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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2024, Volume 67 Issue 1
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    Cloning  of Cu/Zn-SODl, Cu/Zn-SOD2 and Fe/Mn-SOD in Liposce1is bostrychophilα  (Psocoptera:  Liposce1ididae)   and their responseto  high and1ow temperature stresses

    WANG Xiao, XU De-Jun, ZHU Bin-Jian, XU Jun-Ting, AO Guo-Hong, ZHANG Chang-Yu, HAN Kai-Yu
    2024, 67(1):  1-8.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.001
    Abstract ( 63 )   PDF (1664KB) ( 38 )   PDF(mobile) (1664KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the role of the superoxide dismutase genes in Liposcelis bostrychophila in response to high and low temperature stresses. 【Methods】The cDNAs of three superoxide dismutase genes Cu/Zn-SOD1Cu/Zn-SOD2 and Fe/Mn-SOD of L. bostrychophila were cloned by RT-PCR, and their sequence characteristics were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. RT-qPCR was used to detect the relative expression levels of Cu/Zn-SOD1Cu/Zn-SOD2 and Fe/Mn-SOD in adults at 0, 1 and 2 h under high temperature (42 ℃) and low temperature (4 ℃) stresses. 【Results】 LbCu/Zn-SOD1LbCu/Zn-SOD2 and LbFe/Mn-SOD (GenBank accession numbers are OQ938782, OQ938783 and OQ938784, respectively) of L. bostrychophila were cloned, with the open reading frames (ORFs) of 465, 630 and 636 bp in length, encoding 154, 209 and 211 amino acids with the relative molecular weights of 15.85, 22.33 and 23.72 kD, and the isoelectric points of 6.17, 7.68 and 6.79, respectively. LbCu/Zn-SOD1 and LbCu/Zn-SOD2 had one and two Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase signatures, respectively. LbFe/Mn-SOD had one Fe/Mn superoxide dismutase signature. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that Cu/Zn-SOD1, Cu/Zn-SOD2 and Fe/Mn-SOD were highly conserved in insects. The expression of LbCu/Zn-SOD1LbCu/Zn-SOD2 and LbFe/Mn-SOD in adults of L. bostrychophila was induced by high temperature42 ℃ stress, and the expression levels of LbCu/Zn-SOD1 and LbCu/Zn-SOD2 inadults of L. bostrychophila were significantly higher than that of the control at 1 and 2 h. The expression level of LbFe/Mn-SOD in adults of L. bostrychophila was significantly lower than that of the control at 1 h and significantly higher than that of the control at 2 h under42 ℃stress. There was no significant difference in the expression levels of LbCu/Zn-SOD1 and LbCu/Zn-SOD2 inadults of L. bostrychophila at 1 h, while that of LbFe/Mn-SOD decreased significantly at 1 h and those of LbCu/Zn-SOD1LbCu/Zn-SOD2 and LbFe/Mn-SOD increased significantly at 2 h under 4 ℃stress as compared with that of the control. 【Conclusion】 The superoxide dismutase genes LbCu/Zn-SOD1LbCu/Zn-SOD2 and LbFe/Mn-SOD are involved in the tolerance of L. bostrychophila to extreme temperature stress.

    Analysis of expression patterns of genes involved in pigment pathways in the tergum of the red- and black-backed Apis cerana cerana adult workers

    WANG Ruo-Hong, YANG Zhen-Hui, ZHOU Shi-Wen, WU Yu-Jia, LI Qiu-Fang, LIANG Li-Qiang, SHI Dan-Dan, YANG Shang-Ning, MIAO Liu-Chang, SU Song-Kun, NIE Hong-Yi
    2024, 67(1):  9-17.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.002
    Abstract ( 72 )   PDF (2704KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (2704KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】To analyze the differential expression of genes involved in the pigment pathway of red-backed Apis cerana cerana and reveal the molecular mechanism of pigment formation of red-backed A. cerana cerana. 【Methods】 The differences in the adult worker body color between the newly emerged red- and black-backed (normal individuals) A. cerana cerana were observed using stereomicroscope. Homologous genes of 8 genes related to melanin metabolism pathway (PAHTHDDCebonytanaaNATyellow-y and laccase 2), 4 genes related to pterin pathway (GTPCH ISPRPTPS and GC-1), 2 genes related to ommochrome pigment pathway (vermilion and cinnabar), and 4 genes related to urate transport protein (BLOS2HPS5OK and Varp) were identified in adult A. cerana cerana workers via BLAST. The relative expression levels of the above genes involved in pigment pathways in the thoracic tergum and abdominal integument of the red- and black-backed A. cerana cerana adult workers were detected by fluorescence quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The color difference in the adult worker body color between the red- and black-backed A. cerana cerana was found on thoracic tergum. The thoracic tergum of the red-backed A. cerana cerana is in brownish red, while that of the black-backed A. cerana cerana is in black. The fluorescence quantitative PCR results showed that the expression levels of tanlaccase 2, SPRvermilioncinnabarBLOS2 and OK and that of OK in the thoracic tergum and abdominal integument had significant difference, respectively, between the red-backed adult A. cerana cerana workers and black-backed adult A. cerana cerana workers. 【Conclusion】 Red-backed A. cerana cerana and black-backed A. cerana cerana have obvious body color difference on the thoracic tergum. This phenomenon of body color differentiation is influenced by the combined effects of genes related to melanin, pterin and ommochrome pigment pathways, and urate transport in honeybee.

