• Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
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Behavioral change, physiological modification, and metabolic detoxification: mechanisms of insecticide resistance ( In English)
LIU Nan-Nan, ZHU Fang, XU Qiang, Julia W. PRIDGEON, GAO Xi-Wu
   2006, 49 (4): 671-679.  
Abstract4234)      PDF(pc) (315KB)(9472)       Save
Insecticide resistance is “the development of an ability in a strain of some organisms to tolerate doses of a toxicant which would prove lethal to a majority of individuals in a normal population of the same species". Mechanisms of resistance, such as behavioral change, physiological modification or metabolic detoxification, decrease the effective dose available at the target site. Behavioral resistance is defined as any behavior that reduces an insect's exposure to toxic compounds or that allows an insect to survive in an environment that is harmful and/or fatal to the majority of insects. Physiological modification mechanisms permit insects to survive lethal doses of a toxicant through decreased penetration of insecticides, increased sequestration/storage of insecticides, and accelerated excretion of insecticides. Metabolic detoxification is conferred by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (cytochrome P450s), hydrolases, and glutathione transferases (GSTs). Cytochrome P450s constitute the largest gene superfamily and are critical for the detoxification and/or activation of xenobiotics and the metabolism of endogenous compounds. Increased P450-mediated detoxification has been found in many insect species, resulting in enhanced insecticide resistance. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) are soluble dimeric proteins involved in the metabolism, detoxification, and excretion of a large number of endogenous and exogenous compounds. Elevated GST activities have been implicated in resistance in many insect species. Hydrolases or esterases, a group of heterogeneous enzymes, have been identified as the active agents promoting hydrolase-mediated resistance that protect insects by either binding and sequestering insecticides through overproduction of proteins, or enhancing the metabolism of insecticides through increased enzyme activities.
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Characterization, classification and phylogenetic analysis of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
XU Hong-En, HAN Min-Jin, ZHANG Hua-Hao, SHEN Yi-Hong, XIANG Zhong-Huai, ZHANG Ze
   2011, 54 (11): 1211-1222.  
Abstract5463)      PDF(pc) (8638KB)(8978)       Save
In eukaryotes, transposable elements (TEs) constitute a large fraction of a genome. TEs are usually classified into two classes based on their transposition mechanisms. ClassⅠ elements use an RNA-mediated mode of transposition, while classⅡ elements (transposons) use a DNA-mediated mode of “cut and paste” transposition. ClassⅠ elements are further divided into two subclasses: the elements that are characterized by long terminal repeats (LTR retrotransposons) and the elements that lack terminal repeats (non-LTR retrotransposons). In order to reveal the classification and evolution of LTR retrotransposons, we identified LTR retrotransposons in the domesticated silkworm ( Bombyx mori) using de novo and homology search approaches and found 38 families in the silkworm genome, of which 6 families are novel. The sequences of these families constitute 0.64% of the whole genome, which is much less than that previously reported. We also found that 26 of 38 families have EST evidence, implying that they had potential activity. Then RT-PCR was performed to validate the expressions of 11 families (6 families have EST evidence and 5 families have no EST evidence), and the results showed that these 11 families were expressed in some tissues, further supporting their transcriptional activities. Based on these results, we speculated that most of LTR retrotransposon families in the silkworm genome have potential activity. We estimated the insertion time of LTR retrotransposons, and found that most of them were inserted into the silkworm genome within the past million years. A comparison of Ty3/Gypsy superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and B. mori showed that this superfamily experienced different expansion patterns. Given the importance of LTR retrotransposon activity in the evolution of other genomes, our results provide some insights into the roles of LTR in insect genome evolution.
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The main processes and molecular mechanisms of wing disc development and differentiation in Drosophila
OU Jun, ZHENG Si-Chun, FENG Qi-Li, LIU Lin
   2013, 56 (8): 917-924.  
Abstract4025)      PDF(pc) (13844KB)(8163)       Save
The development and differentiation of wing disc is closely related with the ontogeny of insects, and the study on wing disc is helpful to understand the development of insects. Pests with the ability of flight can cause great loss to agriculture and forestry every year, so the study on the development and differentiation of their wing may help to find new targets to control them. The development and differentiation of wing disc in Drosophila was well elucidated. It includes four main processes: definition of wing disc, establishment of A-P and D-V organizing centers, definition of wing region, and differentiation of wing region. Homeobox genes [such as engrailed ( En), apterous (Ap), and Ultrabithorax ( Ubx)], secretory proteins [such as Wnt family member Wingless (Wg), and TGF-β superfamily members Decapentaplegic (Dpp) and Hedgehog (Hh)] and wing disc specific nuclear protein coding gene Vestigial ( Vg) are involved in normal development and differentiation of wing disc. In this article, the research findings on the development and differentiation of Drosophila wing disc and the related molecular mechanisms were reviewed.
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Cloning of serine protease gene AlSP4 and its expression patterns after feeding on different host plants in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)
SUN Yang, BAI Li-Xin, ZHANG Yong-Jun, XIAO Liu-Bin, TAN Yong-An, WU Guo-Qiang
   2012, 55 (6): 641-650.  
Abstract4052)      PDF(pc) (15314KB)(7741)       Save
Some serine proteases, such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, are important digestive enzymes in the digestive system of mirid bugs. In order to better understand the role of serine proteases in the digestive system of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum (Meyer-Dür), we cloned the cDNA encoding serine protease of A. lucorum for the first time in the laboratory, which was named as AlSP4 (GenBank accession no. JQ609682). The results of sequence analysis showed that the open reading frame (ORF) of AlSP4 is 999 bp in length, encoding a 332-amino-acid peptide, with the predicted molecular weight (MW) of 36.84 kDa and the theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 5.35, and the predicted N-terminal hydrophobic region containing 16 amino acid residues displays the typical feature of a signal peptide. Protein signature analysis revealed that the protein encoded by AlSP4 shares typical structural features of serine proteases with other insects, including His, Asp, and Ser residues for the catalytic amino acid triad of active sites of serine proteases. Putative trypsin precursors from the encoded protein of AlSP4 cDNA contain a signal peptide, activation peptide, and conserved N-termini (IVGG). By the Real-time PCR technique, we determined the expression pattern of AlSP4 in A. lucorum fed on different hosts. The expression level of AlSP4 was the highest in female adult A. lucorum fed on Bt cottons, significantly higher than that fed on conventional cotton ( P<0.01). The expression of AlSP4 increased significantly in male adult A. lucorum fed on Bt cottons, its expression level was only lower than that fed on garland chrysanthemum and significantly higher than that fed on conventional cottons ( P<0.01). Therefore, AlSP4 is the important digestive enzyme gene for adult A. lucorum to feed on Bt cottons, and plays an important role in adaption of A. lucorum to survive on Bt cottons.
