headspace volatile collection method and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and the active volatile compounds were screened by Y-tube olfactometer. 【Results】 The taxis of H. oblita to R. communis was significantly higher than that to U. parvifolia and A. theophrasti (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in taxis between to U. parvifolia and to A. theophrasti. However, H. oblita adults showed the highest foliar feeding amount to U. parvifolia among these three plants, and displayed nearly equal taxis to A. theophrasti and R. communis. Moreover, no significant difference in foliar feeding amount was found between female and male adults of H. oblita (P>0.05). GC-MS analysis showed that plant volatile compounds in the three plants were largely different. In the olfactory response test with Y-tube olfactometer, (Z)-3-hexenyl isobutyrate, dibutyl phthalate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, phenol, methyl salicylate, and β-caryophellen at the concentration of 10 μg/μL were found to be more attractive to H. oblita as compared with the control (hexane), while 3-carene, (E)-2-nonenal and α-phellandrene were less attractive than hexane. 【Conclusion】 The taxis of H. oblita to U. parvifolia, A. theophrasti and R. communis is not equivalent to its feeding preference.
Related Articles | Metrics
Research progress in the litchi fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensis (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae)
LI Wen-Jing, DONG Yi-Zhi, YAO Qiong, CHEN Bing-Xu
null    2018, 61 (6): 721-732.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.011
Abstract168)      PDF(pc) (1695KB)(140)       Save
 The litchi fruit borer, Conopomorpha sinensis, is an important pest of fruit trees widely distributed in the Lingnan area of China, Southeast Asia, India and Nepal. It feeds on fruits, shoots and flowers of the host plants litchi and longan as a borer pest, and has become a major and destructive insect pest to litchi and longan industry due to its boring habit, difficulty for its control, inappropriate control measures and abuse of chemical pesticides. In this article we reviewed the research progress in C. sinensis in recent 30 years, mainly focusing on the taxonomy, biological characteristics, antennal sensilla and olfactory mechanisms, artificial rearing techniques, and forecast and control methods. In addition, the controversial problems in the research of C. sinensis were proposed, and the prospects for the future studies were also provided.
Related Articles | Metrics
Gene expression patterns and activities of trehalases in Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) pupae during diapause and diapause termination
WANG De-Yi, RU Yu-Tao, WANG Yong, MA Yue-Yue, NA Shuang, SUN Liang-Zhen, JIANG Yi-Ren, QIN Li
null    2018, 61 (7): 784-794.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.004
Abstract167)      PDF(pc) (4587KB)(149)       Save
 【Aim】 Gene expression patterns and enzyme activities of trehalases in Antheraea pernyi pupae during diapause and diapause termination were detected so as to elucidate the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and diapause termination during diapause of this insect. 【Methods】 The trehalase genes were cloned from A. pernyi pupa using RT-PCR technology and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. Their expression patterns in different tissues of A. pernyi pupae during diapause termination after exposure to long photoperiod (17L∶7D) and diapause (the control group) were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. The relative expression levels of trehalase genes in the fat body of A. pernyi pupae during diapause termination under long photoperiod were measured using qPCR, the trehalase activity in the fat body was detected using 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid method and the trehalose content in the haemolymph was measured using antrone chromametry method. 【Results】 Three trehalase genes were cloned from A. pernyi, named ApTreh1A, ApTreh1B and ApTreh2 and deposited in GenBank under accession numbers KU977455, KU977456 and KU977457, respectively. Their open reading frames (ORFs) are 1 797, 1 635 and 1 932 bp in length, encoding 598, 544 and 643 amino acids, respectively. Homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that ApTreh1A and ApTreh1B are soluble trehalases (TrehS), and ApTreh2 is a membrane-bound trehalase (TrehM). Tissue-specific mRNA expression profiling using semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that ApTreh2 had a wider distribution and higher expression level than ApTreh1. The qPCR results indicated that the expression levels of ApTreh1A and ApTreh1B in fat body at 21 d after exposure to long photoperiod were up-regulated and significantly higher than that of the control group (12L∶12D) (2- and 4.7-fold, respectively), while down-regulated at 28 and 35 d, and then up-regulated again at 42 d. The expression levels of ApTreh2 were up-regulated gradually, and reached the maximum (2.7-fold as high as that of the control group) at 28 d. At 42 d after exposure to long photoperiod, there was another expression peak (2.3-fold as high as that of the control group), and then down-regulated gradually. Trehalase activities in fat body increased gradually, reached the peak (about 18.5 U) at 21 d after exposure to long photoperiod, while declined to the lowest level (11.2 U) at 35 d, and increased slightly at 42 d, showing the same variation trend as the gene expression. The trehalose content in the haemolymph increased under long photoperiod and reached the maximum at 21 d, and was higher than that of the control during the whole developmental stage. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the expression of trehalase genes shows the same variation trend as the trehalase activities in the fat body and the trehalose content in the haemolymph in A. pernyi, suggesting that the expression response of trehalase genes plays a significant role in pupal diapause and diapause termination of A. pernyi.
