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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2022, Volume 65 Issue 6
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    Gonadal development and gene expression related to the reproductive plasticity of workers of the termite Reticulitermes labralis(Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    YE Chen-Xu, SONG Zhuan-Zhuan, ZHANG Wen-Xiu, WU Tao-Yu, LIU He, XING Lian-Xi, SU Xiao-Hong
    2022, 65(6):  657-667.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.001
    Abstract ( 97 )   PDF (9365KB) ( 79 )     
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    【Aim】 In order to investigate the characteristics of ovarian development and the starting point for resumption of oocyte development during the differentiation of female workers into neotenic reproductives (NRs) of Reticulitermes labralis. 【Methods】 The dynamic changes of ovary and oocyte during the development of female workers (from the 3rd instar to the 6th instar) and the differentiation of female workers into NRs of R. labralis were observed. Based on the transcriptome data of the development of primary reproductives and NRs from nymphs of R. labralis, genes involved in oocyte growth were identified and their expression levels during the differentiation of workers into NRs were detected using qRT-PCR method. 【Results】 The size of ovaries in workers of R. labralis increased gradually from early instar to late instar, the length and width of the ovaries of pre-neotenic reproductives (pre-NRs) were approximately 2- and 3-fold as long as those of workers, respectively, but did not increase significantly after the pre-NRs developed into NRs. After the workers developed into pre-NRs, there was no significant change in the size (long diameter) of oocytes and the thickness of the layer of follicle cells. However, after the pre-NRs developed into NRs, the size of oocytes and the thickness of the layer of follicle cells increased significantly. The expression levels of six genes involved in oocyte growth in NRs were extremely significantly increased. The expression levels of the six genes cyclin-dependent kinase 1, cell division cycle protein 20, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B3, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-A, aurora kinase A and serine/threonine-protein kinase polo in NRs were approximately 34-, 62-, 91-, 36-, 57- and 106-fold as high as those in pre-NRs. After the workers developed into pre-NRs, only the expression levels of G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-B3, G2/mitotic-specific cyclin-A and aurora kinase A increased significantly, being approximately 3-, 3- and 2-fold in pre-NRs as high as in workers. 【Conclusion】 The ovarian development of R. labralis workers is arrested at late instar stage, and the oocyte development and meiotic resumption begin after the workers develop into NRs.
    Positional cloning of the mutant gene of the non-diapause red egg mutant Re-nd in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHANG Hai-Yan, WU Jin-Xin, ZHANG Yun-Gui, ZHAO Ping, LIN Ying
    2022, 65(6):  668-674.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.002
    Abstract ( 58 )   PDF (2059KB) ( 39 )     
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     【Aim】 Re-nd, a non-diapause red egg mutant of Bombyx mori, is the only mutant with bright red egg color in non-diapause. This study aims to determine the chromosome and tightly linked location of the mutant gene of Re-nd by genetic linkage analysis and positional cloning, so as to lay a foundation for functional research and application of the Re-nd mutant. 【Methods】 The experimental materials for genetic linkage analysis and positional cloning were prepared by hybridization of the mutant Re-nd and the wild-type Dazao of B. mori. The SNP markers were developed for the whole chromosomes of B. mori and used for genetic linkage analysis with the BC1 generation population materials to determine the chromosome where the mutant gene of Re-nd is located. Then the SNP markers were developed for this chromosome and used for positional cloning of the mutant gene of Re-nd with the BC1 generation population materials. 【Results】 The genetic linkage analysis results showed that the mutation phenotype of Re-nd was completely linked to the SNP markers on chromosome 6. The preliminary positional cloning results showed that the mutant gene of Re-nd was located between the SNP markers SNP7 and SNP17, with a physical distance of 4.04 Mb. The fine positional cloning was performed with six SNP markers between the SNP markers SNP7 and SNP17 and 25 recombined individuals screened, and the results showed that the region of the mutant gene of Re-nd was located on nscaf2853 between the SNP markers SNP10 and SNP12, with a physical distance of about 949.3 kb. 【Conclusion】 The mutant gene of Re-nd is located between the SNP markers SNP10 and SNP12 on chromosome 6, with a physical distance of 949.3 kb. This study lays the foundation for the fine positioning and the functional research and application of the Re-nd mutant genes.
