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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2022, Volume 65 Issue 10
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Overexpression and knockdown of ace-miR-3720 impact the target gene expression and weight of the larval gut of Apis cerana cerana workers
    CAI Zong-Bing, WANG Si-Yi, WANG Zi-Xin, ZHAO Xiao, ZHANG Kai-Yao, GUO Yi-Long, YAO Yu-Tong, QIAN Jia-Jun, HU Ying, FU Zhong-Min, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2022, 65(10):  1247-1255.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.001
    Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (1930KB) ( 38 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to uncover the function of ace-miR-3720 in the larval gut development of Apis cerana cerana workers and provide theoretical and experimental bases for further investigation of the regulation mechanism of ace-miR-3720 underlying the development of larval gut. 【Methods】 According to the nucleotide sequence of ace-miR-3720, the corresponding mimic (mimic-miR-3720) and inhibitor (inhibitor-miR-3720) were designed and synthesized, and used to feed larvae of A. cerana cerana workers to perform overexpression and knockdown of ace-miR-3720, respectively. The relative expression levels of ace-miR-3720 and its target genes CKⅠ, MAPK1 and βGBP1 in the 4-6-day-old larval guts after overexpression and knockdown of ace-miR-3720 were detected using RT-qPCR. The larval guts after overexpression and knockdown of ace-miR-3720 were weighed using analytical balance. 【Results】The expression levels of ace-miR-3720 in the 4- and 5-day-old larval guts in the mimic-miR-3720 group were extremely significantly up-regulated, while that in the 6-day-old larval gut was significantly up-regulated, as compared to those in the nonsense mimic (mimic-NC) group. The expression level of ace-miR-3720 in the 4-day-old larval gut in the inhibitor-miR-3720 group was extremely significantly down-regulated, whereas those in the 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were significantly down-regulated, as compared to those in the nonsense inhibitor (inhibitor-NC) group. There is a potential targeting relationship between ace-miR-3720 and genes CKⅠ, MAPK1 and βGBP1. In the mimic-miR-3720 group, the expression levels of CKⅠ in the 4- and 5-day-old larval guts were extremely significantly down-regulated, while that in the 6-day-old larval gut was significantly down-regulated; the expression level of MAPK1 in the 4-day-old larval gut was significantly down-regulated, whereas those in the 5- and 6-day-old larval guts were extremely significantly down-regulated; the expression level of βGBP1 in the 4-day-old larval gut was significantly down-regulated, while those in the 5- and 6-dayold larval guts were extremely significantly down-regulated; additionally, the weight of the 4- and 5-day-old larval guts in the mimic-miR-3720 group was extremely significantly decreased, whereas that of the 6-day-old larval gut was significantly decreased, as compared with those in the mimic-NC group. In the inhibitor-miR-3720 group, the expression levels of CKⅠ in the 4-6-day-old larval guts were extremely significantly up-regulated; the expression level of MAPK1 in the 4-day-old larval gut was significantly up-regulated, while those in the 5 and 6-day-old larval guts were extremely significantly up-regulated; the expression levels of βGBP1 in the 4- and 6-day-old larval guts were significantly up-regulated, whereas that in the 5-day-old larval gut was extremely significantly up-regulated; in addition, the weight of the 4- and 6-day-old larval guts was significantly increased, while that of the 5-day-old larval gut was extremely significantly increased, as compared with those in the inhibitor-NC group. 【Conclusion】 ace-miR-3720 truly exists in the larval gut of A. cerana cerana workers. Effective overexpression and knockdown of miRNAs in the larval gut of A. cerana cerana could be achieved by feeding with mimic and inhibitor, respectively. ace-miR-3720 may affect the weight of larval guts of A. cerana cerana workers and participate in larval gut development through regulation of the expression of CKⅠ, MAPK1 and βGBP1.