    Molecular properties, spatio-temporal expression profiles and antibody preparation of AmAGO1 protein of Apis mellifera

    YE Ya-Ping, LIU Zhi-Tan, LI Qi-Ming, ZANG He, FENG Pei-Lin, WANG Ning, WANG Jie, HUANG Zhi-Jian, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2024, 67(1):  18-28.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.003
    Abstract ( 41 )   PDF (7393KB) ( 19 )   PDF(mobile) (7393KB) ( 1 )     
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    【Aim】 As a highly conserved protein family in evolution, Argonaute (AGO) family mainly engages in the formation of RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) in eukaryotes to silence gene expression and further participate in numerous biological processes. Currently, studies on AGO proteins of honey bees are lacking. This study aims to provide the reference and basis for further performing study on function and mechanism of AGO1 of Apis mellifera AmAGO1 by predicting the physicochemical and molecular properties of AmAGO1, analyzing the spatio-temporal expression profiles of AmAGO1, and preparing the polyclonal antibodies against AmAGO1.【Methods】 The coding sequence (CDS) of AmAGO1 of A. mellifera was amplified using PCR amplification followed by predicting the the physicochemical and molecular properties of AmAGO1 protein using bioinformatics. The expression levels of AmAGO1 inthe egg, 3-day-old larva, 7-day-old prepupa, 8-day-old prepupa, 12-day-old pupa, 1-, 2-, 6-, 12-, 15- and 18-day-old adult A. mellifera workers, and in the antenna, hypopharyngeal gland, brain, cuticle, midgut, fat body and venom gland of adult workers were detected by RT-qPCR. After constructing prokaryotic expression plasmid, AmAGO1 fusion protein was induced and its expression form was identified. The polyclonal antibody against AmAGO1 was prepared and the titer, sensitivity and specificity of the antibody were further detected by ELISA, Western blot and immunoprecipitation (IP), respectively. 【Results】The CDS of AmAGO1 was successfully cloned from A. mellifera. AmAGO1 contains 928 amino acids, with the molecular formula C4624H7332N1316O1325S51, the molecular weight of about 104.2 kD, isoelectric point of 9.31, average hydrophilic coefficient of –0.2965, 86 phosphorylation sites, and the typical domains PAZ and PIWI, without typical signal peptides. There was a high amino acide sequence identity of AGO1 proteins of Homo sapiensDanio rerioDrosophila melanogasterBombyx moriA. melliferaA. cerana, and Bombus terrestris. AGO1s from A. mellifera and A. cerana were clustered into one branch, with the highest homology. AmAGO1 was differentially expressed in egg, larva, prepupa, pupa, and adult of A. mellifera. The expression levels of AmAGO1 inthe 3-day-old larva and 7-day-old prepupae were significantly lower than that in the egg, while those in the 8-day-old prepupae and 12-day-old pupae were significantly higher than that in the egg of A. mellifera workers. AmAGO1 was differentially expressed in the 1-, 2-, 6-, 12-, 15-, and 18-day-old adults. The expression levels of AmAGO1 inthe 2-, 6-, 12-, 15- and 18-day-old adults were significantly lower than that in the 1-day-old adults. AmAGO1 was differentially expressed in the antenna, venom gland, brain, midgut, hypopharyngeal gland, fat body and cuticle of worker adults. The expression level of AmAGO1 inthe antenna was significantly higher than those in venom gland, brain, midgut, fat body and cuticle but as the same as that in the hypopharyngeal gland. The expression form of AmAGO1 fusion protein was inclusion body. The prepared AmAGO1 polyclonal antibody had high titer, sensitivity and specificity. 【Conclusion】 AmAGO1 may be a hydrophilic intracellular protein which contains typical PAZ and PIWI domains. AmAGO1 plays a potentially important role in different tissues and developmental stages of A. mellifera workers. AGO1 polyclonal antibody with high titer, high sensitivity, and strong specificity was successfully prepared.