    Function of vitellogenin receptor gene TaVgR in the regulation of reproductive development in Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    YAN Xin, YANG Hong, SONG Jia-Hui, LI Ren-Gui, ZHANG Yi-Bo, YANG Wen-Jia
    2022, 65(6):  675-683.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.003
    Abstract ( 92 )   PDF (2271KB) ( 54 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the function of vitellogenin receptor (VgR) in the reproductive development of the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta, so as to provide a potential target for the green control of leaf miner pests. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptomic data of T. absoluta, the full-length cDNA sequence of TaVgR was amplified by RT-PCR and analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression patterns of TaVgR in different developmental stages (1st-4th instar larvae, 1-7-day-old female pupae, and female adults) and female adult tissues (head, integument, foregut, midgut, hindgut, ovary, fat body, and Malpighian tubules) of T. absoluta were examined by RT-qPCR. RNAi was used to inhibit the expression of TaVgR in female pupae, and the changes in the ovarian development and fecundity of T. absoluta were observed after silencing of TaVgR. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of TaVgR (GenBank accession no.: MZ682118) of T. absoluta was cloned. It contains an open reading frame of 5 496 bp in length, encoding 1 831 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 206 kD and isoelectric point of 5.17. The deduced protein of TaVgR has a signal peptide with 18 amino acid residues at the N-terminus and harbours the typical conserved functional domains of LDLR family proteins. The RT-qPCR results showed that the transcriptional level of TaVgR gradually rose with the increase of age of T. absoluta and reached the peak after female adult emergence. TaVgR exhibited the highest expression level in the ovaries of female adults of T. absoluta. RNAi of TaVgR inhibited the expression level of TaVgR in the early female pupae by 62.04%-72.55%, led to disruption of the deposition of yolk protein in the ovary, shortened the lengths of ovarioles and eggs, and reduced the total number of eggs laid per female adult in 10 d and the egg hatching rate of offspring, resulting in a decline in fertility. 【Conclusion】 TaVgR is ighly expressed in female adults and ovaries of T. absoluta. Silencing of TaVgR severely blocks the ovarian development of T. absoluta and impairs its fecundity. This study lays a theoretical foundation for the development of new control strategies of lepidopteran pests with VgR gene as the target.
    Identification and analysis of piRNAs in the midgut of Apismellifera ligustica workers
    FAN Xiao-Xue, LONG Qi, SUN Ming-Hui, GUO Yi-Long, ZHAO Hao-Dong, SONG Yue-Mei, KANG Yu-Xin, GU Xiao-Yu, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2022, 65(6):  684-694.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.004
    Abstract ( 52 )   PDF (6675KB) ( 17 )   PDF(mobile) (6675KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) play a key regulatory role in crucial biological processes such as development and immunity in insects. The objective of this study is to enrich the information of Apis mellifera piRNAs and to provide a basis for further exploration of the molecular mechanism underlying differentially expressed piRNA (DEpiRNA) regulation of the development of the midgut of A. m. ligustica workers. 【Methods】 piRNAs were predicated and analyzed based on previously gained small RNA (sRNA) omics data from the midguts of the 7-day-old (Am7) and 10-day-old (Am10) workers of A. m. ligustica. The sRNA data after quality control was mapped to the reference genome of A. mellifera, the mapped tags were then further mapped to database to filter out small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as rRNAs and tRNAs, and the identification of piRNAs according to their length characteristics followed. The expression levels of piRNAs were calculated and normalized using tags per million (TPM) arithmetic. DEpiRNAs in the Am7 vs Am10 comparison group were screened out according to the standard of |log2 fold change|≥1 and P≤0.05. Target mRNAs of DEpiRNAs were predicated with related software, and GO and KEGG annotation of DEpiRNAs was performed. The DEpiRNA-mRNA regulatory networks were visualized with Cytoscape software. The expression of six randomly selected piRNAs shared in Am7 and Am10 was verified by Stem-loop RT-PCR, and the expression trends of six randomly selected DEpiRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 In total, we identified 596 piRNAs from the midgut of A. m. ligustica workers. The length distribution of the above-mentioned piRNAs was among 24-33 nt, and there was obvious difference in the bias of the first base of piRNAs in different lengths within Am7 and Am10 groups. Additionally, we identified 41 DEpiRNAs in the Am7 vs Am10 comparison group, in which piR-ame-11093, piR-ame-111451,piR-ame-190949 and piR-ame-932156 could target 1 195, 1 018, 4 040 and 1 063 mRNAs, respectively. These target mRNAs could be respectively annotated to 45 functional terms and 45 pathways. Stem-loop RT-PCR results verified the true expression of six piRNAs (piR-ame-1084826, piR-ame-11093, piR-ame-14476, piR-ame-24995, piR-ame-39500 and piR-ame-774987). RT-qPCR results exhibited that the expression trends of six DEpiRNAs (piR-ame-1084826, piR-ame-11093, piR-ame-14476, piR-ame-24995, piR-ame-39500 and piR-ame-774987) were in accordance with those in the sequencing data, confirming the reliability of sRNA-seq data and the authenticity of differential expression trends of piRNAs in this study. 【Conclusion】 In this study, a total of 596 piRNAs have been identified from the midgut of A. m. ligustica workers, with a length distribution of 24-33 nt. The bias of the first base of piRNAs with various length distribution ranges has apparent differences, and piR-ame-11093, piR-ame-1111451, piR-ame-190949 and piR-ame-932156 are potentially involved in the developmental process of the midgut of A. m. ligustica workers via regulation of target gene expression.