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Cloning and analysis of the expression characteristics under heat stress of Hsp90 gene in the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
SHEN Jian-Ru, LI Ming-Fu, CHEN Nai-Zhong, WANG Jin-Jun, WAN Fang-Hao
   2011, 54 (11): 1236-1248.  
Abstract3469)      PDF(pc) (11878KB)(7117)       Save
The codling moth, Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a worldwide quarantine pest and possesses the plasticity in thermotolerance ability. The temperature fluctuations may enhance its tolerance to heat stress. In the present study, we determined the critical threshold of tolerance to high temperature by bioassay method in C. pomonella laboratory population, and applied the techniques of homology-based cloning, RACE and real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) to elucidate the function of Hsp90 responding to heat stress in C. pomonella. The results of bioassay showed that the mortality of C. pomonella was significantly increased as temperature was elevated and time prolonged. When the 1st-5th instar larvae were exposed to 50℃ and 52℃ for 2, 5 and 10 min, the 3rd instar larvae were found to be the most sensitive and the 5th instar larvae the most resistant. The 1st-4th instar larvae were killed 100% when exposed to 50℃ for 10 min and 52℃ for 5 min, while the survival rate of 5th instar larvae still maintained at 25.0% and 11.1%, respectively. The full-length cDNA of hsp90 gene was obtained from the 5th instar larvae of C. pomonella exposed to 35℃, which is 2 470 bp in length and has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 148 bp encoding a protein of 716 amino acids with the deduced molecular weight of 82.07 kDa. This gene was registered in GenBank under the accession number JN624775 and designated as Cphsp90. CpHsp90 shares 96% amino acid sequence identity with the Hsp90 from Ostrinia furnacalis and Mamestra brassicae, suggesting that the Hsp90 family is highly conserved. The result of RT-qPCR showed that the Cphsp90 was heat inducible, and the relative expression level of Cphsp90 mRNA was positively correlated with the heat stress when the larvae were exposed to 32-44℃ for 1 h. When the larvae of C. pomonella were exposed to 35℃, Cphsp90 was expressed abundantly in cuticle with the expression level significantly higher than that in the hemolymph, fat body and midgut. The result of the mRNA expression pattern of the Cphsp90 under higher temperature after pretreatment at 35℃ for 3 h indicated that the maximum expression level in the larvae preheated was induced at higher temperature (45℃ for 10 min) compared with the larvae not preheated (40℃ for 10 min). This result further proved that preheat treatment enhanced the thermotolerance of 5th instar larvae. It is so concluded that the positive expression of the Cphsp90 mRNA may play an important role in theromotolerance and the plasticity of C. pomonella.
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Phylogenetic analysis of genera of the tribe Blaptini based on the characteristics of defensive glands (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
LIU Chao, Ren-Guo-Dong
   2012, 55 (10): 1205-1220.  
Abstract2897)      PDF(pc) (13853KB)(6539)       Save
The phylogenetic systematics of 65 species of Blaptini (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) belonging to 16 genera (including 7 new recorded genera) was dealt with based on the structure of defensive glands. The characteristics of the glands at the genera and tribal level including gland position, shape, length, width, distance between the two glands, thickness of glands, surface fingerprint whorl and wrinkles were summarized. The phylogenetic relationship of the 16 genera was established using SPSS19.0 and Hennig86 program (version 1.5). The result showed that the evolutionary relationship should be as follows: Prosodes>Blaptogonia>Tagonoides>Thaumatoblaps>Caenoblaps>Agnaptoria>Asidoblaps>Coelocnemodes>Dila>Gnaptor>Blaps>Pseudognaptorina> Nalepa>Belousovia>Gnaptorina>Itagonia. The result supports the geographic distribution feature of this group. The 16 genera of Blaptini were clearly separated based on the phylogeny of defensive glands’ morphological data, suggesting that these characteristics have important value in taxonomy.
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Synergism of insecticides by enzyme inhibitors in the resistant populations of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) ( In English)
   2009, 52 (6): 631-639.  
Abstract3534)      PDF(pc) (1223KB)(6028)       Save
The effect of enzyme inhibitors piperonyl butoxide (PBO) and tribufos (DEF) was studied in combination with insecticides profenofos, methomyl, thiodicarb, cypermethrin, λ-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, indoxacarb, and spinosad in the resistant Pakistani populations of Spodoptera litura using a leaf-dip bioassay. Both the inhibitors synergised carbamates methomyl and thiodicarb but showed no synergistic effect on an organophosphate profenofos. These inhibitors produced a synergism with cypermethrin but had no synergism with bifenthrin. PBO and DEF enhanced the toxicity of λ-cyhalothrin and indoxacarb in one population but not in the other. Spinosad was synergised by DEF but not by PBO. The potent synergism of carbamates, pyrethroids, indoxacarb and spinosad by PBO and DEF in the present study indicates that detoxification by cytochrome P450 monooxygenases and esterases is at least partially involved in imparting resistance to these insecticides in S. litura. However, a limited synergism of insecticides shown by both the synergists implies that other mechanisms such as target site insensitivity and reduced cuticular penetration may be more important mechanisms of resistance in the Pakistani populations of S. litura.
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Morphological observation of compound eyes in the mutant strains, lustrous ( lu) and varnished eye ( ve), of the silkworm ( Bombyx mori)
LI Qiong-Yan, LIU Chun, XUN Li-Jie, LI Dong, DANG Zeng-Qiang, Lü Jin-Feng, XIA Qing-You
   2013, 56 (4): 350-357.  
Abstract3024)      PDF(pc) (14899KB)(5444)       Save
The lustrous ( lu) and varnished eye ( ve) are recessive single-gene mutants in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. So far, the mechanisms of the mutation and mutant genes are unknown. Using the wild-type strain Dazao (Dz) as the wild-type control, we observed the surface morphology of adult compound eyes and larval ocelli in lu and ve by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and the internal structures with paraffin sections and HE staining technology. The results showed that the surface morphology of the compound eyes in lu and ve except the typical characteristic of luster are significantly different from the normal, including the shape and size, and the shape, arrangement and quantities of ommatidia in lu and ve are also different from the control. The cornea, crystalline cone, rhabdom and pigment cell structures are abnormal, but not the same in lu and ve. Not only the surface of compound eyes has changed, but their internal structure has varied largely in lu and ve. This study provides helpful data for cloning mutant genes from lu and ve and clarifying the mechanisms of the mutations.
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Cloning and functional analysis of bursicon genes in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
MA Xiao-Li, HE Wei-Yi, YOU Yan-Chun, LI Xiao-Jing, XU Xiu-Feng, HU Yu-Lan, YANG Guang, YOU Min-Sheng
   2013, 56 (10): 1101-1109.  