    Identification of resistance of the chalkbrood resistance-associated SNP locus C2587245T in drone larvae of Apis mellifera ligustica

    TANG Shao-Han, GENG Long, WU Zun, ZENG Zhao-Yang, WANG Zi-Han, LIANG Li-Qiang, LÜ Yang, XU Xue-Ling, NIE Hong-Yi, LI Zhi-Guo, SU Song-Kun
    2024, 67(1):  29-37.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.004
    Abstract ( 53 )   PDF (7026KB) ( 19 )   PDF(mobile) (7026KB) ( 1 )     
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    【Aim】 Based on the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) locus C2587245T related to the  chalkbrood resistance in drone larvae of Apis mellifera ligustica, the genetic stability and disease resistance of C2587245T were verified, to provide technical support for the direct application of molecular marker-assisted breeding in breeding production. 【Methods】 Spore suspension of the chalkbrood fungus was prepared from infected brood under laboratory conditions, and Ascosphaera apis was identified through morphological and molecular biological methods. DNA of queen bees of A. mellifera ligustica was extracted by noninvasive method, and queen bees with C/C and T/T genotypes at the SNP locus C2587245T were screened. Virgin queens of A. mellifera ligustica with C/C and T/T genotypes were reared, and their eggs were stimulated to develop into drone larvae using carbon dioxide. The 2-day-old drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica with C and T genotypes were selected for laboratory cultivation and the 3-day-old drone larvae were inoculated with 5×104 spore/μL spore suspension of A. apis for 10 d. The growth and survival rate of the drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica with C and T genotypes after inoculation with A. apis were observed and recorded. 【Results】 High-quality DNA could be extracted using the noninvasive method without affecting the normal life of drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica. The rearing method used in this study ensured the normal growth and development of drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica under laboratory conditions. There were extremely significant differences in the onset time and symptoms of the disease between C-genotyped and T-genotyped drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica after inoculating the 3-day-old drone larvae with A. apis. The C-genotyped drone larvae of A. mellifera ligustica showed the typical disease symptoms approximately 2 d later in onset time than the T-genotyped drone larvae. At 6 d after inoculation with A. apis, the symptom differences between the two genotypes of drone larvae were the most pronounced. 【Conclusion】 The SNP locus C2587245T in drones, which is homozygous haploidy due to its biological characteristics, provides a convenient means to verify the homozygous disease resistance. Drone larvae with the C genotype at the SNP locus C2587245T exhibit strong resistance to chalkbrood, and the SNP locus C2587245T demonstrates stable heritability. These research findings can be served as a reliable molecular marker in the field of breeding disease-resistant honeybees, and further provide a basis for subsequent studies such as transcriptome sequencing of male bees, investigating the differential expression of immune-related genes between drones and drone bees, and exploring the specific mechanisms underlying the resistance to chalkbrood conferred by the SNP locus C2587245T.

    Effects of insulin on the growth and development of the entomopathetic nematode Steinernema kraussei 0657Land its symbiotic bacteria Xenorhabdus bovenii 0657L