Related Articles | Metrics
Detection and identification of Wolbachia in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Xinjiang, northwestern China
LI Jing, WANG Yang-Zhou, ZHANG Xiao-Fei, LIU Jin, BAI Ming-Hao, WANG Zhen-Ying
null    2018, 61 (5): 555-564.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.05.005
Abstract166)      PDF(pc) (2084KB)(169)       Save
 【Aim】 The objective of this study is to investigate the diversity and prevalence patterns of Wolbachia in populations of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis in Xinjiang, northwestern China. 【Methods】 Wolbachia infection rates in 15 geographical populations of O. furnacalis collected from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were detected, and six genes including wsp, ftsZ, gatB, coxA, hcpA and fbpA were subcloned and sequenced from each infected individual. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence typing of Wolbachia strains infecting O. furnacalis were performed based on wsp sequences and by multilocus sequence typing system (MLST), respectively. 【Results】 The Wolbachia infection rates in the 15 O. furnacalis populations ranged from 0 to 40.0%, with an average infection rate of 11.1% (no infected individual was detected in five populations). Phylogenetic trees based on wsp sequences and MLST allelic profiles indicated that two Wolbachia strains, i.e., wOfur1 and wOfur2, infected O. furnacalis populations in Xinjiang, which were assigned to the supergroup A and supergroup B, corresponding to MLST sequence type ST352 and ST37, respectively. Among the tested populations, four populations, i.e., populations from Changji (CJ), Fukang (FK), Manasi (MNS) and Qitai (QT), were infected with both strains, and six populations, i.e., populations from Hotan (HT), Korla (KEL), Yarkant (SC), Shule (SL), Urumqi (UM) and Xinhe (XH), were only infected with wOfur2. The average infection rates of wOfur1 and wOfur2 were 1.2% and 10.3%, respectively. Superinfection was found in MNS population tested. wsp and MLST clustering showed a closely genetic relationship between wOfur2 and several Wolbachia strains which had been proved to induce cytoplasmic incompatibility and male-killing to their insect hosts. 【Conclusion】 The two Wolbachia strains wOfur1 and wOfur2 show distinct differences in the infection rate and prevalence pattern in O. furnacalis populations in Xinjiang. Infection with wOfur2 is more frequent and widespread than that with wOfur1 in O. furnacalis populations.
Related Articles | Metrics
Screening of microsatellite loci and the genetic diversity analysis of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) populations in China
LI Mei-Mei, LI Bo-Liao, WU Jun-Xiang, XU Xiang-Li
null    2018, 61 (6): 712-720.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.010
Abstract161)      PDF(pc) (1032KB)(168)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to acquire microsatellite loci available for studying the population genetics of the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata in China and to further uncover the genetic diversity of its geographical populations from a molecular perspective. 【Methods】 Based on microsatellite markers which had been previously reported in public and  the simple sequence repeats (SSRs) from our laboratory transcriptome of M. separata, the stability of amplification and polymorphism of these microsatellite loci were analyzed based on 200 individuals sampled in seven geographical populations from Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi in China. The PCR products of SSRs were labeled fluorescently and scanned automatically. 【Results】 Seven microsatellite loci were amplified stably in samples of seven geographical populations of M. separata and possessed high polymorphism. The allele richness (Ar) of the seven microsatellite loci was between 4.167 and 12.402, the average observed heterozygosity (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) were 0.640 and 0.752, respectively, and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.547 to 0.884. The seven loci had null allele and deviated from Hardy.Weinberg equilibrium. No significant linkage disequilibrium existed in pairwise loci. 【Conclusion】 Seven microsatellite loci were successfully screened from seven geographical populations of M. separata from Henan, Shaanxi and Shanxi, and they show high polymorphism among these geographical populations and can be used in genetic structure research of this insect. In addition, frequent gene flow occurs in these populations, which prevents population differentiation caused by genetic drift. Moreover, fairly low even no pairwise population differentiation occurs in these populations.
Related Articles | Metrics
Ras signaling pathway promotes the growth of endoreplication cells through activating the expression of transcription factor Myc
ZHANG Xiang-Le, MA Li, MA Qian, LI Sheng, LIU Su-Ning
null    2018, 61 (8): 885-894.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.08.001
Abstract158)      PDF(pc) (5918KB)(223)       Save
【Aim】 Ras signaling pathway palys an important role in cell proliferation and growth in Drosophila. Myc, a member of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, regulates physiological processes such as cell growth, competition and tissue regeneration. The aim of this study is to clarify the interaction between Ras signaling and Myc, and to explore the mechanism how Ras signaling regulates the growth of endoreplication cells. 【Methods】 The transcription level of Myc in posterior silk glands of transgenic silkworm (Bombyx mori) was analyzed by bioinformatics tools and detected by qPCR. RasV12 or Raf wereoverexpressedby transfecting pAc5.1-HisB-RasV12-V5 or pAc5.1-HisB-Raf-Flag plasmid into Drosophila melanogaster Kc cells, respectively, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Myc were detected by qPCR and Western blotting, respectively. The functions of Ras signaling in regulation of Myc in larval fat body and salivary glands of D. melanogaster were verified by using D. melanogaster genetic tools and molecular biology methods. 【Results】 Overexpression of Ras1CA in silkworm posterior silk glands up-regulated Myc transcriptional level. Activation of Ras signaling up-regulated Myc expression at both the transcriptional and protein levels in D. melanogaster Kc cells. In salivary glands and fat body of D. melanogaster larva, the expression levels of Myc at the wandering stage were higher than those at the feeding stage. Overexpression of Myc or activation of Ras signaling accelerated endocycling. Activating Ras signaling promoted Myc expression.【Conclusion】 The Ras signaling pathway can activate the expression of Myc, thereby accelerating the endocycle and promoting organ development.