    ame-miR-79 negatively regulates the expression of target genes CYP450 and FG in the larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica workers
    ZHANG Kai-Yao, LIU Jia-Mei, ZHANG Wen-De, HU Ying, KANG Yu-Xin, WANG Zi-Xin, WANG Si-Yi, QIAN Jia-Jun, ZHAO Xiao, ZHANG Jia-Xin, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui, FU Zhong-Min
    2022, 65(10):  1256-1265.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.002
    Abstract ( 28 )   PDF (5780KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to further investigate the role of ame-miR-79 in regulating the expression of target genes in the larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica workers by performing overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-79 in the larval guts by feeding with mimic and inhibitor of ame-miR-79, respectively. 【Methods】 Molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing were conducted to confirm the sequence authenticity of ame-miR-79 in the larval guts of A. m. ligustica workers. Overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-79 in the 4-6-day-old larval guts of A. m. ligustica workers were performed through feeding with mimic-miR-79 and inhibitor-miR-79, respectively. Prediction and analysis of target genes of ame-miR-79 were carried out with related bioinformatic software. The overexpression and knockdown effects of ame-miR-79 and the relative expression levels of target genes after overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-79 were examined by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 ame-miR-79 truly exists in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica workers. Compared with the nonsense mimic (mimic-NC) group, the mimic-miR-79 group showed extremely significantly up-regulated expression of ame-miR-79 in the 4-6-day-old larval guts. In comparison with the nonsense inhibitor (inhibitor-NC) group, the inhibitor-miR-79 group showed significantly down-regulated expression of ame-miR-79 in the 4- and 5-day-old larval guts and extremely significantly down-regulated expression of ame-miR-79 in the 6-day-old larval gut. ame-miR-79 can target 303 genes, which are associated with 27 GO terms and 179 KEGG pathways. In comparison with the mimic-NC group, the mimic-miR-79 group showed extremely significantly down-regulated expression of the cytochrome P450 gene CYP450 in the 4- and 5-day-old larval guts and up-regulated expression of CYP450 in the 6-day-old larval gut, while showed downregulated expression of fringe glycosyltransferase (FG) gene in the 4-day-old larval gut, significantly down-regulated expression of FG in the 5-day-old larval gut, and up-regulated expression of FG in the 6-day-old larval gut. Compared with the inhibitor-NC group, the inhibitor-miR-79 group exhibited extremely significantly up-regulated expression of CYP450 in the 4-day-old larval gut, up-regulated expression of CYP450 in the 6-day-old larval gut, and downregulated expression of CYP450 in the 5-day-old larval gut, while significantly up-regulated expression of FG in the 4-day-old larval gut and extremely significantly up-regulated expression of FG in the 5- and 6-day-old larval guts. 【Conclusion】 ame-miR-79 truly exists in the larval guts of A. m. ligustica workers. Effective overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-79 in the larval guts of A. m. ligustica workers can be achieved via feeding with mimic and inhibitor, respectively. ame-miR-79 negatively regulates the expression of CYP450 and FG in the larval guts of A. m. ligustica workers.
    Changes in the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification enzymes in workers and ergatoid reproductives of Reticulitermes chinensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    DONG Ya-Nan, NIU Tong, WU Jia, WANG Chao, ZHANG He
    2022, 65(10):  1266-1276.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.003
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (1856KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 Social termite workers can differentiate into ergatoid reproductives to produce offsprings which is in favour of the fitness obtained. This study aims to explore the changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification enzymes related to oxidative stress and anti-aging when workers differentiate into ergatoid reproductives, so as to provide a reference for revealing the reproductive and anti-aging mechanism of reproductive castes of termites. 【Methods】 The activities of two antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and four detoxification enzymes, acid phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), carboxylesterase (CarE) and cytochrome P450 (CYP450), in the workers, ergatoid reproductives and primary reproductives of Reticulitermes chinensis were measured by biochemical methods. Meanwhile, the expression levels of the corresponding genes of the above enzymes, RsCAT, RsSOD, RsACP, RsCYP450 and RsCarE, were assessed by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The activities of CAT, SOD, ACP, AKP and CarE in ergtoid reproductives of R. chinensis were significantly higher than those in female workers, reaching 5.82, 1.41, 1.39, 2.27 and 2.70 times as high as those in female workers, respectively, but there was no significant difference in the CYP450 activity between the two castes. Also the expression levels of RsCAT, RsSOD, RsACP, RsCarE and RsCYP450 in ergtoid reproductives were significantly higher than those in workers. Compared with the primary reproductives, the ergatoid reproductives showed a significant increase in the activities of CAT and ACP. However, there was no significant difference in the activities of SOD and AKP between the two castes. The relative expression levels of RsCAT in female and male ergatoid reproductives were 5.68 and 3.60 times, respectively, and those of RsACP in female and male ergatoid reproductives were 81.12 and 46.72 times, respectively, as high as those in primary reproductives. 【Conclusion】 The activities and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes and detoxification enzymes significantly increase after the termite workers of R. chinensis develop from nonreproductive caste to reproductive caste, revealing the anti-aging mechanism of reproductives to a certain extent.