    LI Xi-Tong, CHEN Hong, WANG Xing-Duo, QIAN Xiu-Juan
    2024, 67(1):  38-47.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.005
    Abstract ( 30 )   PDF (14564KB) ( 24 )   PDF(mobile) (14564KB) ( 2 )     
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     AimTo investigate the effects of insulin on the growth and development of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema kraussei 0657Land its symbiotic bacteria. Methods The 3rd instar larvae of Galleria mellonella were infected with 1.5 mL of 3 000/mL S. kraussei 0657Lsuspension, the symbiotic bacteria  Xenorhabdus bovenii 0657Lwas isolated from S. kraussei 0657Lafter 24 h culture at25 ℃. S. kraussei 0657Lwas fed with X. bovenii 0657Ltreated with 1:500 and 1:5 000 insulin, respectively, the colony diameter and growth rate of X. bovenii 0657Lwere measured by stereomicroscope at1‒6 d after insulin treatment, the lifespan, survival rate, number of head swing per 30 s and number of swallows per 30 s of S. kraussei 0657Lwere calculated to evaluate its average lifespan, locomotion and swallowing ability. Results The colonial diameters of X. bovenii 0657Lin 1:5 000 insulin and 1:500 insulin treatment groups were increased by 77.2% and 54.0%, respectively, during the logarithmic growth period (at 2 d after treatment) as compared with that of the blank control group. The growth rates of X. bovenii 0657Lin 1:5 000 insulin and 1:500 insulin treatment groups were increased from 68.0 µm/d of the blank control group to 120.4 and 104.7 µm/d, respectively. The lifespans of S. kraussei 0657Lin 1:5 000 insulin and 1:500 insulin treatment groups were increased by 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively as compared with that of the blank control group. The numbers of head swing per 30 s of the 3rd instar larvae of S. kraussei 0657Lin 1:5 000 insulin and 1:500 insulin treatment groups were increased by 56.3% and 74.7%, respectively, compared with that of the blank control group. The numbers of swallows per 30 s of the 3rd and 4th instar larvae and adults of S. kraussei 0657Lin 1:5 000 insulin and 1:500 insulin treatment groups were increased by 50.9% and 65.5%, 26.8% and 35.2%, 23.7% and 21.1%, respectively, as compared with that of the blank control group.ConclusionInsulin can significantly promote the growth and increase the growth rate of single colony of the symbiotic bacteria X. bovenii 0657Lof S. kraussei 0657Lwhich can prolong the lifespan of S. kraussei 0657Land improve the locomotion and swallowing ability of entomopathogenic nematode indirectly. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for extending the shelf life of entomopathogenic nematodes and provide a theoretical basis for efficient biological control of entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Recombinant expression of carboxylesterase EoCarE592 of Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) and determination of its ability to degrade pesticides 

    SHUI Liang-Yong, ZHAO Zhong-Yi, FENG Yin, XIE Xiao-Qian, YUAN Xiao-Qin, MAO Xin-Fang, LIU Zhong-Yuan
    2024, 67(1):  48-57.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.006
    Abstract ( 39 )   PDF (3274KB) ( 11 )   PDF(mobile) (3274KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 Prokaryotic expression of EoCarE592, a carboxylesterase (CarE) gene from Ectropis obliqua, and exploration of the ability of the recombinant protein to degrade pesticides.【Methods】 The prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a-EoCarE592 was constructed to be transformed to the Escherichia coli BL21 for heterologous expression. The recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, and the inclusion body protein was denatured and renatured. The enzyme activity of the recombinant EoCarE592, and the effects of the temperature, pH, and metal ions on the enzyme activity were determined by using the content standard curve of solid blue B salt colorimetry. Gas chromatography was used to detect the degradation ability of EoCarE592 under pH 7.0 at30 ℃and 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h to 200 mg/L lambda-cyhalothrin, methyl-parathion and isoprocarb. 【Results】Recombinant EoCarE592 inclusion body protein was obtained through heterologous expression in E. coli. After urea renaturation, the recombinant EoCarE592 with the enzyme activity of 29.8 U was obtained. The optimal temperature and pH were determined to be around30 ℃and 7.0‒8.0, respectively, and Mg2+and Khad a promoting effect on the enzyme activity of EoCarE592. Recombinant EoCarE592 can degrade lambda-cyhalothrin, methyl-parathion and isoprocarb at an initial concentration of 200 mg/L within 24 h at30 ℃, pH 7.0, with the degradation rates of 81.30%, 83.94%, and 79.83%, respectively.【Conclusion】The carboxylase EoCarE592 can degrade lambda-cypermethrin, methyl parathion, and isoprocarb, and  may be involved in the detoxification process of E. obliqua. This study lays a foundation for the degradation of pesticide residues in the environment and fruits and vegetables.