Abstract2444)      PDF(pc) (28396KB)(5342)       Save
Bursicon is a neurohormone that regulates cuticle sclerotization (tanning and hardening) and the wing expansion processes in insects. Although bursicon genes have been well characterized from several insect species or predicted from insect genomes, bursicon and its genes in the diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella, remain poorly understood. In this study, two bursicon genes, Pxbursα and Pxbursβ (GenBank accession numbers: KF498645 and KF498646, respectively), were cloned from P. xylostella with the fulllength cDNA of 537 bp and 360 bp, respectively. The nucleotide sequence identities of Pxbursα and Pxbursβ with the bursicon genes from other insect species range from 51% to 68%, and 37% to 57%, respectively. Based on qRT-PCR results, we found that bursicon genes were expressed at a higher level in pupae, but at lower levels in larvae and adults. When the 4th-instar larvae were fed with double-stranded RNA of Pxbursα, the expression of Pxbursα in pupae subsequently declined significantly. Thus, the development of pupae was seriously delayed, and pupae died before eclosion. We inferred that higher level expression of Pxburs genes in pupae might play a key role in the metamorphosis and wing expansion of P. xylostella.
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Life table of the parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), under different environmental variables ( In English)
   2013, 56 (11): 1286-1293.  
Abstract2167)      PDF(pc) (6675KB)(5021)       Save
The present study was aimed to understand the patterns in the development, survival and mortality of the immature stages of parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister along with the behavioural patterns associated with them under different environmental variables. This may aid in the improved mass multiplication of this weed biocontrol agent. For the purpose, life table of Z. bicolorata, a defoliator and biocontrol agent of a parthenium weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L., was studied in the laboratory under environmental variables, like food, temperature, photoperiod and different wavelengths of light. Kappa value, as mortality indicator, was lowest when beetles at various life stages were fed on inflorescence of weed, followed by leaves and stem, while the generation survival was highest on inflorescence. Temperature significantly affected the mortality and survival rate of key life stages of the beetle. Kappa value was lowest when beetles at immature stages were reared at 27℃, followed by 30, 25, 20 and 35℃. The generation survival and survival rate followed the same pattern. Mortality was significantly influenced by different photoperiods and it was least with best generation survival at 14L∶10D (long day) followed by 12L∶12D (equinox), 10L∶14D (short day), 24L∶0D (continuous light) and 0L∶24D (continuous dark). In response to different wavelengths of light, Kappa value was lowest with highest generation survival under white light (broad spectrum), followed by yellow (λ= ca. 570 nm), blue (λ= ca. 475 nm) and red (λ= ca. 650 nm). Egg experienced highest mortality. The life stages of the beetle can be best reared under long day white light at 27℃ feeding on inflorescence of parthenium. Mortality trend was rigidly and significantly stage-specific, showing an innate survival effect which was independent from the factors studied. 
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Neuron mechanism of olfactory perception in mosquitoes
LU Peng-Fei, QIAO Hai-Li, LUO You-Qing
   2013, 56 (1): 88-97.  
Abstract4674)      PDF(pc) (15904KB)(4879)       Save
 Mosquitoes are highly dependent on their olfactory system for chemical communication with the external environment including searching for foods, mating partners and oviposition sites. This article reviews the research progress on neuron projection mechanism of olfactory system to odor signals in mosquitoes. Olfactory appendages in moquitoes include antennae and maxillary palps that carry a variety of sensilla. Sensilla trichodea and sensilla grooved-peg in the antennae are sensitive to ammonia, L-lactic acid and carboxylic acids. The grooved peg sensilla in the maxillary palp are sensitive to carbon dioxide. These sensilla house olfactory receptor neurons (ORNs) in which olfactory receptor proteins are embedded. Host detection in mosquitoes starts with interactions between odorants and receptor proteins present on the dendritic membrane of the ORNs. ORNs are divided into different functional classes based on the response spectra to different odours. ORNs project to different glomerular areas of the antennal lobe (AL) in the deuterocerebrum of the central nervous system. The antennal lobe glomeruli in different response area are identified. The neuron signal is finally transduced to projection neuron (PN) in the potocerebrum and elicits the behaviour response of mosquitoes. These researches shed light on the neuron transduction channel of odor signal in olfactory system in mosquitoes. These results are very important for us to understand not only olfactory system in mosquitoes but also the odor perception mechanism of other insect species and human, and are helpful for further exploration in neuron science.
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Progress in the molecular mechanisms of the innate immune responses in insects
ZHANG Ming-Ming, CHU Yuan, ZHAO Zhang-Wu, AN Chun-Ju
   2012, 55 (10): 1221-1229.  
Abstract3615)      PDF(pc) (5441KB)(4379)       Save
Insects lack acquired immune system processed by vertebrates, and rely solely on developed innate immune system to defend against the infection from alien pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, or virus and so on. In this article, we review the progress in the molecular mechanisms of the development and action of the innate immune responses in insects, especially focusing on the roles and functioning mechanisms of some important immunerelated molecules. The innate immune response in insects is divided into humoral immunity and cellular immunity. They function together to kill and eliminate the pathogens via phagocytosis, nodulation, encapsulation, coagulation, and melanization. When the insects are infected by the alien pathogens, the pattern recognition proteins/receptor (PRPs) in insects would firstly recognize and combine with pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) in the pathogens, and then initiate the activation and regulation of a series of innate immune response containing immune-related serine proteases and serine protease inhibitors, and finally trigger the production of the immune effectors, such as antimicrobial peptides, melanin and so on, to kill the alien pathogens. The antimicrobial peptides are a kind of cationic peptides with low molecular weight, and have a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. They are produced via various mechanisms based on the types of invading pathogens. There are two signal transduction pathways regulating the production of antimicrobial peptides: Toll pathway activated by fungi and most of gram-positive bacteria, and Imd pathway initiated by gram-negative bacteria. These two pathways are contributed to the expression of different antimicrobial peptides due to the activation of different transcription factors.
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Identification and comparative analysis of immune-related genes and signaling pathways in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
   2009, 52 (3): 235-245.  
Abstract4272)      PDF(pc) (1628KB)(4287)       Save
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has been a domesticated, economically important insect for 5 000 years. Recent accomplishments in molecular immunology have revealed just a preliminary outline for silkworm innate immunity. The acquisition of the updated silkworm genome has enabled a comparative analysis of the silkworm immune-related genes and signaling pathways. In this study, through comparing with the sequenced Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera and Tribolium castaneum genomes, we identified over 218 genes in the silkworm that fall into 21 families involved in immune defense, including pattern recognition receptors, signaling transducers, effectors and oxidative defense enzymes. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the signal transducers have remarkable orthologous relationships between different insect species in spite of the divergent sequences. In contrast, gene families associated with recognition, modulation and effectors exhibit more significant sequence conservation. However, the orthologs of these families are remarkably absent, presumably attributable to the lineage-specific gene duplication. Our results suggest that common mechanisms may be responsible for innate-immunity responses to pathogens via signaling pathways in the silkworm. Furthermore, hosts may adjust their defensive strategies by gene duplication and sequence divergence to kill pathogens.