    Ultrastructure of the compound eye of adult Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and its changes upon light/dark adaptation
    XU Man-Fei, LI Meng-Yuan, JIANG Yan, MENG Zhao-Na, TAN Chang, WANG Guo-Chang, BIAN Lei
    2022, 65(10):  1277-1286.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.004
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (47477KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 The ultrastructure of the compound eye of Ectropis grisescens adults and its changes upon light/dark adaptation were observed to explore its light tuning mechanism. 【Methods】 The external parameters including the ommatidial number, interommatidial angle of ommatidium, ommatidial diameter and radius of curvature of ommatidium of the compound eye of E. grisescens adults were determined by using ultra depth of field microscopye, and the ultrastructure of adult compound eyes was observed by using histological sections, optical microscope and transmission electron microscope. The changes of crystalline cone structure and displacement of pigment particles in the compound eye of E. grisescens adults after adaption in light and dark environments, respectively, for 2 h were observed by using optical microscope. 【Results】 The compound eyes of E. grisescens adults are hemispherical, and each compound eye consists of about 2 502±105 ommatidia in females, and 3 123±78 ommatidia in males. Each ommatidium consists of a dioptric apparatus made up of a cornea, a crystalline cone and a clear zone, and a photosensitive layer made up of 15 retinal cells. Two primary pigment cells encase the crystalline cone and extend from the proximal part of the cornea to the distal part of the retinula cell nuclear zone. The periphery of ommatidium is surrounded by six secondary pigment cells, which extend from the proximal part of the cornea to the basement membrane. In the clear zone, 14 retinal cells aggregate into a bundle (non-rhabdom), the distal part of which is connected with the end of the crystalline tract, forming a closed rhabdom in the photosensitive layer and extending to the 15th retinula cell (basal retinula cell). During light/dark adaptation, the compound eyes adjust the light input mainly by the longitudinal displacement of pigment particles and the opening and closing of crystalline cone to adapt to the change of light intensity. 【Conclusion】 The compound eye of E. grisescens adults belongs to the refracting superposition eye, and the rhabdom is the 14+1 pattern. The movement of pigment particles is an important mechanism for the compound eyes of E. grisescens adults to adapt to the change of light intensity.
    Influence of down-regulating the expression of BtabCSP6 in Bemisia tabaci MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on the transmission of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus
    WEI Yan, LIU Yong, YE Qian, LU Ding-Yi-Hui, ZHANG Zhan-Hong, ZHANG Zhuo, ZHANG De-Yong, ZHANG Song-Bai, SHI Xiao-Bin
    2022, 65(10):  1287-1294.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.005
    Abstract ( 37 )   PDF (1491KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) is one of the main viruses that threaten agricultural production and transmitted by the insect vector Bemisia tabaci under natural conditions. Studies have shown that female adults of B. tabaci have stronger ability to acquire and transmit virus than male adults. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of the expression of the chemosensory protein (CSP) gene BtabCSP6 in B. tabaci on virus transmission, and to find a new way to control the occurrence of virus. 【Methods】 Infected tomato plants were obtained by the TYLCV infectious clone, and uninfected B. tabaci MED adults were collected in micro-cages and fixed on leaves of the TYLCV-infected tomato plants for 48 h. RT-qPCR technology was used to measure the changes in the expression levels of BtabCSP1-8 in female and male adults of B. tabaci MED fed with TYLCV-infected and uninfected tomato plants, respectively. The BtabCSP6 gene in female adults of B. tabaci MED was suppressed by RNAi for 48 h through feeding method followed by feeding with TYLCV-infected tomato plants, and the virus acquisition and transmission rates of female adults of B. tabaci MED were determined. 【Results】The RT-qPCR results showed that the expression levels of BtabCSP3 and BtabCSP6 in TYLCV-infected female adults of B. tabaci MED changed most significantly as compared to those in the uninfected female adults. Similarly, the expression levels of BtabCSP4 and BtabCSP6 in TYLCV-infected male adults of B. tabaci MED changed most significantly as compared to those in the uninfected male adults. After being fed with dsBtabCSP6 for 48 h, the expression level of BtabCSP6 in female adults of B. tabaci MED decreased. The virus acquisition rates of female adults of B. tabaci MED after feeding with TYLCV-infected tomato plants for different time and the virus transmission rates of female adults of B. tabaci MED in different numbers to uninfected tomato plants were significantly decreased as compared to those of the control. 【Conclusion】 Down-regulating the expression of BtabCSP6 in female adults of B. tabaci MED can significantly reduce their virus acquisition and virus transmission rates, suggesting that BtabCSP6 may affect the transmission of TYLCV.