    Structures of the midgut and Malpighian tubules in the cave cricket, Tachycines asynamorus (Orthoptera: Rhaphidophoridae)
    ZHANG Li-Dan, GONG Xu-Ping, PENG Xin-Fei, SHI Fu-Ming, CHANG Yan-Lin
    2022, 65(6):  695-707.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.005
    Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (35850KB) ( 35 )     
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    【Aim】 Taking the cave cricket, Tachycines asynamorus, as an example, this study aims to explore the structural adaptation relationship of digestive system and excretory system of cave crickets to living environment. 【Methods】 The structures of midgut and Malpighian tubules of T. asynamorus were explored by anatomical methods, paraffin section, frozen section and ultrathin section. 【Results】 Three gastric caeca of midgut of T. asynamorus extend forward to enclose a proventriculus. The midgut epithelia consist of regenerative cells, columnar cells, and endocrine cells, with typical niches of regenerative cells. Closed endocrine cells are usually located in the periphery of the niches and a large number of secretory granules are gathered in the basal region of endocrine cells. There are two kinds of large secretory granules in columnar cells, linear clump-like ones and spherical ones with high electron density. In the lumen of the midgut, there is a distinct peritrophic matrix. The base of the midgut is composed by the basal lamina and muscle layer. Malpighian tubules are joined to the digestive tract at the junction of the midgut and the hindgut. The transverse section of the Malpighian tubules contains 3-5 cells. There are a vast number of long microvilli in the apical side of the cells, facing the lumen. Numerous concentrically layered spherites with dense electrons were observed in the cells. In the basal regions of the epithelial cells, there are numerous basement membranes which form membrane labyrinth by infolding. 【Conclusion】In the midgut of T. asynamorus, the linear clump-like secretory granules in columnar cells are wrapped by microfilaments. The endocrine cells from the niche stem cell produce endocrine granules, and then excrete the endocrine granules into the hemocoel. The midgut basal lamina including glycoconjugates and microfilaments develops well and provides support for intestinal peristalsis by supporting midgut epithelial cells. A large number of particles and concentrically layered spherites exist in the Malpighian tubule cells of T. asynamorus, implying their functions of storage and excretion.
    Identification and analysis of microRNAs in Nosema ceranae spores
    ZHANG Wen-De, ZHAO Hao-Dong, SUN Ming-Hui, YU Ke-Jun, GUO Yi-Long, ZHU Le-Ran, HU Ying, ZHAO Xiao, YE Ya-Ping, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2022, 65(6):  708-717.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.006
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (5404KB) ( 18 )     
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    【Aim】 To enrich the information of microRNA (miRNA) in Nosema ceranae and to provide theoretical and experimental bases for further exploration of the function of miRNAs in pathogen spore and pathogen infection. 【Methods】 Based on the gained data from small RNA-seq, miRNAs in the clean spores of N. ceranae were identified and analyzed using bioinformatics software. Stem-loop RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of the identified miRNAs. Sequences of miRNAs were validated by molecular cloning and Sanger sequencing. Target genes of these miRNAs were predicted with TargetFinder software and then annotated to databases. The regulatory network was constructed based on the the targeting relationship between miRNAs and their target genes, followed by visualization with Cytoscape software. 【Results】 In total, 10 miRNAs were identified in N. ceranae spores. The length distribution of these miRNAs ranged from 21 to 25 nt. The first base of these miRNAs showed a U bias, and there was an obvious difference in the bias at each base. The result of stem-loop RT-PCR indicated that the 10 miRNAs were truly expressed, and Sanger sequencing confirmed the reliability of sequences of two miRNAs randomly selected from them. A total of 249 target genes were predicted, among which 249, 118, 136 and 3 target genes could be annotated to Nr, Swiss-Prot, KOG and eggNOG databases, respectively. In addition, 134 and 71 target genes could be respectively annotated to 30 functional terms in GO database and 54 pathways in KEGG database. 【Conclusion】 The findings reveal the presence and expression of miRNAs in N. ceranae spores. These miRNAs may participate in vital activities in spores via regulating the expression of potential target genes.