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Cloning and expression profiling of an attacin gene in response to cold stress in the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
LI Jie-Qiong, LU Xue-Ying, LIU Xiao-Ning, MA Ji
   2013, 56 (12): 1381-1390.  
Abstract2772)      PDF(pc) (10766KB)(4155)       Save
 Cold acclimation usually alters gene expression in insects. Extensive studies from the genomic level will help to fully understand the molecular mechanism of insects in response to cold. In order to get the further information about the up-regulated attacin gene ( MpAttacin1) obtained from the transcriptomic data generated at 4℃ from the desert beetle Microdera punctipennis, and to analyze the responsive expression of this gene induced by low temperature, MpAttacin1 was characterized by bioinformatic analysis. Real-time quantitative PCR was performed to detect the mRNA level of MpAttacin1 at low temperatures. The results showed that the obtained MpAttacin1 cDNA is 523 bp with an open reading frame of 456 bp and the 5′-untranslated region of 66 bp. It encodes a polypeptide of 151 amino acid residues containing a putative signal polypeptide of 17 amino acids at the N terminal end. Homology analysis showed that the encoded product of this gene shares 30%-40% identity at the amino acid level with attacins from other insects of Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Coleoptera. The phylogenetic tree generated by Neighbor-Joining method indicated that MpAttacin1 and attacin proteins from other coleopterans are descended from a common ancestor, and they belong to Attacin_C superfamily. Analysis of realtime quantitative PCR showed that the expression of MpAttacin1 presented a stress-response tendency when stressed at both 4℃ and -4℃, increasing first and then decreasing. However, there were differences in their responsive time and strength between these two treatments. The mRNA level of MpAttacin1 at 4℃ for 5 h and 9 h was 2.3- and 3.8-fold as high as that of the control at room temperature, respectively, while that at -4℃ for 7 h and 9 h was 2.4- and 1.5-fold as high as that of the control, respectively. The results suggest that in addition to the typical function as an anti-microbial peptide, attacin may also be involved in cold adaptation in insects.
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Mite fauna associated with button mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) in Karaj Region, Iran
Katayoon KHERADMAND, Karim KAMALI, Yaghoub FATHIPOUR, Edward UECKERMANN, Ebrahim Mohammadi GOLTAPEH
   2007, 50 (4): 416-422.  
Abstract3283)      PDF(pc) (275KB)(4009)       Save
The mites occurring on button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) in Karaj region of Iran were studied. Seventeen species belonging to three orders and nine families of mycophagus, predaceous and saprophagus mites were found, during a survey conducted from the spring 2004 to summer of 2006. The mites species were: Macrocheles glaber (Müller), Macrocheles merdarius (Berlese), Macrocheles subbadius (Berlese), Parasitus coleoptratorum* (Linnaeus), Parasitus fimetorum (Berlese), Parasitus mammillatus (Berlese), Sancassania rodionovi Zachvatkin, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), Uroobovella fimicola (Berlese), Ameroseius fungicolus* Masan, Pediculaster kneeboni* (Wicht), Pediculaster flechtmanni*(Wicht), Scutacarus longitarsus (Berlese), Dendrolaelaps multidentatus* Masan, Arctoseius cetratus (Sellnick), Lasioseius sugawarai* Ehara and  Ameroseius plumigera Oudemans. Six of them are new for the Iranian acaro-fauna that are indicated by asterisk. Twelve species are recorded for the first time from mushrooms.
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Larvicidal potential of commercially available pine ( Pinus longifolia) and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oils against dengue fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti L.(Diptera: Culicidae)
Radhika WARIKOO, Naim WAHAB, Sarita KUMAR
   2011, 54 (7): 793-799.  
Abstract3993)      PDF(pc) (5290KB)(3940)       Save
The aromatic nature of pine and cinnamon oils has established them as good adult repellents but their larvicidal efficacy against mosquitoes has not been explored much. Keeping this in view, laboratory studies were conducted to uncover the larvicidal potential of commercially available pine ( Pinus longifolia) oil and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oil against the early 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, originating from Delhi, India. The larvicidal effects were investigated in terms of the larval mortality, behavioural and morphological changes, if any. Our studies revealed the larvicidal efficiency of both the oils against 4th instar larvae of Ae. aegypti, the pine oil proving to be more effective than the cinnamon oil. The LC 50 and LC 70 values exhibited by pine oil were 0.33093 mg/L and 0.54476 mg/L, respectively, while the values obtained with cinnamon oil were 0.63159 mg/L and 0.77736 mg/L, respectively. It was further observed that at LC 90 the larvicidal potential of cinnamon oil surpassed that of the pine oil, exhibiting a value of 1.11879 mg/L as in comparison to 1.04915 mg/L shown by pine oil. The behavioural changes as excitation, restlessness, tremors, and convulsions followed by paralysis observed in the treated larvae suggest a probable effect of the oils on their neuromuscular system. Microscopic study of morphological alterations in the treated larvae revealed that most of their organs had a normal structural appearance as that of controls except the little internal shrinkage in anal gills leading to the structural deformity. This indicates the anal gills as the probable action sites of the oil extracts and dysfunction of the gills leading to larval mortality. The potential of oils as new types of larvicides for the control of mosquitoes are explored.
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Morphotaxonomic studies on Simulium damnosum Theobald complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) along)(In English)
Monsuru Adebayo ADELEKE, Chiedu Felix MAFIANA, Sammy Olufemi SAM-WOBO, Ganiyu Olatunji OLATUNDE, Olaoluwa Pheabian AKINWALE
   2010, 53 (11): 1319-1324.  
Abstract2841)      PDF(pc) (4207KB)(3771)       Save
Simulium damnosum sensu lato is a complex made up of many sibling species which differ in their ecology and contribution to onchocerciasis transmission. The present study was carried out to provide information on morphological composition of the biting adults of S. damnosum s.l. along Osun River in a forest zone of Southwestern Nigeria. Adult flies were collected on human baits from 07: 00 a .m. to 06:00 p.m. every fortnight at three communities, Osun Eleja, Osun Ogbere and Osun Budepo along Osun River from February 2008 to June 2009. The wing tufts and other taxonomic characters of the flies were observed and classified using standard protocol. The results revealed the sympatric existence of both forest and savanna dwelling flies. The forest flies constituted the predominant species representing 99.18% of the flies caught in the three locations while savanna dwelling flies recorded 0.82% of the total catch. The difference in abundance of the forest and savanna flies was statistically significant (P<0.05). All the savanna flies encountered had pale wing tufts but there was significant difference in wing tufts colours observed among the forest flies (P<0.05). Further studies are therefore recommended so as to shed light on the species composition of S. damnosum s.l. in the study area. 