    Selective toxicity of six neonicotinoid insecticides and triflumezopyrim to Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Orius strigicollis (Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)
    LIN Tao, LIN Shuo, CHEN Yi-Xin, YANG Feng-Hua, YANG Guang, WEI Hui
    2022, 65(10):  1295-1305.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.006
    Abstract ( 31 )   PDF (1522KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to assess the selective toxicity of six neonicotinoid insecticides and one novel insecticide triflumezopyrim to Thrips hawaiiensis and its natural enemy Orius strigicollis so as to provide a basis for the combined control of T. hawaiiensis using O. strigicollis and insecticides. 【Methods】 The acute toxicity of six neonicotinoid insecticides including imidacloprid, dinotefuran, flupyradifurone, imidaclothiz, nitenpyram and thiamethoxam, and triflumezopyrim to T. hawaiiensis adults and the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis was determined using the residual film method, and their exposure risks to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis were assessed. 【Results】 The median lethal rates (LR50 values) of these seven insecticides to T. hawaiiensis adults were lower than their maximum recommended field application rates. The LR50 value of imidaclothiz to T. hawaiiensis adults was the lowest (0.183 g a.i/hm2), significantly lower than those of the other insecticides, whereas those of flupyradifurone and triflumezopyrim were 3.066 and 3.949 g a.i/hm2, significantly higher than those of other insecticides. The LR50 values of the two nitenpyram formulations 20% nitenpyram SL and 10% nitenpyram AS to T. hawaiiensis adults were 0.327 and 0.201 g a.i/hm2, and those of the two thiamethoxam formulations 70% thiamethoxam WG and 25% thiamethoxam WG were 0.970 and 0.685 g a.i/hm2, respectively. The toxicity of nitenpyram and thiamethoxam in different formulations and with different contents to T. hawaiiensis adults was significantly different. The LR50 values of the tested six neonicotinoid insecticides to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis were lower than their maximum recommended field application rates, while that of triflumezopyrim to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis was higher than its maximum recommended field application rate. The toxicity of triflumezopyrim to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis was the lowest, with the LR50 value of over 65.736 g a.i/hm2, and that of imidacloprid and dinotefuran followed, with the LR50 values of 21.317 and 24.486 g a.i/hm2, respectively. Imidacloprid, dinotefuran, and triflumezopyrim showed high selective toxicity to T. hawaiiensis adults and the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis. The risks of imidacloprid and triflumezopyrim to O. strigicollis adults were acceptable in two exposure scenarios in- and off-field. However, the risks associated with imidaclothiz and thiamethoxam to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis were unacceptable. 【Conclusion】 T. hawaiiensis adults have extremely high sensitivity to six neonicotinoid insecticides and triflumezopyrim. Imidacloprid and triflumezopyrim exhibit low risks to the 5th instar nymphs of O. strigicollis, and triflumezopyrim has high compatibility with O. strigicollis. The combination of triflumezopyrim with O. strigicollis shows a promising potential for the management of T. hawaiiensis.
    Excretion and sugar composition of honeydew produced by Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) fundatrigeniae living in horned gallnuts
    SHAO Shu-Xia, YANG Zi-Xiang, HE Zhao, CHEN Hang, LU Qin, XU Xin, WEI Hong-Yuan, CHEN Xiao-Ming
    2022, 65(10):  1306-1313.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.007
    Abstract ( 20 )   PDF (7448KB) ( 10 )     
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    【Aim】 The horned gallnut is a closed gall induced by Schlechtendalia chinensis on leaves of its primary host plant Rhus chinensis. It is very important for S. chinensis to clean out its excretion (honeydew) in order to maintain its survival. The study aims to explore the excretion and sugar composition of honeydew produced by S. chinensis fundatrigeniae living in gallnuts. 【Methods】 The honeydew excretion of S. chinensis fundatrigeniae was continuously observed by an inverted fluorescence microscope. Fundatrigeniae were fed with media containing different concentrations of sucrose or starch. Honeydew excretion rates were counted, and the effects of sucrose and starch on the honeydew excretion of fundatrigeniae were analyzed. The composition and contents of sugars in honeydew were detected by liquid chromatography. 【Results】 In gallnuts of S. chinensis, apterous fundatrigeniae were rarely observed to excrete honeydew; however, 35.40%±2.41% of alate fundatrigeniae were observed to excrete honeydew. On agarose media, both apterous and alate fundatrigeniae excreted honeydew, and their honeydew excretion rates were 23.89%±5.58% and 173.96%±28.61%, respectively. On agarose media with different concentrations of sucrose, the honeydew excretion rates of both apterous and alate fundatrigeniae decreased with the increasing of sucrose concentration. On agarose media with different concentrations of starch, the honeydew excretion rate of apterous fundatrigeniae decreased with the increasing of starch concentration. When the starch concentration increased from zero to 2%, the honeydew excretion rate of alate fundatrigeniae increased from 173.96%±28.61% to 236.81%±55.67%, then decreased with the increasing of starch concentration, and decreased to 55.92%±7.22% when the starch concentration was 10%. We detected a total of seven sugars in the honeydew, of which the contents of fructose and glucose were high, accounting for 51.07% and 31.68%, respectively, the sucrose content was very low (only 1.59%), and the contents of the remaining four unknown components were 15.66%. 【Conclusion】 The main components of honeydew produced by S. chinensis fundatrigeniae living in gallnuts are fructose and glucose, and sucrose and starch contents in the diet have an obvious influence on their honeydew excretion.