    Comparison of responses of Frankliniella occidentalis and F. intonsa (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) to chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad under elevated CO2
    FAN Zong-Fang, CHEN Ya-Ping, FAN Rui, HE Shu-Qi, GUI Fu-Rong
    2022, 65(6):  718-729.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.007
    Abstract ( 67 )   PDF (1647KB) ( 42 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to compare the effects on the toxicities of chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad and the activities of their protective enzymes, detoxifying enzymes and so on in Frankliniella occidentalis and F. intonsa adults under different CO2 concentrations, so as to provide guidance for the resistance management of thrips to chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad under elevated CO2 and timely adjustment of pest management strategies. 【Methods】 The toxicities [medium lethal concentration (LC50 value) and sublethal concentration (LC25 value)] of chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad to adults of the two thrips under the ambient CO2 concentration (400 μL/L) and the elevated CO2 concentration (800 μL/L) were determined by dipping method. The activities of protective enzymes [superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT)], detoxifying enzymes [carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and cytochrome P450 enzyme system (CYP450)] and acetylcholine esterase (AChE) in adults of the two thrips exposed to LC25 of chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad for 48 h under the two CO2 concentrations were determined with enzymatic activity assay. 【Results】 The LC50 values of chlorfenapyr against F. occidentalis and F. intonsa adults in 48 h under the 800 μL/L CO2 concentration were 1.33 and 0.37 mg/L, respectively, which were 0.68 and 0.66 times those under the 400 μL/L CO2 concentration, respectively. The LC25 values of chlorfenapyr against F. occidentalis and F. intonsa adults in 48 h under the 800 μL/L CO2 concentration were 0.60 and 0.24 mg/L, respectively, which were 0.61 and 0.83 times those under the 400 μL/L CO2 concentration, respectively. The LC50 values of tolfenpyrad against F. occidentalis and F. intonsa adults in 48 h under the 800 μL/L CO2 concentration were 1 002.64 mg/L and 247.66 mg/L, respectively, which were 0.98 and 0.78 times those under the 400 μL/L CO2 concentration, respectively. The LC25 values of tolfenpyrad against F. occidentalis and F. intonsa adults in 48 h under the 800 μL/L CO2 concentration were 368.77 and 146.10 mg/L, respectively, which were 2.44 and 1.21 times those under the 400 μL/L CO2 concentration, respectively. The activities of the tested enzymes (except CYP450) in adults of both thrips exposed to LC25 of chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad for 48 h under the 800 μL/L CO2 concentration were higher than those under the 400 μL/L CO2 concentration, and the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and AChE in F. occidentalis adults were significantly higher than those in F. intonsa adults under the two CO2 concentrations. Under the two CO2 concentrations, the activities of protective enzymes (except SOD in F. intonsa under 400 μL/L CO2) in adults of both thrips exposed to LC25 of tolfenpyrad were significantly higher than those in the control (treatment with distilled water containing 0.1% Tween-80), and the activities of SOD and CAT in F. occidentalis adults were the highest, being 39.74±1.59 and 37.93±1.31 U/mg pro, respectively. After being exposed to LC25 of chlorfenapyr and tolfenpyrad for 48 h under the two CO2 concentrations, the CarE activities in F. occidentalis adults were significantly decreased, while those in F. intonsa adults increased as compared to those in the control, with significant difference after treatment with tolfenpyrad, the AChE activities in adults of both thrips were significantly enhanced as compared to those in the control under the two CO2 concentrations. 【Conclusion】 Elevated CO2 directly enhances the efficacy of insecticides to F. occidentalis and F. intonsa, while F. intonsa is more susceptible to these two insecticides than F. occidentalis, and F. occidentalis shows stronger adaptability to these two insecticides than F. intonsa.