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Maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) of potential geographical distributions of fruit flies Dacus bivittatus, D. ciliatus and D. vertebrates (Diptera: Tephritidae)
   2009, 52 (10): 1122-1131.  
Abstract4920)      PDF(pc) (9617KB)(3765)       Save
In order to predict and analyse the potential geographical distributions of three important quarantine invasive pests, Dacus bivittatus, D. ciliatus and D. vertebratus, three ecological niche modeling techniques, BIOCLIM, DOMAIN and Maximum entropy nichebased modeling (Maxent) were implemented by using distribution records of the three fruit fly species and a set of environmental predictor variables. Differences in prediction performance of the three models with thresholds were observed. An evaluation using independent records of D. bivittatus showed that Maxent offers the most accurate predictions than two other models based on three values of ROC/AUC, Kappa, and TSS. Prediction outcomes made by Maxent revealed that the three fruit fly species have broadly similar potential ranges in Central American, South American, Southeast Asia, and Coastal areas of Australia in general. D. ciliatus has the comparatively widest potential range among the three species, including Coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and South Iran, suggesting that it may be tolerant of the widest range of climatic conditions among the three species. In China, while large areas of Yunnan and Hainan are very habitable for all the three fruit fly species, southern part of Guangdong and Taiwan are also their habitable areas. D. ciliatus has the widest potential distribution area, with southern part of Sichuan, Guizhou and Tibet plus the coastal areas of southern China all being its suitable areas. The risk of the three fruit fly species permanently establishing in Guangdong if introduced exist but low. Jackknife analysis revealed that temperature and its variation have comparative significant influence on the distribution patterns of three fruit fly species both in global and restricted regions.
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Advances in establishment of insect cell lines
ZHANG Huan, ZHANG Yong-An, QIN Qi-Lian, WANG Yu-Zhu, QU Liang-Jian, LI Xuan, MIAO Lin, YIN Zhen-Xian, ZHANG Ai-Jun, WEN Fa-Yuan
   2007, 50 (8): 834-839.  
Abstract3644)      PDF(pc) (257KB)(3394)       Save
More than 800 insect cell lines have been reported by now. Insect cell lines have become useful tools with a variety of applications in such research fields as insect pathology, parasitology, endocrinology, genetics, molecular biology, etc. This paper reviews the progresses in the technique of establishing insect cell lines in combination with our results and experiences gained in recent years, which include development of insect culture, establishment of insect cell lines, initiation of a cell line from different tissues, characterization and identification of new insect cell line.
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Progress in functions and molecular mechanisms of the transcription factor Fox
LIU Zhao-Yang, GAO Hui-Ju, MU Zhi-Mei, LIU Qing-Xin
   2013, 56 (3): 312-322.  
Abstract3272)      PDF(pc) (5737KB)(3372)       Save
 Fox (Forkhead box) protein family has 19 subfamilies. The members of these subfamilies are able to bind DNA, activate or inhibit the transcriptional activity of target gene, and can participate in cellular signal transduction, cell cycle regulation and metabolism regulation. Meanwhile, they play a key role in the development of organisms and their mature tissues and organs. Nowadays, the study of the function and molecular mechanism of Fox is gradually becoming a research hotspot in the fields of immunology, genetics, medicine and oncology. In this review, we summarized the nomenclature, the classification and the protein structure of the Fox and its functions on signal transduction pathways including the Hh, TGF-β/SMAD, MAPK, Wnt/β-catenin and IGF. The Fox family can regulate the development of many organs, such as the pharynx of Caenorhabditis elegans, the salivary gland of Drosophila melanogaster and the liver and eye of mammals. Fox is able to affect the cell cycle, and FoxA can regulate the metabolism by binding with CREB and GR. The copy number of Fox varies in different species and is subjected to strict evolutionary selection. The further research on the functions and molecular evolutionary mechanisms of the Fox genes will shed new insights into understanding the developmental mechanisms of organisms and the prevention and treatment of human diseases.
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Advances in endosymbionts and their functions in insects
YANG Yi-Ting, GUO Jian-Yang, LONG Chu-Yun, LIU Huai, WAN Fang-Hao
   2014, 57 (1): 111-112.  
Abstract4334)      PDF(pc) (2046KB)(3363)       Save
Interactions between endosymbionts and their insect host have drawn much attention at present. Endosymbionts could facilitate their hosts to acquire additional nutrition, protect them from natural enemy and enhance their insecticide resistance. Their special roles include facilitating digestion of food or providing nutrients that were limited or lacking in the host diet, enhancing pathogen and parasitoid resistance through secretion of antimicrobial peptides or toxin and strengthening resistance of their hosts by regulating physiological reaction and accurate expression of resistance genes. These facts strongly suggest that endosymbionts play an important role in regulating host development through mediating the biological characters to expand the host’s ecological niche. The functions of endosymbionts were analyzed through examination of changes in biological characters of host before and after infection. Recently, new techniques on transcriptomics, proteomics and genomics have promoted the research on mutualism mechanisms between symbionts and insect hosts. This will not only reveal the endosymbionts and their functional genes on host reproduction, survival, population dynamics and adaption to the environment, but also open new insight into potential biological roles of endosymbionts, providing new insight for biological control of pest insect.
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Expression, purification and binding characteristics of general odorant binding protein Ⅰ(GOBP1) from the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalia (Linnaeus) (Lepidoptera: Pyralididae)
Sun-Hong-Yan, YIN Jiao, FENG Hong-Lin, LI Ke-Bin, XI Jing-Hui, CAO Ya-Zhong
   2011, 54 (4): 381-389.  
Abstract4719)      PDF(pc) (5689KB)(3305)       Save
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are responsible for physiological function via perception of volatile odors. Here we reported the successful expression and purification of a general odorant binding protein Lsti-GOBP1 from Loxostege sticticalis L. Lsti-GOBP1 was expressed using Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) prokaryotic expression system, and then purified using Histrap HP column, and the protein functions of Lsti-GOBP1 were tested by fluorescent probe N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (1-NPN) binding assays and competitive binding assays with 50 kinds of chemical molecules. The results showed that Lsti-GOBP1 had the capability of binding 35 odorants. However, only 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, cinnamaldehyde and camphene replaced 1-NPN from Lsti-GOBP1 by 50%, and their binding constants were 8.997, 7.283, 7.289 and 9.814 μmol/L, respectively. So, it can be speculated that Lsti-GOBP1 has a wide binding characteristics, but it has strong binding specificity to 1-hexanol, 1-heptanol, cinnamaldehyde and camphene, which probably all play a critical role in the process of recognizing different odorants in L. sticticalis.
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Tetrigidae (Orthoptera: Tetrigoidea) from Malaysia with the description of six new species
   2007, 50 (12): 1272-1284.  