Related Articles | Metrics
Biological characteristics of the solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
ZHI Fu-Ying, HUANG Fang, HUANG Jun, LI Wei-Di, 吕Yao-Bin
null    2018, 61 (7): 871-876.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.014
Abstract157)      PDF(pc) (1780KB)(303)       Save
【Aim】 The solanum mealybug, Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a new record species in China, and supposed to be a great potential threat to agricultural production and ecological environment. This study aims to reveal the biological characteristics of P. solani. 【Methods】 The reproductive mode, developmental duration, fecundity and morphological characteristics of various developmental stages of P. solani on the host Solanum tuberosum were investigated under laboratory conditions (27±1℃, RH 70%±5% and a photoperiod of 12L∶12D). 【Results】 P. solani is a parthenogenetic, thelyotokous species, and no male individual could be found in the population. There are five stages (egg, 1st-3rd instar nymphs and adult female) in the life cycle. Eggs are laid in a scattering mode, and hatched within ca. 24 min. Female adults also produce some eggs that are unhatchable. The nymphal stage lasts 14-22 d and the total life span is 33-64 d. Adult female has strong fecundity, with the number of eggs laid per female ranging from 135 to 337 (244 on average). The main morphological characteristics of each developmental stage: egg, oblong, yellow and transparent in appearance, with one pair of reddish brown compound eyes; the 1st instar nymph, also yellow in color, and moves fast; the 2nd instar nymph, protuberances appear on the marginal surface of body; the 3rd instar nymph, dark yellow in color, its protuberances become visible, and caudal valve protrudent; adult female, covered with a thick layer of white waxy powder, protuberances become more visible, body color becomes darker, and legs dark red in color. 【Conclusion】 The main biological characteristics of P. solani were clarified from the aspects of reproductive mode, developmental duration, and fecundity. The results imply that P. solani is an important and potential dangerous insect pest.
Related Articles | Metrics
Bioefficacy of the combined application of entomopathogenic nematodes and thiamethoxam and its effects on the protective and detoxification enzyme activities in Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae) larvae
WU Hai-Bin, GONG Qing-Tao, CHEN Zhen-Zhen, JIANG Li-Li, GONG Yi, XU Yong-Yu, SUN Rui-Hong
null    2018, 61 (7): 851-859.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.012
Abstract153)      PDF(pc) (3990KB)(113)       Save
【Aim】 Pathogenic organisms or chemical pesticides can induce the defense responses of insects, and the physiological adaptation of insects might differ under the combined application of pathogenic organisms and chemical pesticides. This study aims to investigate the effects of combined application of entomopathogenic nematodes and thiamethoxam on Bradysia odoriphaga. 【Methods】 The LT50 value of the combined application of Steinernema feltiae SF-SN strain (Sf) (60 IJs/larva) and thiamethoxam (15 mg/L) against the 3rd instar larvae of B. odoriphaga was determined with filter paper culture method in the laboratory, and its effects on the protein content of enzyme solution and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in B. odoriphaga larvae at different time after treatment were assayed by biochemical analysis. 【Results】 The LT50 value (41.05 h) of the combined application of Sf and thiamethoxam against the 3rd instar larvae of B. odoriphaga decreased by about 126.88 h and 31.77 h, respectively, as compared with those in treatments with the respective single agents with (Sf LT50: 167.93 h) and thiamethoxam (LT50: 72.82 h). During 24-72 h after treatment, the corrected mortality rates of B. odoriphaga larvae in the combined treatment group were significantly higher than those in treatments with the respective single agent, and reached the peak (96.61%) at 72 h. The protein contents of enzyme solution in B. odoriphaga larvae in the combined treatment group at 12, 24 and 36 h after treatment increased by 13.88%, 46.87% and 57.99%, respectively, as compared with the control group, and were significantly higher than those in the control group, Sf treatment group and thiamethoxam treatment group. The activities of SOD, CAT, AChE and GTSs in larvae in the combined treatment group decreased by 47.48%, 28.73%, 71.04% and 29.97% at 24 h after treatment, and by 46.34%, 4222%, 58.37% and 11.87% at 36 h, respectively, as compared with the control. The activities of the four enzymes in the combined treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group, Sf treatment group and thiamethoxam treatment group at 24 h and 36 h after treatment. 【Conclusion】 The LT50 value of the combined application of Sf and thiamethoxam against the 3rd instar larvae of B. odoriphaga is significantly lower than those in treatments with the respective single agent, and the combined treatment can significantly restrain the activities of SOD, CAT, AChE and GTSs in larvae.