    Transgenerational effect of heat adaptation induced by heat acclimation in larvae of the rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
    LI Ming-Zhu, LIU Xiang-Dong
    2022, 65(10):  1314-1323.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.008
    Abstract ( 36 )   PDF (2463KB) ( 23 )     
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    Abstract: 【Aim】 The frequency of insects encountering heat stress is increasing under the situation of global warming. Insects will generate heat acclimation when repeatedly impacted by short-term high temperature. However, the transgenerational effect of heat adaptation induced by acclimation is still not very clear. The rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is a serious pest of rice, and its larvae can adapt to high temperature when they are acclimated to a specific temperature for several generations. This study aims to illustrate the transgenerational heat adaptation of C. medinalis, so as to provide the guidance for the forecast of its population trends under global warming using the index of temperature. 【Methods】 The 1st-5th instar larvae of the heat-acclimated strains HA39 and HA41 of C. medinalis after 30 generations of acclimation to 39℃ and 41℃, respectively, and the unacclimated strain HA27 established in the laboratory were exposed to different high temperatures (36℃ and 41℃) for different time (1-144 h), and then their survival rates were examined and the heat tolerance was assessed. The hybridization experiments between HA39 and HA27 were performed to examine the fecundity of various mating combinations and the heat tolerance of the 3rd instar larvae of their offspring. The heat tolerance of the 3rd instar larvae from HA39 was also measured after stopping heat acclimation for two generations. 【Results】 The short-term heat exposure of C. medinalis at the 3rd instar larval stage for multiple generations increased the heat tolerance of not only the 3rd instar larvae but also the other instar larvae to a specific heat stress. When exposed to 36℃ and 41℃ for a specific duration, the survival rates of larvae of HA39 and HA41 were significantly higher than that of HA27. The heat tolerance of larvae was dependent on the acclimation temperature. Acclimation to 39℃ increased the survival rates of the 4th instar larvae exposed to 36℃ for 2 and 4 d and the 5th instar larvae exposed to 41℃ for 5 and 6 h, but the acclimation to 41℃ could not. The fecundity among the self-bred and crossbred offspring of HA39 and HA27 was not significantly different. The heat tolerance of the crossbred offspring showed that the survival rates of the 3rd instar larvae of the crossbred offspring exposed to 41℃ for 5 and 6 h were comparable to that of the self-bred offspring of HA39, and significantly higher than that of the self-bred offspring of HA27. The heat tolerance acquired by acclimation could be transferred into the offspring from parents. When the heat acclimation to 39℃ had stopped for two generations, the survival rate of the 3rd instar larvae of HA39 exposed to 39℃ for 4 h was significantly higher than that of HA27, but those of HA39 exposed to 39℃ for other time and exposed to 36℃ and 41℃ for 1-7 h showed no significant difference from those of HA27,indicating that the tolerant ability of the heatacclimated strain to high temperature can still be partially maintained in two generations after stopping heat acclimation. 【Conclusion】 The heat adaptation of C. medinalis larvae has the transgenerational effect. The ability of C. medinalis populations to adapt to high temperature is likely increasing under longterm global warming, and therefore the negative effect of high temperature in summer upon its populations will be weaker, and consequently its population outbreaks will be frequent.