Abstract3537)      PDF(pc) (1183KB)(3223)       Save
The present study lime light the identification of 28 tetrigid species from Malaysia. Six species viz. Phaesticus azemii sp. nov., Discotettix adenanii sp. nov, Discotettix selangori sp. nov., Scelimena hafizaii sp. nov, Scelimena razalii sp. nov., and Gavialidium phangensum sp. nov. are new to science which are described in detail. Eleven species are new records for Malaysia. In addition, key to the local genera and species has also been constructed.
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Bio-efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against tea looper caterpillar, Buzura suppressaria Guen. (Lepidopera: Geometridae) ( In English)
   2007, 50 (9): 962-966.  
Abstract4623)      PDF(pc) (161KB)(3219)       Save
Bio-efficacy of Beauvaria bassiana, an entomopathogenic fungus, was evaluated against tea looper caterpillar, Buzura (=Biston) suppressaria Guen. (Geometridae:  Lepidoptera) at Kamalpur and Hunterpara Tea gardens, West Bengal, India, during May-June, 2005 & 2006. Methomyl 40% SP and cypermethrin 25% EC, the planters' commonly used chemical pesticides were taken as standard checks. B. bassiana  was used at 1.50 g, 2.00 g and 2.5 g/lit. of water while methomyl and cypermethrin were used at 0.75 mL, 1.00 mL and 1.50 mL and 0.50 mL, 1.00 mL and 1.50 mL/lit. of water, respectively. There was 88.00% reduction in the population build up of looper caterpillar at Kamalpur Tea Garden and 84.00%  at Hunterpara Tea Garden at 3 days after spraying with 2.5 g  B. bassiana/lit. of water. The dead caterpillars turned black and hanged under the leaves. However, the biocidal activity of B. bassiana was found to be on par with the highest dose of methomyl and cypermethrin.
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Toxic effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on nymphs and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton (Hemiptera: Scutelleridae)
   2011, 54 (8): 938-942.  
Abstract4348)      PDF(pc) (714KB)(3185)       Save
  Eurygaster integriceps is a key pest of wheat and barley in Iran. Neonicotinoid insecticides, a strong group of insecticides, have good effect on sucking pests. In this study, effects of four neonicotinods (thiametoxam, imidacloprid, dinotefuran and acetamiprid) on 3rd nymphs and adults of E. integriceps via two methods (contact and chemigation) were investigated. Although tested insecticides had no strong effect on E. integriceps in contact method and acceptable mortality was seen at very high concentration (5 000 mg/L a. i.), all insecticides had acceptable toxicity to nymphs and adults through chemigation bioassay. According to current results, using chemigation can be a novel method for management of this important pest.
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Cloning and bioinformatical analysis of vitellogenin gene of the Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae)
Monika MIGLANI, Surendra Kumar GAKHAR
   2013, 56 (9): 1063-1074.  
Abstract2448)      PDF(pc) (17449KB)(3065)       Save
 Vitellogenin (Vg) is the major yolk protein precursor which is synthesized abundantly in the insect fat body after the female ingests blood meal. The regulatory elements of vitellogenin have been used to drive the tissue specific expression of anti parasitic gene in mosquitoes, where its maximum interaction could take place with the parasite. However, no endogenous promoter has been analysed so far in the Indian malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies which is responsible for 60%-70% of malaria cases in India. In this study, the vitellogenin gene including 5′ upstream regulatory region of Anopheles culicifacies was cloned after PCR amplification and named AncuVg (GenBank accession number JN113091). It contains an ORF of approximately 6.2 kb encoding 2 052 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 16 residues. It also contains an N_Vitellogenin region and a VWF type D domain, that are found conserved in other insect Vgs too. The molecular weight of the predicted polypeptide is 238.0 kDa. It possesses four consensus (RXXR/S) cleavage sites and close to the C-terminus there is a GL/ICG motif followed by nine cysteine residues and a DGXR motif, located 18 residues upstream from the GL/ICCG motif. Three polyserine regions were found in the deduced amino acid sequence: two in the amino terminal region and one in the carboxy terminal region. The extent of codon bias in mosquito vitellogenin genes based on the relative synonymous codon usage values were determined by the effective number of codons. The 3D structure of A. culicifacies Vg was also predicted. The 5′ upstream region of the AncuVg gene was analyzed to understand the regulation of Vg gene transcription. Phylogenetic analysis using the 5′ upstream region of Vg genes showed their conformation to three major clades among mosquitoes. Homology and other characteristic features of Vg have also been analyzed using various bioinformatic tools.
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Transcriptional regulation by 20-hydroxyecydsone and its nuclear receptor EcR-USP
LI Kang, LI Sheng, CAO Yang
   2011, 54 (8): 933-937.  
Abstract4566)      PDF(pc) (4732KB)(3057)       Save
The molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), is an insect steroid hormone which plays a dominant role in the regulation of insect molting, metamorphosis, reproduction and other physiological processes. The 20E nuclear receptor, EcR-USP, has been identified for 20 years, and several breakthroughs have been recently made in understanding the transcriptional regulation mechanisms of 20E-cR-USP. Recent research indicates that: (1) the 20E receptor is composed of two nuclear receptor molecules, i. e., EcR and USP. (2) The EcR-USP heterodimer obtains DNA binding activity with the assistance of a molecular chaperone-containing heterocomplex. (3) 20E transcriptionally activates the EcR-USP heterodimer by releasing corepressors and recruiting co-activators. (4) The ligand-receptor complex, 20E-EcR-USP, triggers a transcriptional cascade, including transcription of the 20E primaryresponse genes and the 20E secondaryresponse genes induced by transcription factors encoded by the 20E primary-response genes, to regulate physiological and developmental events.
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Structure characteristics of the mitochondrial genomes of Diptera and design and application of universal primers for their sequencing
ZHANG Nai-Xin, ZHANG Yu-Juan, YU Guo, CHEN Bin
   2013, 56 (4): 398-407.  
Abstract4382)      PDF(pc) (7868KB)(3028)       Save
The study aims to investigate the structural characteristics of Diptera mitochondrial genomes and design universal primers for sequencing of Diptera mitochondrial genomes so as to establish an overall framework of information for further study of Diptera mitochondrial genomes. We analyzed the structural characteristics, base composition and conserved regions of dipteran mitochondrial genome based on the known 26 fulllength mitochondrial genome sequences of Diptera using comparative genomics and bioinformatics methods, and designed a set of universal primers for mitochondrial genome sequencing of Diptera. The results show that the mitochondrial genomes of Diptera are 14 503-19 517 bp in length, and their structure are quite conservative with 37 coding genes, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes and two rRNA coding genes. In addition, there is a non-coding region (AT-rich region) with various lengths. The individual gene location order on these genomes is quite stable, consistent with that on the mitochondrial genome of Drosophila melanogaster with only a few exceptions. The base composition on these genomes is not balanced with the AT content (72.59%-85.15%) significantly higher than the GC content, and base usage bias exists with A (50.91% of AT content) and C (57.79% of GC content) base usage significantly higher than T and G. We identified 11 conservative regions based on the nucleotide and amino acid sequence conservation analysis of whole genome, and designed 26 pairs of universal primers for mitochondrial genome sequencing of Diptera with each pair of primers anchored to identify conservative regions. The target fragment amplified with each pair of primers is less than 1 200 bp in length. This set of primers was applied for sequencing Delia antiqua mitochondrial genome, and the results prove that the set of primers is efficient and operable.