    Electrophysiological and olfactory behavioral responses of adult Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelida) to the volatiles from Vigna angularis and V. radiata seeds

    FAN Nan-Nan, HUANG Jin-Yu, LIU Song, ZHANG Kai, ZHANG Xian-Hong, ZHENG Hai-Xia
    2024, 67(1):  58-67.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.007
    Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (1725KB) ( 15 )   PDF(mobile) (1725KB) ( 7 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the effects of the volatiles from Vigna angularis and V. radiata seeds on the olfactory behavior of adult Callosobruchus chinensis, and to lay a theoretical foundation for the selection of behavioral regulators of C. chinensis. 【Methods】 The volatile compounds from the seeds of V. radiata Jinlv 1 and V. angularis Fenxiaodou 3 were collected and identified by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Based on the electroantennogram (EAG) and olfactory selective behavioral responses, the compounds and formulations with attractiveness were selected, and field trapping experiments were conducted. 【Results】There were 18 common volatile compounds from V. angularis and V. radiata seeds, mainly including aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, alkanes, alcohols, esters and aromatic hydrocarbons, and the four substances with high content, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, hexanal, nonanal and decanal, could cause strong EAG responses in C. chinensis adults, while decane, trans-caryophyllene, 2-methylnaphthalene and cyclohexylbenzene caused relatively weak EAG responses. Olfactory selective behavioral response test showed that hexanal had obviously repellent effects on both female and male adults of C. chinensis, while 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, nonanal and decanal showed attractiveness to female and male adults of C. chinensis. The results of multi-component laboratory behavioral reaction tests showed that when the mix ratio of 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one and nonanal was 1׃2.6, the selection rates of female and male adults reached more than 70%, indicating relatively better attraction effect. However, the selection rates of female and male adults were not up to 60% when 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one and decanal were mixed in a ratio of 1׃3.2, indicating poor attraction effect. 【Conclusion】 The main volatile compounds of V. angularis and V. radiata, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, nonanal and decanal, have good attraction activity against female and male adults of C. chinensis, they may play an important role in the olfactory recognition process of C. chinensis, and can be used to develop behavioral regulators for this pest.

    Biological characteristics of Cyanopterus ninghais (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitoid of Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)

    WANG Shao-Bo, HAN Meng-Jiao, WEI Ke, WANG Xiao-Yi, YANG Zhong-Qi
    2024, 67(1):  68-77.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.008
    Abstract ( 48 )   PDF (11024KB) ( 32 )   PDF(mobile) (11024KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】 Cyanopterus ninghais is an unexplored parasitoid wasp that mainly parasitizes late instar larvae of Monochamus alternatus. To effectively develop the biocontrol potential of C. ninghais and utilize it in biological control of M. alternatus, the biological characteristics of C. ninghais adults were studied. 【Methods】 The eclosion rhythm, mating behavior and parasitization process of C. ninghais adults were observed and recorded through multi-generation rearing in the laboratory. The effect of female mating on the parasitism and reproductive modes of C. ninghais adults were studied by investigating the parasitism rates, offspring numbers and sex ratios in different mating conditions. The host selection of female adult of C. ninghais on M. alternatus at different larval instars and pupa was determined through choice and non-choice tests. Additionally, the adult longevity of C. ninghais was also examined under different nutritional conditions (no feeding, fed with purified water and fed with 20% honey solution). 【Results】 C. ninghais adults eclosed mainly from 6:00 to 12:00, and the eclosed adults accounted for 61.00% of the total eclosed adults. The mating process could be divided into four stages: courtship, precopulation, copulation and postcopulation. The peak mating time was from 17:00 to 21:00. Females mated only once in their lifetime, while males mated multiple times and there was mating competition among males. The parasitization process could also be divided into four steps: host-seeking, host-checking, ovipositing, and carding after completion. The unmated female adult produced only male offspring, while the ratio of female to male produced by mated female adult was 1︰1. C. ninghais was able to parasitize M. alternatus larvae at the 2nd-5th instars, with a strong preference for the 3rd instar larvae. The adult longevity of C. ninghais increased significantly when supplementing nutrition. Both female and male adults of C. ninghais survived the longest days, (35.50±3.31) and (20.80±2.00) d, respectively, when feeding 20% honey solution. 【Conclusion】 C. ninghais is an idiobiont-ectoparasitoid, and could perform both bisexual and parthenogenetic reproduction. The eclosion and mating of C. ninghais adults have obvious circadian rhythm, and they prefer to parasitize the 3rd instar larvae of M. alternatus. Providing honey solution can significantly prolong the longevity of C. ninghais adults. Overall, these findings suggest that C. ninghais has promising potential for further development and application in the biological control of M. alternatus.