    Predatory capability of Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) larvae on the eggs and early instar larvae of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    SHI Lin-Lin, LI Zi-Yuan, LIN Dan-Min, LU Yong-Yue, CHEN Ke-Wei
    2022, 65(10):  1324-1333.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.009
    Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (1629KB) ( 25 )     
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     【Aim】 To evaluate the predatory capability and biological control potential of the native natural enemy Mallada basalis on the eggs and early instar larvae of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda invading China. 【Methods】 The predatory capabilities of the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of M. basalis on the eggs, the 1st and 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were evaluated by using functional response models under laboratory conditions. 【Results】 The numbers of eggs and larvae of S. frugiperda consumed by M. basalis larvae increased and saturated as the prey density increased, while the predation rate of M. basalis larvae decreased with the increase of prey density. M. basalis larvae exhibited a type Ⅱ functional response to different developmental stages of S. frugiperda. For the 2nd instar larvae of M. basalis, their instantaneous attack rates a on the eggs, and the 1st and 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were 0.150, 0.084 and 0.094, the handling time Th was 0.282, 0.333 and 0.519 h, and the theoretical daily maximum predation T/Th was 85106, 72072 and 46242, respectively. For the 3rd instar larvae of M. basalis, their instantaneous attack rates on the eggs, and the 1st and 2nd instar larvae of S. frugiperda were 2.018, 0.288 and 0.259, the handling time was 0.102, 0.311 and 0.375 h, and the theoretical daily maximum predation was 235294, 77.170 and 64.000, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Both the 2nd and 3rd instar larvae of M. basalis exhibit strong predatory capability on the eggs and early instar larvae of S. frugiperda, and the 3rd instar larvae of M. basalis show higher predation efficiency than the 2nd instar larvae.
    Estimation of the potential geographical distribution of Naupactus leucoloma (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) based on the MaxEnt model
    LIANG Li, XIAN Xiao-Qing, ZHAO Hao-Xiang, GUO Jian-Yang, LIU Wan-Xue
    2022, 65(10):  1334-1342.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.010
    Abstract ( 19 )   PDF (3565KB) ( 15 )     
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    【Aim】 The plant quarantine pest in China, Naupactus leucoloma, makes serious potential damage to crops and cultivated plants. Since it was first discovered in the United States in the 20th century, it has spread in many countries around the world, causing serious economic losses. This study aims to model the potential geographical distribution of N. leucoloma and further analyze its colonization and proliferation risk. 【Methods】 Based on 752 effective distribution records of N. leucoloma and 10 environmental variables, the potential geographical distribution of N. leucoloma was simulated by the MaxEnt model and ArcGIS. The important environmental variables governing its potential geographical distribution were also evaluated by the environmental variable contribution rates and the jackknife test. 【Results】 The potential suitable habitats for N. leucoloma worldwide are mainly in the southeastern United States, southwestern France, northern Spain, and northwestern Turkey in Europe. It can be also mainly distributed in the central and eastern coastal areas of China, while there was no highly suitable habitat for N. leucoloma in China yet. Analysis of environmental variables affecting the potential geographical distribution of N. leucoloma showed that the important environmental variables include the precipitation of the driest month, annual mean air temperature, and the minimum temperature of the coldest month, with the air temperature playing a key role. 【Conclusion】 N. leucoloma has certain invasion, colonization and dispersal risk. It is recommended that customs strengthen quarantine and monitoring work to prevent the introduction of N. leucoloma into China to cause damage to crops.
    Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Carbula crassiventris and Carpocoris purpureipennis and phylogenetic analysis of Pentatominae (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)(In English)
    LI Rong-Rong, LI Min, SUN Shan-Shan, YAN Jiang, ZHANG Hu-Fang, BAI Ming
    2022, 65(10):  1343-1353.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.011
    Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (3302KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 In this study, the complete mitochondrial genomes (mtgenomes) of Carbula crassiventris and Carpocoris purpureipennis were sequenced to investigate the mitogenomic characteristics and reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Pentatominae. 【Methods】 The complete mtgenomes of Carbula crassiventris and Carpocoris purpureipennis were sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq Platform, and the resulted sequences were assembled and annotated. The phylogenetic trees of Pentatominae were reconstructed using Bayesian inference (BI) and maximum likelihood (ML) methods based on the sequences of the 1st and 2nd positions of the codons of the 13 proteincoding genes (PCGs) and the nucleotide sequences of the two rRNA genes of the mtgenome of the two species and other 30 Pentatominae taxa. 【Results】 The mtgenome of Carbula crassiventris and Carpocoris purpureipennis are 15 824 and 16 575 bp in length, respectively, with 13 PCGs, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a control region. The mtgenome gene arrangements are conserved within Pentatominae and no rearrangement was detected. In addition, the base composition, codon usage and RNA structures are conserved within Pentatominae. The length, types and copies of repeat units in control regions are different among species. The phylogenetic tree based on BI and ML showed a stable clade comprised of Eysarcorini, Carpocorini, Nezarini and Antestiini. 【Conclusion】 The phylogenetic analysis confirmed that Carbula belongs to Eysarcorini, and Carpocoris, Dolycoris and Rubiconia belong to Carpocorini.