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The relation of interaction between insects and plants to evolution
QIN Jun-de, WANG Chen-zhu
   2001, 44 (3): 360-365.  
Abstract5288)      PDF(pc) (326KB)(2923)       Save
Insects and plants are important components of the terrestrial biocommunities on the globe; living together they perform diversified interactions including patterns of insectan trophic activity and mode of pollination. In this paper the relationship between these interactions and evolution is discussed. According to the breadth of hostplant range, phytophagous insects are usually classified into specialists (with narrow host range) and generalists (with broad host range). If the seemingly advantage to feed on many different plants by insects is considered, the generalists would be regarded to attain a higher level of evolution. However, a careful examination on the biocommunities in nature usually gives rise to the hard question of why there are so many specialists among insect herbivores. The explanation seems to lie in the higher efficiency of hostplant foraging and the ease of escaping or avoidance from natural enemies in the specialists. Plant adaptation to insect herbivory presumably would cause corresponding reactions in insects, leading to the proposals of coevolution theory. For hostplant selection by insects, several theories are proposed to clarify the present status as paired reciprocal, diffused and community coevolutions. The precedence of diversification of secondary metabolic chemicals in plants and the mutability and adaptation in insect sensory function as well as learning and memory also lead to the proposal of the theory of sequential evolution or colonization. In pollination the mutualistic adaptations between flowers and pollinator insects are manifested in convincing examples including the changing signalling cues from flowers as scents, colors in different plant species, and the blooming schedules, and the behavioral responses and structural modifications of the pollinator insects.
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Plant defense responses induced by insect herbivory 
QIN Qiu-Ju, GAO-XiWu *
   2005, 48 (1): 125-134.  
Abstract4309)      PDF(pc) (764KB)(2902)       Save
Plants respond to insect herbivory with a myriad of inducible responses, broadly categorized as direct defenses and indirect defenses.Herbivoreinduced plant direct defenses include the production of toxic metabolites and proteins.Direct defenses can negatively affect a herbivore's physiology, but exact large resource demands on plant metabolism.Plants can also defend themselves against herbivores indirectly by emitting specific blends of volatiles that attract carnivorous natural enemies.Herbivoreinduced plant volatiles can be triggered by some insect specific elicitors.Multiple signaling transduction pathways are involved in plant defense responses to insect herbivores, and they can interact with each other, either synergistically or antagonistically.Understanding herbivoreinduced plant responses can provide important information for the complement of integrated pest management tactics.
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Effects of the artificial diet with low water content on the growth and development of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
YU Guo-Hui, LI Yi-Ping, YANG Yu-Huan, XIA Qiang
   2014, 57 (8): 943-950.  
Abstract3909)      PDF(pc) (1897KB)(2840)       Save
【Aim】 To evaluate the effects of the artificial diet with low water content on the growth and development of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. 【Methods】 The black soldier fly was reared in climatic cabinet (27℃, RH 80%, photoperiod 14L∶10D) with artificial diet. Such biological characteristics as the larval survival rate, larval weight, adult body length, eclosion rate and duration of different developmental stages were compared among the flies reared with the artificial diet with 30%, 50% and 70% water content, respectively, of which the artificial diets with 70% water content was used as the control. 【Results】 The larval weight of the black soldiery fly reared with the diets with 30% and 50% water content were significantly different ( P<0.05) and lower than the control ( P<0.05). The black soldier fly could not develop to prepupae when reared with the diet with 30% water content, and most larvae died within 13 d. The beginning time and finishing time of prepupal stage in the 50% water content group was 5 and 14 d later than the control, respectively. The duration of prepupal stage in the 50% water content diet group was 18 d, which was 8 d longer than the control. The body lengths of female and male adults in the 50% water content diet group was significantly shorter than those in the control ( P<0.05). Adults in the 50% water content diet group began eclosion 5 d later than the control, and the duration of eclosion was 18 d, which was 5 d longer than the control. The time from egg hatch to the eclosion of all adults in the 50% water content diet group was 55.67 d, while that in the control group was 45.00 d. However, there was no significant difference in larval survival rate and adult eclosion rate between the 50% water content group and the control ( P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the artificial diet with water content lower than 70% is not suitable for the growth and development of the black soldier fly.
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Ultramorphology of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of Carposina coreana Kim (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)
CHEN Jing, HUA Bao-Zhen
   2014, 57 (1): 133-140.  
Abstract2914)      PDF(pc) (25112KB)(2812)       Save
【Aim】 To explore the differences in larval sensilla of Carposinidae with different host range. 【Methods】 The ultramorphology of sensilla on the larval antennae and mouthparts of the monophagous Carposina coreana Kim, which feeds exclusively on fruits of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc., was investigated by using scanning electron microscopy. 【Results】 The basal scape of the antenna is devoid of sensilla. The pedicel possesses two sensilla chaetica and three sensilla basiconica. The terminal flagellum carries distally one sensillum styloconicum and three sensilla basiconica. Six types of sensilla are found on the mouthparts: sensilla chaetica are abundant and widespread; sensilla styloconica are mainly located on the galeae, maxillary palp and labial palp; sensilla digitiformia are found on the epipharynx and the lateral margin of the distal segments of maxillary palps; sensilla basiconica and sensilla placodea are only located on the maxilla; and epipharyngeal sensilla are only present on the epipharynx. 【Conclusion】 There is no strict correspondence between larval sensilla and host range in Carposinidae.
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Advances in systematics of ticks
   2007, 50 (9): 941-949.  
Abstract3560)      PDF(pc) (575KB)(2772)       Save
In recent years, there has been much progress in our understanding of the cataloguing and classification, and the phylogeny and evolution of ticks. Alternations at the generic level in soft ticks (Argasidae) were introduced. One s
ubfamily, the Hyalomminae, had been combined with Rhipicephalinae, and the Bothriocrotoninae n. subfamily had been created recently in hard ticks (Ixodidae). The Bothriocroton n. genus was created to house an earlydiverging lineage ofendemic Australian ticks that used to be in the genus Aponomma (ticks of reptiles), and the Cornupalpatum n. genus was created for a fossil species, Cornupalpatum burmanicum Poinar & Brown, 2003.The genus Boophilus became a subgenus of the genus Rhipicephalus, and the genus Anocentor was sunk into the genus Dermacentor. The genus Aponommain part became a synonym of Bothriocroton and in part a synonym of Amblyomma. Thus, the name of Anocentor and Aponomma is no longer a valid genus name, respectively. The numbers of tick species are recalculated according to the nomenclature revised. In total, there are 3 families 18 genera and 897 species of ticks in the world, while the Chinese tick fauna consists of 119 speciesin 2 families 10 genera. We also introduced the main hypotheses about the phylogeny of ticks and discussed some questions in it. The effective understanding of the tick phylogeny relies on the totalevidence approach combining the morphological characters and molecular data, and the references that concern the relationships between ticks and different hosts, zoogeography, palaeontology and comparative parasitology.