    Biological characteristics of overwintering nymphs of the horned-gall aphid, Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    XU Xin, WEI Hong-Yuan, FENG Guo-Rui, SHAO Shu-Xia, YANG Zi-Xiang
    2022, 65(6):  730-736.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.008
    Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (3986KB) ( 33 )     
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    【Aim】 The horned-gall aphid, Schlechtendalia chinensis, is the major productive species of Chinese gallnuts. Understanding the biological characteristics and population dynamics of its overwintering nymphs under the condition of soilless moss in the field will provide a basis for further reducing the mortality of overwintering nymphs and increasing the yield of Chinese gallnuts. 【Methods】 The overwintering nymphs of S. chinensis were reared in the field on the host moss Plagiomnium maximoviczii which was planted on the non-woven fabrics. Mosses with S.chinensis at different developmental stages were collected regularly and brought back to the laboratory. The behavioral habits, morphological characteristics, population dynamics and instar distributions of S. chinensis nymphs during overwintering were investigated using a digital microscopic system. The thickness and coverage rate of P. maximoviczii duringtheoverwinteringperiodwere measured as well. 【Results】 Autumn migrants of S. chinensis reproduce ovoviviparously. The nymphs of S. chinensis excrete wax at the base of phyllidia of P. maximoviczii and wrap themselves individually to form wax balls where they feed and overwinter. Usually there is a single nymph in a wax ball. The body color of nymphs from the 1st instar to the 4th instar deepens gradually from light yellow to dark brown. The body length and width of nymphs increased with the nymphal instar, from 552.92±16.95 and 294.70±11.52 μm of the 1st instar nymphs to 1 205.25±10.75 and 593.15±7.66 μm of the 4th instar nymphs, respectively. During the overwintering period, the population density of nymphs dropped from 131 000 aphids/m2 in mid-October to 10 500 aphids/m2 in next March. The total mortality rate was as high as 91.98%. The developmental progress of overwintering nymphs was irregular and closely related to the changes of local temperature. The thickness and coverage rate of the moss layer increased gradually during overwintering of S. chinensis nymphs. 【Conclusion】 The body length and body width may be used as the main indicators for the identification of different instars of overwintering nymphs of S. chinensis. The total mortality rate of overwintering nymphs of S. chinensis in the field is very high, and the mortality rates during the early overwintering stage and the middle host-transferring stage are higher than those during the other stages.
    Effects of physical characteristics and nutrients of host plants on the host selectivity of Pyrrhocoris tibialis (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae)
    ZHAO Rui, NIU Yue, WANG Ya-Li, WANG Mei, ZHAO Meng-Meng, ZHANG Xiao-Chen, JIAO Li-Ya-Lin, HAN Yuan-Huai, LI Rui
    2022, 65(6):  737-748.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.009
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (2579KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 Pyrrhocoris tibialis is an important agricultural herbivorous pest with a wide host range. In this study, the feeding preference of P. tibialis to different plants was investigated, and the effects of physical characteristics and nutrients of host plants on the host selection behavior of P. tibialis adults were analyzed to explore the host selection behavior mechanism of P. tibialis from the perspective of host physical and chemical properties, so as to provide guidance for breeding of insect-resistant crops. 【Methods】 The feeding selectivity of P. tibialis adults to leaves of five host plants including Setaria italica, Sorghum bicolor, Vigna radiata, Glycine max and Zea mays was studied by free selection method, the taxis responses of P. tibialis to the odors from leaves of the five plants were detected by Y-tuber olfactometer, and the correlations between the leaf physical characteristics and contents of main nutrients in leaves of the five host plants and the feeding selectivity of P. tibialis were assayed and analyzed. 【Results】 P. tibialis adults showed significant difference in the feeding selection rate to leaves of the five host plants, in a descending order of millet > sorghum > mung bean = soybean > corn, and their percentages of taxis response to the odors from leaves of the five host plants exhibited the same results. Correlation analysis showed that the feeding selectivity of P. tibialis adults was significantly positively correlated with the blade aspect ratio, water content and abaxial pubescence density of leaves, with the correlation coefficients of 0.881, 0.884 and 0.906, respectively, whereas it was significantly negatively correlated with the changes in soluble sugar and total protein contents in leaves of host plants before and after being fed by P. tibialis adults, with the correlation coefficients of -0.915 and -0.951, respectively. Path analysis showed that the changes in abaxial pubescence density and total protein content in leaves of host plants were important determinants of host selectivity of P. tibialis. 【Conclusion】 There exist differences in feeding selection and taxis of P. tibialis adults to different host plants. The feeding selection of P. tibialis adults is related to the blade aspect ratio, abaxial pubescence density, water content, and the changes in soluble sugar and total protein contents in leaves of host plants.