    Age-stage, two-sex life table of Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) at different humidities

    ZHANG Bo-Chen, XU Shuang-Ye, WU Zi-Qing, ZHANG Rui, ZHENG Wei-Feng, LI Ya, HAO Chi, YU Qin
    2024, 67(1):  78-89.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.009
    Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (4123KB) ( 22 )   PDF(mobile) (4123KB) ( 5 )     
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    【Aim】To clarify the impact of humidity change on the growth, development and fecundity of Tuta absoluta.【Methods】At the relative humidities of 15%, 35%, 55%, 75% and 95% indoor, the developmental parameters including developmental duration, pre-oviposition period, generation time, larval survival rate, adult survival rate, and number of eggs laid per female of T. absoluta were measured. The age-stage, two-sex life table s of T. absoluta were constructed, and population parameters including survival rate, fecundity, life expectancy, and reproduction value were calculated using the age-stage, two-sex life table.【Results】At the relative humidities of 15%-95%, the egg duration at the relative humidity of 15% and 95% were significantly longer than those at the relative humidities of 35%, 55%, and 75%. The 4th instar larval duration first shortened and then lengthened with the relative humidity increased. The male adult longevity increased with the rising relative humidity, reaching the maximum at  the relative humidity of 95%. The female adult longevity was the longest at the relative humidity of 75%. The generation time was significantly longer at relative humidity of 95% than those at other relative humidities. The number of eggs laid per female increased with the increasing relative humidity. The initial oviposition time of female adults was affected by the relative humidity, the initial oviposition time were 31, 27, 27, 27 and 31 d at the relative humidities of 15%, 35%, 55%, 75% and 95%, respectively. The population age specific net maternity and age-stage-specific reproductive value increased with the rising relative humidity, reaching the maximum at the relative humidity of 95%. The intrinsic rate of increase and finite rate of increase initially increased and then decreased with the rising relative humidity, the net reproductive rate increased with the rising relative humidity. The mean generation time initially decreased and then increased with the rising relative humidity. According to the parameters of the population life table, the prediction of population dynamics within next 60 d indicated that the relative humidity of 95% was conducive to the increase of population size, relative humidities of 15% and 95% were unfavorable to the increase of the population generation number. The impacts of different relative humidities on the survival rates of eggs and larvae were significant through linear regression fitting. 【Conclusion】Within the test setting relative humidity range, the optimal relative humidities for the growth and development of T. absoluta are 55% and 75%, and the optimum relative humidity for reproduction are 95%.

    Genetic diversity analysis of the geographical populations of Atrijuglans hetaohei (Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae) based on nine microsatellite markers

    WANG Qi-Qi, SUN Yan, TANG Guang-Hui
    2024, 67(1):  90-101.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.010
    Abstract ( 26 )   PDF (1792KB) ( 10 )   PDF(mobile) (1792KB) ( 2 )     
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    【Aim】 Atrijuglans hetaohei, an important fruit pest of Juglans regia, is widely distributed among the main producing areas (Beijing, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuang, etc.) of J. regia inChina, seriously affecting the yield and quality of J. regia and causing serious economic losses. This study aims to investigate the genetic differentiation and geographic distribution characteristics of A. hetaohei, clarify its genetic structure among different geographical populations, understand the population dispersal pattern, and provide theoretical guidance for the prevention and control of this pest insect. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome sequencing result of Ahetaohei, the polymorphic microsatellite markers were selected using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and capillary electrophoresis typing methods to analyze the population genetic diversity of319 Ahetaohei individual samples from 16 populations in eight provinces/city (Beijing, Hebei, Henan, Shandong, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Gansu and Sichuan). Population genetic structure of Ahetaohei was analyzed using STRUCTURE and BAPS software, and the factors that affect the geographical distribution of Ahetaohei were also explored. 【Results】 Nine SSR loci of Ahetaohei exhibited high polymorphism, most of them did not deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The genetic diversity of Ahetaohei geographical populations was medium low (effective number of alleles Ne: 1.334-1.824; expected heterozygosity He: 0.203-0.342), the genetic differentiation between populations was small (genetic differentiation coefficient FST<0.142), and the gene flow among populations was significantly different (Nm: 1.518-23.800). There was a significant correlation (R2=0.226) between the degree of genetic differentiation and geographical distance among the populations. Sixteen geographical populations of Ahetaohei could be divided into two lineages (eastern and western lineages). AMOVA analysis showed a relatively small genetic variation among Ahetaohei populations, and population variation mainly originated from that within populations. The values of the fixation indice FCT within Ahetaohei populations ranged from 0.03941 to 0.06449, indicating that geographical barriers and climatic differences were not the main factors affecting the genetic structure and geographical distribution pattern of Ahetaohei populations.【Conclusion】 Ahetaohei populations have a medium low genetic diversity, and a low level of genetic differentiation and a significantly different gene flow between populations. In view of the special life history and unique biological characteristics of Ahetaohei, combining with the population genetic structure analysis result, we speculate that rivers form a stronger blocking effect on the gene flow of the geographical populations of A. hetaohei than mountains. As a major pest of economic tree, human activities are possibly the main factor which affects the geographical distribution of Ahetaohei populations.