Related Articles | Metrics
Observation of the developmental pattern and morphological change of serosal cuticle in Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) with an optimized paraffin section method
LIU Wei-Wei, LI Ren-Jian, FU Sui-Ye, DONG Qing, ZHANG Min, Zhang-Xue-Yao, ZHANG Jian-Zhen, ZHANG Ting-Ting
null    2018, 61 (6): 733-740.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.012
Abstract151)      PDF(pc) (3879KB)(159)       Save
【Aim】 The aim of this study is to optimize the paraffin section technology and to examine the developmental pattern of serosal cuticle in the early embryonic stage of Locusta migratoria. 【Methods】 The paraffin section technology for L. migratoria embryo was modified on the steps of fixation, washing, dehydration and clearing. The developmental process of serosal cuticle was analyzed with hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE staining) and fluorescent staining following paraffin section of day 3-10 embryos of L. migratoria. The katatrepsis of embryo from micropyle to tail was observed by HE staining of the paraffin sections of L. migratoria from day 6-8 embryos, which were cut longitudinally. 【Results】 The optimized paraffin section steps for L. migratoria embryo included: pretreating the egg with NaClO and punching it before fixation, then washing, dehydrating and clearing the fixed egg for 30 min, respectively. Integrative and clear sections of the whole epidermis structure of the embryonic stage were obtained by using our optimized paraffin section technology. The serosal cuticle formation and chitin deposition were completed on day 5 and began to degrade on day 8 during the embryonic stages at 30℃. The katatrepsis occurred from day 6 to day 7 in the embryonic stages, accompanied by the morphological change of serosa and serosal cuticle. 【Conclusion】 We optimized the paraffin section technology for L. migratoria embryo, and revealed the developmental pattern of serosal cuticle and katatrepsis. This study lays a foundation for studying the metabolisms of embryonic development in L. migratoria.
Related Articles | Metrics
Chemical modification of soluble trehalase from Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuiadae)
AI Dong, Lin-Rong-Hua, Wang-Meng, Liang-Xiao-He, Yu-Cai-Hong
null    2018, 61 (7): 801-807.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.006
Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (1607KB)(119)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to explore the composition of amino acid residues in the active site of soluble trehalase from Helicoverpa armigera by analyzing the effect of chemical modification on this enzyme activity. 【Methods】 Chemical modification method was used to investigate the effect of chemical modifier on the soluble trehalase activity in the 5th instar larvae of H. armigera. The number of amino acid residues in active center was obtained from the deactivation rate constant of the modification reaction. 【Results】 The soluble trehalase activity in the 5th instar larvae of H. armigera was reduced by 81.58% and 54.14% after chemical modification by 8 mmol/L carbodiimide (EDC) and 25 mmol/L phenylglyoxal (PG), respectively, indicating that the modification of carboxylic acid group and arginine residues can inhibit the soluble trehalase activity effectively. The treatment with the substrate trehalose prevented the loss of enzyme activity from the chemical modification. Kinetic studies on chemical modification showed that the active site of soluble trehalase includes one carboxylic acid group and two arginine residues. 【Conclusion】 These results indicate that two carboxylic amino acids, i.e., glutamic acid and aspartic acid, are the vital residues of the active site of the soluble trehalase, and arginine is essential for the trehalase activity. These results provide theoretical support for the development of new pesticides.
Related Articles | Metrics
Ultrastructure of waxy glands and waxy secretions in nymphs of Carsidara limbata (Hemiptera: Carsidarinae)
LI Jia-Le, REN Li-Li, LUO You-Qing
null    2018, 61 (7): 825-834.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.009
Abstract145)      PDF(pc) (5223KB)(143)       Save
【Aim】 Carsidara limbata is an insect pest that seriously damages Firmiana simplex. Observation and identification of the ultra-morphology of waxy secretions and waxy glands in C. limbata nymphs of different instars would provide a theoretical basis for the future studies on its growth and development. 【Methods】 The nymphal instars of C. limbata were determined by morphological characteristics, and the ultrastructure of waxy secretions and waxy glands in nymphs of different instars were observed using stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 【Results】 Waxy glands of C. limbata nymphs are divided into two types: one is wax-secreting pore, appearing on the integument since the 3rd instar nymph; the other is regular or irregular circular porous gland, rarely distributed in the 1st instar nymph. The gland amounts and types in late instar nymphs were more than those in early instars. Waxy secretions can be divided into four types, i.e., filamentous wax filament, hollow C-shaped wax filament, spring crimp wax filament, and hollow long wax filament. In addition, there is a circumferential hole ring at the end of the abdomen, and micro-thorn and various types of setae are distributed all over the dorsal and ventral surface of abdomen. 【Conclusion】 C. limbata nymph has four types of waxy secretions and two types of waxy glands. Their types and distribution are different among different nymphal instars. This study provides a reference for the study of waxy organs in Carsidaridae.
Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of Lygus pratensis (Hemiptera: Miridae) infestation on the nutrient contents and protective enzyme activities in host plants
GOU Chang-Qing, SUN Peng, LIU Duan-Chun, DI Li-Nuer·Ai-Mai-Ti, FENG Hong-Zu
null    2018, 61 (8): 976-983.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.08.011
Abstract144)      PDF(pc) (1343KB)(129)       Save
【Aim】 To clarify the effects of Lygus pratensis infestation on the nutrients and protective enzymes of host plants. 【Methods】 The contents of chlorophyll, soluble sugar, amino acids, and protective enzyme activities in the leaves of 10 host plants (six preference hosts with the preference in the descending order as Chenopodium glaucum, Portulaca oleracea, Amaranthus retroflexus, Medicago sativa, Kochia prostrate and Gossypium hirsutum, and four non-preference hosts including Suaeda glauca, Medicago lupulina, Convolvulus arvensis and Lepidium latifolium) infested by L. pratensis were determined, respectively, using biochemical methods. 【Results】 After the host plants were infested by L. pratensis, decreased chlorophyll contents were recorded in leaves of all the tested hosts, with the lowest decrease rate in A. retroflexus (2.6%) and the highest in M. sativa (26.21%). The soluble sugar contents varied a lot after L. pratensis infestation. The soluble sugar content in infested leaves of K. prostrata was significantly declined by 24.05%, while significantly increased by 68.92% in infested leaves of C. glaucum. Except that the free proline content in leaves of A. retroflexus was decreased by 38.87%, those in leaves of all the other host plants were stimulated by L. pratensis infestation. The protein contents in leaves of all the host plants were all decreased after L. pratensis infestation, with the lowest decline by 2.96% in A. reflexus as compared to the control (uninjured plants). The POD activities in leaves of different host plants increased after L. pratensis infestation, with the highest increase rate (74.23%) in P. oleracea. After L. pratensis infestation, the CAT activities in leaves of host plants fluctuated a lot. The CAT activities in infested leaves of C. glaucum, M. sativa and C. arvensis increased by 45.07%, 30.95% and 22.47%, respectively, as compared to the control. However, significantly decreased CAT activities were observed in infested leaves of P. oleracea and M. lupulina. Except that the SOD activities in leaves of A. lividus and M. lupulina infested by L. pratensis decreased, the SOD activities in leaves of all the other host plants were increased but showed no significant difference. 【Conclusion】 After host plants are injured by L. pratensis, the changes in the contents of chlorophyll and free proline in leaves of host plants are well correlated with the preference of L. pratensis to these hosts, while the contents of soluble sugar and protein and the protective enzyme activity have no correlation with the host preference of L. pratensis.
Related Articles | Metrics
Does body size of coccinellid predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) influence their preference to eat well-defended prey? (In English)
Priya PATEL, Bhupendra KUMAR, Dinesh KUMAR
null    2018, 61 (6): 704-711.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.06.009
Abstract140)      PDF(pc) (1214KB)(162)       Save
【Aim】 Despite the fact that coccinellids display inter- and intra-specific size variations, the question of whether size variations in coccinellid species modify their choice to eat well-defended prey (i.e., displaying various defence responses, including actively evading capture, fighting off predators or frequently using defensive chemicals) is still unclear. In present study, we hypothesized that irrespective of their size the coccinellid predators, i.e., Coccinella septempunctata (L.) (C7) and Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fab.) (Ms), would increase their consumption of a prey type [i.e., the mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)] only when prey instars would be well-defended. This is because well-defended prey instars are large and more energetic. 【Methods】 We therefore, categorized the 4th nymphal instar of L. erysimi as well-defended and the 2nd nymphal instar as poorly-defended and assessed their preference by large and small variants of the two coccinellid species. 【Results】 The results revealed higher consumption of poorly-defended instar nymphs by both female variants of Ms, while large and small females of C7 consumed higher percentage of well-defended and poorly-defended instar nymphs, respectively, on an exclusive diet of well-defended/poorly-defended prey. On a mixed diet, female variants of C7 consumed similar fraction of both the prey instar nymphs, while variants of Ms consumed higher fraction of poorly-defended instar nymphs. While consumption of both prey instar nymphs increased with the increase in size of C7 females, but consumption of only well-defended instar nymphs increased with the increase in size of Ms females. 【Conclusion】 The results therefore oppose our hypothesis and illustrate that: (i) small coccinellids are more confined to poorly-defended prey instar nymphs while large coccinellids selectively consume well-defended prey instar nymphs; and (ii) within and between coccinellid species, preference for well-defended prey instars increases with the increase in size of predators. Results may be utilized for mass rearing of these coccinellids in laboratories for augmentative biocontrol of mustard aphids.
Related Articles | Metrics
Contents of Vol. 61 Issue 5
null    2018, 61 (5): 627-627.  