    Identification and mitochondrial genome analysis of the sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confifinis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an invasive pest in the Chinese mainland
    MA Ting-Ting, LIN Fei, ZHAO Nan, RUAN Yong-Ying, XIE Shu-Yan, ZOU Hong-Da, CHEN Jing-Yi, FANG Bo-Ping, HUANG Li-Fei
    2022, 65(10):  1354-1366.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.012
    Abstract ( 17 )   PDF (31244KB) ( 8 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to ascertain whether the sweetpotato flea beetle, Chaetocnema confinis has invaded the Chinese mainland based on morphological identification and molecular biology technique, determine its mitochondrial genome sequence, and analyze its genome structure and phylogenetic relationship. 【Methods】 The morphological characteristics of C. confinis adults collected from different localities in Guangdong were observed using microscope, and the DNA sequence of cox1 gene was amplified for molecular identification. The mitochondrial genome of C. confinis was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq sequencing platform, and its sequence was subsequently assembled, annotated and characterized. Collinear analysis was conducted and phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the mitochondrial genome sequences of closely related species to analyze the gene rearrangement and phylogenetic relationship. 【Results】 The morphological and molecular identification results indicated that the flea beetle on sweetpota found in the Chinese mainland is the sweetpotato flea beetle, C. confinis. The mitochondrial genome of C. confinis is 15 685 bp in size, with 13 protein-coding genes, two rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and one non-coding control region. All the 37 genes are in compact arrangements with a total interval of 101 bp, the order of gene arrangement is consistent with that in the model insect Drosophila yakuba. The A+T content of the mitochondrial genome of C. confinis is 773%, showing obvious AT bias. The start codons of the 13 protein-coding genes are all ATNs. Except for trnS1 without DHU arm and trnD, trnG, trnN and trnT without TψC rings, a typical cloverleaf-shaped secondary structure can be formed in the remaining 17 tRNA genes, and the mutated anticodons of trnK and trnS1 are UUU and UCU, respectively. The control region fragment of C. confinis is only 60 bp in length, and is the shortest control region in the reported insect mitochondrial genomes. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, C. confinis is closely related to Phyllotreta striolata of Alticinae. 【Conclusion】 C. confinis has invaded the Chinese mainland. The mitochondrial genome sequence of C. confinis has been obtained in this study, which provides a basis for management of C. confinis and phylogenetic analysis of divergent genera in Chrysomelidae.
    DNA barcoding of broad-headed bugs(Hemi ptera: Alydidae) from China (In English)
    YI Wen-Bo, WANG Shi-Jun, WANG Shu-Jing, ZHANG Hai-Guang, BU Wen-Jun
    2022, 65(10):  1367-1373.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.013
    Abstract ( 18 )   PDF (1674KB) ( 10 )     
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     【Aim】 The aim of the study is to test the validity of DNA barcoding for the identification of broad-headed bugs (Hemiptera: Coreidae) from China. 【Methods】 The DNA barcode sequences of mitochondrial COI gene of 207 samples from 23 species of 13 genera of Alydidae from China were amplified, and 31 internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS-1) sequences of three Leptocorisa species were amplified as auxiliary markers. The interspecific and intraspecific genetic distances (Kimura 2-parameter model, K2P) were calculated by MEGA 11 software. The species cluster analysis was performed using neighborjoining (NJ) method. The holotype networks were constructed using median joining network algorithm. 【Results】 Based on the DNA barcode sequences of mitochondrial COI, the mean intraspecific K2P distances of all the tested 23 species of Alydidae from China were below 2%, and the interspecific K2P distances ranged from 0.98% to 23.98%, with an average of 17.50%. Most species were separated from each other with a high bootstrap value. This COI barcode section could not distinguish between Leptocorisa chinensis and L. oratoria because of the partial COI haplotypes they shared. The ITS-1 sequences did distinguish the two species in the haplotype network analysis. 【Conclusion】 The DNA barcoding results from our data are congruent with most of the taxonomic units of the family Alydidae from China based on morphological characteristics. However, for extremely closely related species, mitochondrial data alone, especially COI barcode sequences, sometimes are insufficient for accurate species delimitation, and other DNA sequences or other types of data need to be introduced.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in the morphology and function of honeybee fat body
    WANG Rong-Hua, MENG Li-Feng, WEI Qiao-Hong, LI Jian-Ke
    2022, 65(10):  1374-1388.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.014