    Effects of developmental stage of soybean pods on the adult longevity and fecundity of Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae)
    TIAN Xin-Yue, HU Ying-Lu, LI Wen-Bo, GAO Yu, SHI Shu-Sen
    2022, 65(6):  749-756.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.010
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (2157KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of developmental stage of soybean pods on the survival and fecundity of the bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) adults. 【Methods】 Different day-old (5-, 15-, 25-, 35- and 45-d-old) fresh pods in vitro were fed to R. pedestris adults at the constant temperature of 24℃±1℃ in the laboratory. The biological parameters of R. pedestris including the adult longevity, pre-oviposition period, oviposition period, and number of eggs laid per female, and the contents of fat, total proteins and total sugars in seeds of different day-old pods were determined. The correlations between the biological parameters of R. pedestris adults and the contents of main nutrients in seeds of different day-old pods were analyzed. 【Results】 With the increase of pod age, the average longevity, oviposition period, and number of eggs laid per female of R. pedestris adults increased first and then decreased, while the pre-oviposition period showed the opposite change trend. When fed with the 35-d-old pods, R. pedestris adults had the longest longevity (56.90±9.47 d), the shortest pre-oviposition period (6.00±0.58 d), the longest oviposition period (29.67±6.61 d), and the highest number of eggs laid per female (129.56±36.53), showing significant differences from adults fed with the other day-old pods. The adult longevity, oviposition period, and number of eggs laid per female of R. pedestris were significantly positively correlated with the contents of fat and total proteins in seeds of pods, while the pre-oviposition period was significant negatively correlated with the contents of fat and total proteins in seeds of pods. 【Conclusion】 The developmental stage of soybean pods has significant effects on such biological parameters as the longevity and fecundity of R. pedestris adults, and the 35-d-old pods are the most conducive to the survival and reproduction of R. pedestris adults.
    Oviposition preference of Serangium japonicum (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) to different tomato varieties and its influencing factors
    MEI Wen-Juan, LIN Shuo, ZHANG Qian-Rong, DING Xue-Ling, ZHENG Yu, LU Xue-Song, YAO Feng-Luan, HE Yu-Xian, WENG Qi-Yong
    2022, 65(6):  757-771.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.011
    Abstract ( 68 )   PDF (7237KB) ( 29 )     
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    Aim】 This study aims to explore the oviposition preference of Serangium japonicum to tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) varieties with different densities and types of leaf trichomes. 【Methods】 We selected four tomato varieties including Zhenmu 101, Minfenying 1, Zhenmu 301 and Yiseliechaojijingang as the host plants of S. japonicumobserved the microstructure of the abaxial leaf surface (ALS) under scanning electronic microscopy, and counted the types and densities of leaf trichomes on the ALS. We determined the proportions of eggs laid by female adults of S. japonicum on leaf discs and plants of the four tomato varieties bearing Bemisia tabaci eggs, the offspring and adult performance such as the development, fecundity and predation capability, and attachment force of S. japonicum on the leaves of the four tomato varieties, the preference of female adults of S. japonicum to the odours from healthy leaves and B. tabaci-infected leaves of the four tomato varieties, and the risk of egg cannibalism on leaf discs and plants of four tomato varieties. 【Results】There are type Ⅱ, type Ⅲ and type Ⅴ non-glandular trichomes, and type Ⅰ, type Ⅳ, type Ⅵ and type Ⅶ glandular trichomes on the ALS of four tomato varieties, and type Ⅴ trichomes have the highest density. Yiseliechaojijingang has the lowest density of leaf trichomes among the four tested tomato varieties. S. japonicum preferred to lay eggs on the tomato variety Yiseliechaojijingang. The fecundity of S. japonicum on the tomato varieties Yiseliechaojijingang, Zhenmu 101 and Minfenying 1 (165-223.92 eggs per female) was significantly higher than that on the tomato variety Zhenmu 301 (28.09 eggs per female). S. japonicum offspring had the shortest developmental duration (egg to adult duration) (15.73 d) on Minfenying 1, while had the longest developmental duration (23.00 d) on Zhenmu 101. However, the proportions of S. japonicum eggs laid on the four tomato varieties had no significant correlation with the offspring and adult performance, but were positively correlated with the risk of egg cannibalism. The proportions of S. japonicum eggs laid on the four tomato varieties had no significant correlation with the attachment force and the density of leaf trichomes on the ALS. The densities of the seven types of trichomes were significantly different among the four tomato varieties. The density of type Ⅰ glandular trichomes was negatively correlated with the fecundity (number of eggs laid per female in 30 d) of S. japonicum, but the density of the other six types of trichomes had no correlation with the offspring and adult performance of S. japonicum. The female adults of S. japonicum had no obvious preference to odours from the four tomato varieties. The proportions of eggs consumed by cannibalistic S. japonicum on leaf discs and plants of the four tomato varieties were significantly different. 【Conclusion】Female adults of S. japonicum prefer to lay eggs on leaves of tomato varieties with low density of leaf trichomes, and tomato glandular trichomes have great influence on the life activities of S. japonicum adults.