Abstract133)      PDF(pc) (476KB)(142)       Save
Related Articles | Metrics
Effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Coreidae) adults
CHEN Ju-Hong, CUI Juan, ZHANG Jin-Ping, BI Rui, GAO Yu, XU Wei, SHI Shu-Sen
null    2018, 61 (9): 1003-1009.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.001
Abstract132)      PDF(pc) (1470KB)(199)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in adults of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. 【Methods】 The activities of five key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism, i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycerol-3-phosphate (GDH), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD), citrate synthase (CS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in R. pedestris adults exposed to different temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36℃) for 4 h in scotophase were assayed by using biochemical methods. 【Results】 The results showed that the activities of the five key enzymes in R.pedestris adults increased first and then decreased as the temperature increased. The CS activities at 16 and 28℃ differed significantly between males and females, being higher in females than in males at 16℃, but lower in females than in males at 28℃. The LDH activities in males were higher than those in females at 36℃, suggesting that there are significant differences between males and females in the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism at low temperature and in the anaerobic glycolysis at high temperature. The ratios of GAPDH activity to HOAD activity in adult males and females exposed to different temperatures were much higher than 1.0, indicating that R. pedestri adults mainly consume carbohydrates in respiratory metabolism at the test temperatures. 【Conclusion】 In the temperature range from 16℃ to 36℃, with the increase of temperature, the activities of key enzymes involved in respiratory metabolism in female and male adults of R. pedestris increase at first, and then decrease. R. pedestris can adjust its respiratory metabolic intensity to some extent to adapt to temperature change.
Related Articles | Metrics
Regulation of the trehalose content in diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
Wang-Jia, FAN Huan, XIONG Ke-Cai, LIU Ying-Hong
null    2018, 61 (9): 1010-1018.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.002
Abstract128)      PDF(pc) (1945KB)(131)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to compare the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of key enzymes in trehalose biosynthesis and catabolism pathway, and the expression levels of genes encoding these key enzymes among pupae at pre-diapause, diapause, and post-diapause stages, and between diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax. 【Methods】 The contents of trehalose and glucose, and the activities of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), and trehalase (Tre) in B. minax pupae in pupae at the pre-diapause stage (1 d-old pupae), diapause stage (30, 60 and 90 d-old pupae), and postdiapause stage (120 and 150 d-old pupae) were compared using spectrophotometry, and the expression levels of TPS, TPPB, TPPC-1, TPPC-2, and Tre-1 were determined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the neonate pupae were injected with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) as the treatment (injected with 10% ethanol as the control), and the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of key enzymes and the expression levels of the above genes at 1 and 30 d after injection were compared between the treatment and control groups. 【Results】 When B. minax pupae entered diapause, their trehalose content significantly increased, while their glucose content changed marginally as compared with those of pre- and post-diapause stages. The TPS and TPP activities and the expression levels of TPS, TPPC-1 and TPPC-2 increased gradually after pupation and reached the highest level during the diapause stage, then significantly decreased before adult emergence. The expression level of TPPB did not change significantly throughout the pupal stage. The Tre activity and the expression level of Tre-1 gradually increased after pupation and reached the highest level at the early diapause stage, then significantly decreased, followed by a significant increase before adult emergence. At 1 d after 20E injection, in pupae of the treatment group the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of TPS, TPP and Tre, and the expression levels of TPS, TPPC-2 and Tre-1 only changed slightly, while the expression level of TPPB significantly decreased and that of TPPC-1 significantly increased as compared to the control group. At 30 d after injection, in non-diapausing pupae of the treatment group the trehalose content increased significantly, the glucose content, the TPS and Tre activities, and the expression levels of TPS and Tre1 significantly decreased, while the TPP activity, and the expression levels of TPPB and TPPC-2 did not change significantly as compared to those in diapausing pupae of the control group. 【Conclusion】 The trehalose content in B. minax pupae varies with diapause status under the regulation of key enzymes in trehalose biosynthesis and catabolism pathway, displaying the close relationship between trehalose and diapause. The underlying mechanisms, however, need further investigation.
Related Articles | Metrics
Advances in nocturnal pollinating moths
YANG Xiao-Fei, ZHU Lin, LI Hou-Hun
null    2018, 61 (9): 1087-1096.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.010
Abstract127)      PDF(pc) (4137KB)(104)       Save
Moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in ecosystems. They, as a key composition in global diversity, have considerable impacts on ecoenvironment. The majority of them are nocturnal insects. However, studies on nocturnal pollination biology to date have largely been ignored. Their contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been underappreciated. In this article, we made a systematic review of the studies of nocturnal pollinating moths across the world, mainly including the diversification, distinction between nocturnal and diurnal pollination, research methods, and pollination biology and ecology. The results showed that, up to June 2018, there were 596 species of moths, involving 29 families of 15 superfamilies of Lepidoptera, which have been recorded for flower visit or pollination. Both nocturnal and diurnal pollinators and pollinated plants have obvious adaptive characteristics in morphology. The research methods of nocturnal moths include the light trap, sample section counting, observation and some technical methods derived therefrom. It is hoped that this review will provide a useful reference for the study of the interaction between pollinators and entomophilous plants in China.