    Abstract ( 25 )   PDF (2671KB) ( 20 )     
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     Fat body is a multifunctional organ in insects, similar to the liver of vertebrates, and is distributed in the abdomen, thorax and even the head cavity of insects, with the abdominal fat body being the most developed. The fat bodies of honeybees can be divided into two types, peripheral fat body and perivisceral fat body, and are composed of trophocytes, urocytes and oenocytes. As in other insects, the fat body plays an important role in life activities in honeybees, and its morphology and function vary with the developmental stage, season, and division of labor. The structure of fat body is relatively simple, but its physiological function is very complex. The major function of fat body is the storage and metabolism of energy substances. Fat body is not only a central storage pool of nutrients (i.e., lipids, carbohydrates and proteins) for honeybees, but also an intermediate station for nutrient metabolism, with a variety of enzymatic systems for the interconversion of energy and substances, undertaking the supply of metabolic water and synthesizing purines and pyrimidines and many important proteins. At the same time, fat body is the exchange center for various hormonal and nutritional signals during insect development and behavior regulation, and fat body hormones and nutritional signals are involved in regulating fat body development, nutrient metabolism, reproduction and labor division in honeybees. Fat body has a variety of functions including energy storage and release, biosynthesis and catabolism, regulation of nutrient perception, integration of metabolic signals, endocrine regulation, immunity and detoxification, magnetic field perception, improved cold resistance, and protection of organs in the body cavity. Given the important roles of the fat body, a review of the research progresses in the morphology and function of honeybee fat body can provide references and ideas for the analysis of insect nutritional signaling pathways, highquality bee species breeding and control of honeybee diseases.
    Application of the bootstrap technique and the multinomial theorem in the research of age-stage, two-sex life table
    LI Jian-Yu, CHEN Yan-Ting, FU Jian-Wei, SHI Meng-Zhu, CHI Hsin, YOU Min-Sheng
    2022, 65(10):  1389-1400.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.10.015
    Abstract ( 44 )   PDF (3945KB) ( 27 )     
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    The age-stage, twosex life table,called two-sex life-table for short, is an important theory and an analytical tool that are commonly used in population ecology and pest management. The user-friendly TWOSEX-MSChart program, which had been designed based on the twosex life table theory to help researchers for data analysis in insect population studies, has been more and more widely used by increasing numbers of scientists around the world. There are many statistical techniques and computer simulations embedded in the TWOSEX program, and the bootstrap technique is one of the major procedures included in the program. In this article, we describe the principles, methods, advantages/disadvantages, and the application of the bootstrap technique in the twosex life table analysis, as well as the application of the multinomial theorem in life table research. Compared with the general statistics, the bootstrap technique can be used to estimate and infer the distribution characteristics of data without the assumption of data distribution. In the twosex life table analysis, the bootstrap technique can not only be used to estimate the population parameters or the variances and standard errors of general statistics, but also to be used to assess the differences between treatments by paired bootstrap test to accurately show the population variability. The same bootstrap samples can be used to calculate the hatching rate and the contribution of different reproductive forms to population parameters, and to link the life table and predation rate analysis of natural enemies for an accurate analysis of the reproduction and predation potential of natural enemies. In addition, we also introduce the multinomial theorem, i.e., the mathematical basis of the bootstrap technique. The application of the multinomial theorem demonstrates that stable and reliable estimates can be obtained by using the bootstrap technique. We also elaborate the necessity of considering the ineffective bootstrap samples in the life table research. In recent years, although the twosex life table and the bootstrap technique had been widely adopted in research, few reports discussed the principles and methodology involved. This article will help interested researchers in entomology and ecology understand the basic theories and principles of the bootstrap technique and the multinomial theorem, and their application in twosex life table analysis, so as to better apply them in the related scientific research projects.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 10
    2022, 65(10):  1401-1401. 
    Abstract ( 15 )   PDF (512KB) ( 13 )     
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