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RNA interference of FTZ-F1 gene mediated by bacterially expressed dsRNA in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
WANG Gen-Hong, ZHU Hui-Min, LUO Hui-Song, WANG Ke-Ke, YANG Xiao-Bo, JIANG Liang, XIA Qing-You
Progress in hematopoiesis and hematopoietic stem cells in insects
TAN Juan, ZHOU Qi-Ming, CUI Hong-Juan
   2011, 54 (10): 1165-1171.  
Abstract4251)      PDF(pc) (7096KB)(2754)       Save
Insect hemocytes play important roles in the metabolism, metamorphosis and immunity, which are closely related events of growth and development. Because of lack of the adaptive immunity,  immunity functions that the insect hemocytes execute play important roles in combating exogenous pathogens. This review summaries the recent progress in the types of insect hemocytes, hematopoietic organs, haematopoietic stem cells and the regulating factors in insect haematopoiesis. There are three types of hemocytes in Drosophila, while most hemocytes of Lepidoptera and other insect species, can be classified into five types, depending on staining patterns. Insect hemocytes are dispersed in the circulating hemolymph and hematopoietic organs, where the hemocytes can replicate. The two systems are important for the characterization and localization of the hematopoietic stem cells in insects. Blood progenitors which arise from the Drosophila embryonic mesoderm differentiate into various hemocytes, and these processes are controlled by hematopoiesis regulating factors.
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Chlorantraniliprole at sublethal concentrations may reduce the population growth of the Asian corn borer,
Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
SONG Yue-Qin, DONG Jun-Feng, SUN Hui-Zhong
   2013, 56 (4): 446-451.  
Abstract3090)      PDF(pc) (909KB)(2734)       Save
 In order to provide a scientific basis for understanding the effects of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole on Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), diet-incorporation bioassays were used to examine the toxicity of chlorantraniliprole to O. furnacalis, and the sublethal effects of the insecticide were investigated using life table analyses under laboratory conditions. The results showed that the LC 10, LC 40, and LC 50 values of chlorantraniliprole on the 3rd instar larvae of O. furnacalis were 0.038, 0.098, and 0.123 mg a.i./L, respectively. After the 3rd instar larvae were treated with LC 10 and LC 40 levels of chlorantraniliprole, the larval and pupal development were significantly delayed, adult longevity was significantly decreased and fecundity also decreased compared to the control, but the pupal weight (female: P=0.337, male: P=0.121), egg hatchability ( P=0.087) and sex ratio ( P=0.379) were not affected. Reproduction parameters, such as the net reproductive rate ( R0), intrinsic rate of increase ( rm), and finite rate of increase ( λ) in the treatment groups were significantly lower than those in the control group. These results suggest that the LC 10 and LC 40 concentrations of chlorantraniliprole may reduce the population growth of O. furnacalis.
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Selection of valid reference genes for gene expression studies by quantitative realtime PCR in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) after exposure to Bt toxin
FU Wei, XIE Wen, ZHANG Zhuo, WU Qing-Jun, WANG Shao-Li, ZHANG You-Jun-
   2012, 55 (12): 1406-1412.  
Abstract3885)      PDF(pc) (7168KB)(2718)       Save
【Aim】 To select the suitable reference genes in Plutella xylostella after exposure to Bt toxin by quantitative real-time PCR. 【Methods】 Eight candidate reference genes, including 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), beta actin gene ( ACTB), elongation factor 1 gene ( EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene ( GAPDH), ribosomal protein L32 gene ( RPL32), ribosomal protein S13 gene ( RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 gene ( RPS20) , and β-tubulin gene ( TUB), were chosen. The stability of these candidate reference genes was investigated using three softwares (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Then, the expression of aminopeptidase N2 gene ( APN2) was analyzed by using different reference genes. 【Results】 Based on the results of geNorm analysis RPS13 and EF1 were the most suitable reference genes in P. xylostella after exposure to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac, while based on the results of the NormFinder and BestKeeper analysis RPS13 and RPL32 were the most suitable reference genes. Using new reference gene ( EF1) or traditional reference gene ( RPL32) for normalization, similar expression levels of APN2 were observed, whereas normalization with the unstable reference gene (18S rRNA) might lead to erroneous interpretations. 【Conclusion】 This work is contributable to the solid foundation for future gene expression studies in the diamondback moth, and may also serve as a resource to screen reference genes for expression studies in other insects.
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Phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation in cellular immune responses in insects
   2009, 52 (7): 791-798.  
Abstract7512)      PDF(pc) (1413KB)(2690)       Save
Cellular immunity that includes phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation mediated by hemocytes is a very important part of the innate immune system in insects. In this article we reviewed the current understanding of cellular immune responses in insects. We summarized the hemocyte types involved in cellular immunity, some cellular receptors that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites, and some enzymes and chemicals that can affect the immune activity. We also discussed the modes of hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis and the morphological change of hemocytes during the progress of nodulation and encapsulation.
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Hox genes and insect wing modification
ZHAI Zong-Zhao, YANG Xing-Ke
   2006, 49 (6): 1027-1033.  
Abstract4067)      PDF(pc) (325KB)(2644)       Save
Since 1978, characterization of the homeotic bithorax mutations of Drosophila has led E.B. Lewis to presage the growth of work on comparative developmental genetics, which focuses mainly on Hox genes, and afterward greatly adds to our understanding of the genetic basis of morphological evolution. Here, we reviewed the latest progress in the origin of insect wing and work on developmental genetics underlying wing modification. According to fossil records, primary insects bear appendages (including wings) on all thoracic and abdominal segments, while modern insects evolve to bear only two pairs of wings on T2 and T3, due to Hox suppression to wing development in other segments. Of the ten arthropod Hox genes known, Ubx has hindwing identity, and regulates its targets to make the fore-and hind-wing different in morphology. We especially compared Hox expression pattern of insects with most modified wings in three orders: Coleoptera (forewing to elytra), Diptera (hindwing to haltere) and Strepsiptera (forewing to haltere). Recent studies show that function of Ubx in beetle hindwings represents a previously unknown mode of wing diversification in insects. However, more study on Strepsiptera is necessary.
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