Related Articles | Metrics
Isolation and identification of intestinal bacteria and screening of cellulolytic bacteria in Proisotoma ananevae (Collembola: Isotomidae)
WANG Li-Xiu, CHEN Wei, XIE Gui-Lin, ZHOU Liang
null    2018, 61 (7): 835-842.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.010
Abstract122)      PDF(pc) (2135KB)(112)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to determine the composition of intestinal bacteria in Proisotoma ananevae and to screen the cellulolytic bacteria. 【Methods】 The intestinal bacteria in P. ananevae adults were isolated and identified with traditional culturing method in combination with 16S rRNA sequencing. The cellulolytic bacteria were screened with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) plate media, and the cellulase activity was measured by 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid (DNS) method under different pH conditions (pH 5.0-9.0). 【Results】 We isolated twenty bacterial strains from the intestinal tract of P. ananevae adults, which belong to 10 genera of three major phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Acinobacteria, i.e., Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Terribacillus, Advenella, Lysinibacillus, Arthrobacter, Enterobacter, Glutamicibacter, Leucobacter and Acinetobacter, and one unidentified bacterium. Among them, 10 strains were cellulolytic bacteria belonging to 6 genera of Firmicutes and Acinobacteria, i.e., Leucobacter, Bacillus, Terribacillus, Lysinibacillus, Arthrobacter and Glutamicibacter. The cellulase activities in all the cellulolytic strains were relatively higher under pH 7.0-9.0 and reached the maximum under pH 8.0. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the bacteria in the intestinal tract of P. ananevae adults have complex structure. The presence of a large number of cellulolytic strains in P. ananevae, the disintegrator in ecosystem, not only helps springtails use macromolecules to meet their own nutrition requirements, but also has important application value especially in feed production and industrial application.
Related Articles | Metrics
Development of SSR primers for Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes (Diptera: Simuliidae) based on RNA-seq dataset
GUO Huan, WANG Gang, ZHANG Shu-Tian, HUANG Min
null    2018, 61 (7): 815-824.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.008
Abstract122)      PDF(pc) (1693KB)(129)       Save
【Aim】 Simulium (Eusimulium) angustipes is a bloodthirsty species that transmits poultry diseases. In this study, S. (E.) angustipes transcriptomes were sequenced using RNA-seq technology, and the SSRs were developed using transcriptome datasets, which may serve as reliable molecular markers for population genetics research of simuliids. 【Methods】 Transcriptome database of S. (E.) angustipes larvae collected from Baoji of Shaanxi and Altay of Xinjiang was constructed. The software MISA was used to explore all the microsatellite loci in the unigene database of S. (E.) angustipes. Primers were designed using software Primer Premier 5.0 and Oligo 6.7 from the SSR loci chosen randomly. After PCR procedure and electrophoresis detection, the primers with polymorphism for SSR were screened and analyzed using Cervus 3.0.7 and other bioinformatics softwares. Unigenes with polymorphic SSR loci were annotated using BlastX against Nr and Swiss-Prot databases. 【Results】 A total of 29 471 SSRs were identified in S. (E.) angustipes transcriptome. The most frequent repeat motifs were mononucleotide motifs (87.05%), followed by trinucleotide motifs (7.95%). Among all the 34 SSR motifs, (A/T)n was the most abundant mononucleotide motif (86.93%). SSR primers were synthesized, and 15 primers were amplified successfully, of which 12 loci were polymorphic. BlastX results indicated that seven SSR loci were identified from the annotated genes. 【Conclusion】 Based on RNA-seq sequencing technology, we can better realize the development of SSRs for S. (E.) angustipes, which is of great significance to the study of population genetics of this group.
Related Articles | Metrics
Change of carbohydrate, protein and lipid contents in Galeruca daurica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) adults during oversummering
CHEN Long, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, GAO Li-Jun, TAN Yao, PANG Bao-Ping
null    2018, 61 (7): 808-814.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.07.007
Abstract122)      PDF(pc) (1340KB)(121)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the characteristics of main physiological and biochemical change in Galeruca daurica adults at different oversummering stages so as to lay a foundation for revealing the oversummering mechanism. 【Methods】 The contents of total sugar, trehalose, glycogen, lipid and water in G. daurica adults at different oversummering stages (pre-oversummering, during oversummering and post-oversummering) were determined by anthrone-sulfuric acid and methanol-chloroform methods, respectively, and the total protein content was detected by Coomassie brilliant blue G-250 method. 【Results】 The contents of total sugar, water and total protein in G. daurica adults were significantly higher at the pre-oversummering stage (26.81 μg/mg, 77.47% and 63.17 μg/mg, respectively) and post-oversummering stage (26.41-26.85 μg/mg, 75.29%-76.65% and 59.53-64.93 μg/mg, respectively) than during oversummering (18.77-21.14 μg/mg, 61.50%-67.20% and 39.82-52.54 μg/mg, respectively), whereas the change trend of glycogen contents was the opposite, being 8.43 μg/mg at the pre-oversummering stage, 5.91-6.14 μg/mg at the post-oversummering stage and 10.18-11.58 μg/mg during oversummering, respectively, and the content of lipid was significantly less at the post-summering stage (11.48%-11.65%) than at the pre-oversummering stage (42.48%) and during oversummering (36.05%-64.79%). The contents of lipid and total protein decreased gradually in G. daurica adults during oversummering, while the water, total sugar and glycogen contents showed no obvious change. The trehalose content in G. daurica adults at different oversummering stages fluctuated greatly from 2.66 μg/mg to 25.31 μg/mg. 【Conclusion】 Lipid and glycogen are the main energy materials of G. daurica adults during oversummering.