    Geographical distribution pattern of the polymorphism of colour patterns of Bombus breviceps (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Yunnan, southwestern China

    LIANG Cheng, QIN Jia-Min, ZONG De-Qin, LI Yu-Shi, DING Gui-Ling, HUNG Jia-Xing
    2024, 67(1):  102-115.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.011
    Abstract ( 49 )   PDF (12343KB) ( 23 )   PDF(mobile) (12343KB) ( 1 )     
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    【Aim】 As an important group of pollinators in the natural environment, bumblebees are covered with brightly coloured hairs that form distinctive colour patterns. This study aims to investigate the geographical distribution pattern of the colour-pattern polymorphism of Bombus breviceps inYunnan, southwestern China to provide basic data for the study of genetic evolution and environmental adaptability of bumblebees. 【Methods】 A total of 957 B. breviceps specimens including 898 female adults (103 queens and 795 workers) and 59 male adults collected from 127 sampling sites inYunnanandGuizhoufrom 2017 to 2021 were examined. The colour patterns of these specimens were scored and the colour pattern groups and their relative abundance were analyzed. Clustering analysis was conducted based on the pubescence colour composition of different elements and the geographical distribution pattern of the colour patterns was analyzed based on their distribution in grid cells of 0.5° longitude × 0.5° latitude. Results The colours of the thoracic dorsum pubescence of B. breviceps include black, grey yellow, and orange yellow, while those of the abdominal dorsum pubescence include black, grey yellow, yellow and dark brown. All the 1st abdominal segments are covered with yellow pubescence, which can extend up to the abdominal tergum 3. Gastral terga 2 and 3 are covered with yellow, black, or grey yellow pubescence and the dark brown pubescence can stretch from gastral tergum 6 forward to the lower part of gastral tergum 3. A total of 81 colour patterns were identified in female adults of B. breviceps. Eighty different colour patterns were detected in workers and 13 colour patterns were identified in queens. The workers and queens shared 12 colour patterns. The male adults of B. breviceps exhibited 37 different colour patterns, 28 of which were similar to those of female adults. The 81 colour patterns of female adults of B. breviceps include 2 dominant, 5 abundant, 10 common and 64 sparse colour patterns. The colour patterns of female adults of B. breviceps were clustered into three body colour groups: group A (black thoracic dorsum with dark brown abdominal segments), group B-1 (dark brown thoracic dorsum with dark abdominal segments), and group B-2 (dark brown thoracic dorsum and abdominal segments).  The geographical distribution of the colour patterns of B. breviceps inYunnancould be grouped into two regions: western Yunnan Plateau (I) and eastern Yunnan Plateau (II). Region I could be further divided into subtropical plateau basin region in central Yunnan (I1) and tropical low mountain and wide valley region in southwest Yunnan (I2). Region II could be further divided into tropical karst mountain valley area in Southeast Yunnan (II1) and subtropical mid-mountain valley area in Northeast Yunnan (II2). Group A colour pattern is only distributed in subregion I1 and group B-2 was only distributed in subregion I2. Group B-1 colour pattern is only distributed in region II, where group B-2 colour pattern is also distributed. There was no significant correlation between the polymorphisms of the colour pattern and the latitude and longitude of distribution area. There were up to 18 colour patterns distributed in the central Yunnan Plateau (24.00°-24.50°N, 102.50°-103.00°E), representing the greatest colour-pattern polymorphism area. The average altitude of group A colour pattern [(1 951±311) m] was extremely significantly higher than those of group B-1 colour pattern [(1 568±352) m] and group B-2 colour pattern [(1 556±534) m]. Conclusion B. breviceps exhibits a striking intraspecific polymorphism of colour patterns inYunnan. The colour patterns can be divided into three main groups, and their distribution is related to climatic zoning, geomorphology and land use type. The distribution of the colour patterns has obvious geographical division characteristics and their polymorphisms in the same domain converge to the dominant colour patterns. The results of this study are of great significance for the in-depth exploration of local bumblebee resources and the conservation of species diversity inChina, and provide technical support for the utilization and development of bumblebees in different habitats.