    Grooming behaviors of adults of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    HE Zhang-Zhang, GUI Lian-You, YANG Xuan, TIAN Tian, ZHANG Zhi-Liang, ZHOU Ren-Di, HUA Deng-Ke, LIU Wen-Ru, JIANG Zhen-Yu, TANG Jian-Tao
    2022, 65(6):  772-781.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.012
    Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (3744KB) ( 23 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the types and rules of grooming behaviors of adults of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the development of new targets and effective green pest control strategies to control B. minax. 【Methods】 The ethogram, average time of one grooming and proportion of frequencies of grooming behaviors of B. minax adults were analyzed with video technology and the detection and statistics system of grooming behaviors of B. minax adults based on computer vision recognition technology. 【Results】 The results showed that the female and male adults of B. minax have 9 and 8 types of grooming behaviors, respectively, including foreleg, hindleg, ommateum, antenna, mouthpart, abdomen, wing and midleg grooming for both female and male, and additional ovipositor grooming for the female. B. minax adults could optionally transit from non-grooming behaviors to all types of grooming behaviors, or transit from any type of grooming behavior to non-grooming behavior. There are significant differences in the proportion of frequencies and the average time of one grooming among all types of grooming behaviors. The proportions of frequencies of foreleg grooming of female and male adults (♀: 33.70%±2.53%; ♂: 33.89%±2.43%) and the average time of one wing grooming of female and male adults (♀: 15.58±2.55 s; ♂: 24.76±4.12 s) were the highest. 【Conclusion】 The time series of various types of grooming behaviors of B. minax adults is not fixed, but there are some intrinsic connections among these behaviours.
    Analysis of the genetic differentiation of Velarifictorus micado (Orthoptera: Gryllidae) with different diapause types in Zhejiang Province of eastern China based on microsatellite markers
    WANG Bai-Qiu, SHEN Chu-Ze, WU Xue, XIE Hui-Cong, ZONG Jing-Song, YU Zhe-Yuan, BAI Yun, LI Kai, HE ZhuQing
    2022, 65(6):  782-790.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.06.013
    Abstract ( 38 )   PDF (3338KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 Velarifictorus micado has two types of diapause, egg diapause and nymphal diapause, which are sympatrically distributed in the Yangtze River basin. The objective of this study is to explore the genetic differentiation of V. micado populations between different diapause types sympatrically distributed in Zhejiang Province of eastern China. 【Methods】Microsatellite loci with high polymorphism were screened with materials of 134 individuals of six populations of V. micado with different diapause types from three areas, Baishanzu, Dapanshan and Tiantongshan, in Zhejiang Province, and the population genetic analysis of the 134 individuals of six populations of V. micado was performed using the screened microsatellite loci.【Results】 Eleven microsatellite loci with high polymorphism were obtained. For all populations, the mean number of alleles was 13.803, and the mean observed heterozygosity was 0.743. The observed heterozygosity of egg diapause populations from Baishanzu was the lowest, indicating the largest genetic differentiation with other populations. Besides, the gene flow between egg diapause populations from Baishanzu and the other populations was low, while the other populations showed higher levels of gene flow. 【Conclusion】 There is low degree of genetic differentiation and high level of gene flow among different populations of V. micado with different diapause types in Zhejiang, showing no trend of species differentiation.
     Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 6
    2022, 65(6):  791-791. 
    Abstract ( 22 )   PDF (518KB) ( 7 )     
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