Related Articles | Metrics
Advances in biology, chemical ecology and control of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)
LI Feng-Qi1, #, FU Ning-Ning, ZHANG Lian-Zhong, JIAO Meng-Meng, PENG Ling-Fei, XU Yi-Hua, LUO Chen
null    2018, 61 (9): 1076-1086.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.009
Abstract118)      PDF(pc) (2401KB)(163)       Save
 The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, is an important invasive pest, obligately infesting Platanus spp. trees. This pest, a native species to North America, was introduced to Europe in 1960s. In China it was first found in Hunan province in 2002, and has spread to Hubei, Shanghai, Shandong, Henan and Beijing, causing heavy infestations. Researchers have found that the sycamore lace bug specifically damaged Platanus spp. trees, causing chlorotic or bronzed foliage and premature senescence of leaves. In addition, this pest has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high and low temperatures. In recent years, the research on pheromones of C. ciliata has gradually attracted people’s attention. Many bioactive molecules and genes associated have been identified, providing a basis for ecological control of this pest. In this article, we reviewed the research progresses of this species, focusing on its biology, damage characteristics, propagation patterns, chemical ecology, environmental adaptability, and prevention and control methods, and brought forward the future research directions of development of integrated pest management technologies for managing this pest so as to provide a reference for researchers in this field.
Related Articles | Metrics
Advances in the adaption to plant defenses in phytophagous insects
ZHAO Chan, ZHANG Peng-Jun, YU Li-Xing, YU Xiao-Ping
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (1): 124-132.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.013
Abstract117)      PDF(pc) (1370KB)(194)       Save

In the process of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, plants are selected to optimize their defenses, whereas phytophagous insects are selected to develop diverse traits to adapt to plant defenses in turn. The adaption to plant defenses in phytophagous insects exhibits diversity. Insects can exploit the effectors from their oral secretions to inhibit or impair plant defenses, activate some proteins that are specifically expressed in their guts to inhibit the production of defensive metabolites or directly degrade defensive metabolites, and employ microbes that they harbored to indirectly suppress plant defenses. In addition, insects also can adapt to plant defenses with other behavioral or physiological traits, including oviposition, insect-induced plant volatiles, and recognition of defensive metabolites. In this article, we reviewed the research progress on how insects exploit diverse effectors that they harbored to adapt to plant defenses.

Related Articles | Metrics
Identification of fatty acid desaturase genes in Hemetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and their evolutionary pattern in Diptera
LIU Gui-Fen, FANG Gang-Qi, ZHAN Shuai, HUANG Yong-Ping
null    2018, 61 (8): 905-913.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.08.003
Abstract111)      PDF(pc) (2744KB)(88)       Save
【Aim】To identify fatty acid desaturase (FAD) genes in the whole genome of Hermetia illucens, and to investigate their spatiotemporal expression patterns and evolutionary pattern in representative dipteran insects. 【Methods】 The amino acid sequences of FAD genes of Drosophila melanogaster were downloaded from FlyBases and used as seed sequences to search for FAD genes in H. illucens and several other representative species of Diptera by the local Blastp program across the whole genome. The phylogenetic tree of the FAD genes across several dipteran species was constructed by a neighbor-joining method (NJ) with MEGA7. 0. The expression patterns of FAD genes in representative tissues and developmental stages were determined based on the transcriptome data of H. illucens and were further verified using RT-PCR. 【Results】 In this study, a total of 13 FAD genes in the whole genome of H. illucens were identified and annotated with general characteristics. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that gene duplication occurs in partial H. illucens FAD genes, such as HillFAD-10 and HillFAD-12, and HillFAD-9 and HillFAD-11. In contrast, we also found that partial FAD genes, such as HillFAD-5 and HillFAD-6, present a consistent evolutionary pattern in dipteran species, suggesting that they are relatively conserved and may play general roles in dipteran species. Transcriptome data analyses and RT-PCR results revealed that most FAD genes showed different expression patterns during the growth and development of H. illucens, e.g., HillFAD-2 and HillFAD-6 were expressed in embryo, larval, pupal and adult stages, HillFAD-3 were mainly expressed during the late embryo and the 4th instar larval stage while HillFAD-4 showed low expression levels in the whole developmental satge, suggesting that the FAD genes may play distinctive roles in the metamorphosis development process of H. illuences. 【Conclusion】 Our study not only identified the whole set of FAD genes in the whole genome of H. illucens, but also reconstructed their evolutionary pattern across dipteran species, enabling us to better understand the role of FAD in the ecological adaptation in Diptera. The expression patterns of FAD genes uncovered in this study also provide preliminary insights into the lipid metabolism in this important resource insect species.
Related Articles | Metrics