    Research progress of Geometridae pests of litchi and longan
    QUAN Lin-Fa, CHEN Bing-Xu, LIANG Sheng-Xi, QIAO Fang, LIU Kai, CHI Yan-Yan, YAO Qiong
    2024, 67(1):  116-134.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.012
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    The Lepidoptera:Geometridae adults are mostly medium-sized moths, and their larvae are called "inchworms". Geometridae pests are one of the most destructive defoliators on litchi (Litchi chinensis) and longan (Dimocarpus longan). There were 10 species of Geometridae pests that have been reported on litchi and longan inChinato data, and 8 common species including Thalassodes immissariaAscotis selenariaHyposidra talacaBiston (Buzura) suppressariaPerixera illepidariaThalassodes quadrariaBerta chrysolineata hainanensis and Sauris interruptaria inGuangdongprovince were reported. Up to now, the researches of Geometridae pests of litchi and longan have been only reported in 15 literatures, among them the number of reports of T. immissaria were the highest (7). However, other Geometridae pests damaging on litchi and longan, such as B. chrysolineata hainanensis and S. interruptaria have no research reports. In this article, we reviewed the research progress of five dominant Geometridae species, including T. immissariaA. selenariaH. talacaPelagodes proquadraria and B. (Buzura) suppressaria. Moreover, we introduced the research status and integrated pest control technologies regarding agricultural, physical, biological and chemical control measures for Geometridae pests of litchi and longan in detail. The biological control technology of Geometridae pests focuses on the protection and utilization of natural enemies, as well as the development and application of biogenic pesticides and insect sex pheromones. So far, the effective components of sex pheromones from 4 species including T. immissariaA. selenariaChiasmia cinerearia and B. (Buzura) suppressaria have been identified successfully. However, application of chemical insecticides is the main control technology for Geometridae pests. There are no registered insecticides for control of Geometridae pests on lychee and longan, posing a great challenge for agriculturalist to guide the use of insecticides. This review will help researchers to be informed of the research status of Geometridae pests, and provides references and inspirations for the development and application of control techniques for Geometridae pests.

    Research status of the nesting biology of Eumeninae (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)

    HE Chun-Ling, WANG Xiang, LIU Xiao-Yu
    2024, 67(1):  135-150.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.01.013
    Abstract ( 27 )   PDF (43463KB) ( 20 )   PDF(mobile) (43463KB) ( 8 )     
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    Eumeninae is the most diverse among all subfamilies belonging to Vespidae, with about 3 800 species in 204 genera described, wide geographical distribution, and great nesting strategy variety. Eumeninae are great valuable for studies concerning the evolution of eusociality, since their behavior ranges from the vast majority of solitary to very few primitively social. Nesting during the breeding period is an important stage for the life history of potter wasps, and also an important guarantee for the reproductive success of their offspring. Based on the nesting habits, traditionally, Eumeninae may be classified into three types: excavators, renters and builders. However, nesting plasticity may be observed even among conspecific females. Regardless of the nesting type, mud is typically used by Eumeninae for nest construction, but some species use chewed leaves or fine gravel, and a few species even camouflage their nests with plant material or bird droppings. Food supply represents the largest investment (in terms of time and energy) that a female wasp makes in her lifetime. Most solitary Eumeninae wasps are truncated progressive provisioners (provision cells with paralyzed insect prey as food for larvae), however, some wasps show primitive signs of social behaviour (presocial), which practices progressive provisioning, especially when there is scarcity of prey. Eumeninae mostly prey on larvae of Lepidoptera (Geometridae and Tortricidae) and Coleoptera (Chrysomelidae and Curculionidae), thus they have an important role in biological control of lepidopterous and coleopterous pests of agricultural importance. Despite Eumeninae importance, their nesting biology remains poorly known, and even less has been studied inChina. Therefore, in this article, we reviewed the research status of the nesting biology of Eumeninae and made suggestions of future research in the following three areas: (1) Research on the nesting biology of dominant Eumeninae species in different regions; (2) Study on the relationship of food web between plants, phytophagous pests, potter wasps and their natural enemy insects, thus revealing the important functions of Eumeninae species in agriculture and natural ecosystems; and (3) Research on the application of dominant Eumeninae species in the biological control of pests.

    Contents of Vol. 67 Issue 1
    2024, 67(1):  151-151. 
    Abstract ( 24 )   PDF (510KB) ( 26 )   PDF(mobile) (510KB) ( 3 )     
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