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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
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Molecular mechanisms of juvenile hormone action
LIU Ying
null    2008, 51 (9): 974-978.  
Abstract9807)      PDF(pc) (1108KB)(1541)       Save
Ecdysteroids (Ecd) and juvenile hormones (JH) play critical roles in regulating insect development and (metamorphosis. Though the molecular mechanisms of Ecd action are well understood now, those of JH action, in contrast, are still poorly known mostly because the JH receptor has not been successfully identified yet. In this review, we described three aspects of recent progresses in molecular mechanisms of JH action. 1. JH and Ecd cross-talk with each other at the molecular level. JH modulates or suppresses Ecd signal to regulate insect development and metamorphosis. 2. Met and USP are two potential JH nuclear receptors. 3. JH also transduces signal via membrane receptor and protein kinase C.
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INTERACTION BETWEEN THE APHID-SPECIFIC FUNGUS PANDORA NEOAPHIDIS AND THE PEA APHIDACYRTHOSIPHON PISUM AT REGIMES OF VARYING TEMPERATURE AND PHOTOPERIOD SIMULATING VARIABLE SEASONAL PATTERNS
Feng Mingguang T. J. Poprawski
null    1998, 41 (2): 145-152.  
Abstract9371)      PDF(pc) (478KB)(1414)       Save
The interaction between the aphid-specific entomophthoralean fungus, Pandora neoaphidis, and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, was investigated in computercontrolled growth chambers at regimes of varying temperature and photoperiod simulating different seasonal patterns in an attempt to reveal the potential preadapting behaviorof the fungus for overwintering. Based on the fitting of the time-dose-mortality model to the experimental data, the time-dose effect pattern was found to be similar between the photoperiods of 16 ∶ 8 and 11: 13 (L ' D) at 20℃, but was significantly different between the constant and daily varying temperatures (5.4-18.9℃ at the rate of 0.56℃per 30 min) and also between the above photoperiods at the same varying temperature.With the varying temperature treatment, the mean incubation time of the fungus on the host (I. E. , mean lethal time postinoculation) was 15.14 d for 8 h of light, 15.19 d for 9.5 h, 11.79 d for 11 h, 13.33 d for 11.5 h, 11.73 d for 12 h, and 9.21 d for 16 h, respectively. This displayed a significantly negative correlation (a=15.58, b=- .93,r2=0.78,p<0.01). However, the mean incubation periods were nearly identical for 11and 16 h of light at 20℃ (5.85 d and 5.97 d). Abnormal hyphal bodies of the fungus were not found during microscopic examination of all cadavers from all the regimes of temperature and photoperiod. The fungus maintained its infectivity to the host at all theregimes considered and had no preadapting behavior to overwintering. However, the short photoperiods were found to decrease the mean incubation time at the varying temperature that simulated a late autumn or early winter pattern.
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The aggregation pheromones of insects
JIANG Yong1,2,LEI Chao-Liang2, ZHANG Zhong-Ning1*
null    2002, 45 (6): 822-832.  
Abstract7497)      PDF(pc) (606KB)(1588)       Save
Aggregation pheromones are important semiochemicals in insects that play a key role in mating and other social behavior. Many chemicals, including hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, acids, anhydrides, amines, and nitriles, have been identified as insect aggregation pheromones, however, understanding of their potential utility in pest management is still limited. Aggregation pheromones have been found in eggs, larvae and adults, however, some volatiles from host plants have been regarded as pheromone components. Aggregation pheromones of the same species in different stages of the life-cycle can be distinct, and the same semiochemical may induce different behavior in different developmental stages or physical states. Nevertheless, the aggregation of insects can be regulated by semiochemicals such as kairomone, sex pheromone and alarm pheromone. Understanding of insect aggregation pheromones is still inadequate and determining the precise function of these chemicals requires further research.
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Purification of antimicrobial peptide MDL-1 from Musca domestica larvae and its effect on Escherichia coli ultrastructure
GONG Xia, SHI Yong-Hui, LE Guo-Wei*
null    2004, 47 (1): 8-13.  
Abstract7395)      PDF(pc) (1859KB)(1646)       Save
The immunized hemolymph was produced from Musca domestica larvae by the inducing of challenging injury and bacteria. The antimicrobial peptide was purified by means of boiled water bath, dialysis and concentration, Tricine-SDS-PAGE preparation, retrieval and renaturation of peptides. The results of amino acids an alysis showed that the molecule weight of the antimicrobial peptide 1 (MDL-1) was 6 200 D. It contained abundant Gly and alkaline amino acids, which had potential activity against Gramnegative bacteria, Escherichia coli. Preparative electrophoresis was an effective way to produce antimicrobial peptides. The anti microbial mechanism of MDL-1 was tentatively studied. The results showed that MDL-1 caused a series of pathological changes on E. coli. MDL-1 was located on the plasma membrane observed with transmission electron microscopy. MDL-1 adhered to bacterial cells by static electricity gravitation in the early stage, and then it was observed that MDL-1 affected on the plasma membrane, disturbed the ordered arrangement of membrane lipid and changed permeability of plasma membrane, with irregular holes appearing in the plasmalemma and cytoplasmic contents of the cells leaking out. Finally, the affected bacteria disintegrated into small fragments and died.
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Phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation in cellular immune responses in insects
WU Shan, LING E J
null    2009, 52 (7): 791-798.  
Abstract7395)      PDF(pc) (1413KB)(2681)       Save
Cellular immunity that includes phagocytosis, nodulation and encapsulation mediated by hemocytes is a very important part of the innate immune system in insects. In this article we reviewed the current understanding of cellular immune responses in insects. We summarized the hemocyte types involved in cellular immunity, some cellular receptors that recognize different microbes and multicellular parasites, and some enzymes and chemicals that can affect the immune activity. We also discussed the modes of hemocyte-mediated phagocytosis and the morphological change of hemocytes during the progress of nodulation and encapsulation.
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Expression of the antifreeze protein gene of a pyrochroid beetle Dendroides canadensis in prokaryote and detection of the protein biological activity
LIU Zhong-Yuan, ZHANG Fu-Chun*, WANG Yun, LU Guo-Dong
null    2005, 48 (2): 179-183.  
Abstract7160)      PDF(pc) (320KB)(2181)       Save
In order to express a pyrochroid beetle Dendroides canadensis antifreeze protein in E. coli BL21 and to investigate the properties of recombinant antifreeze protein, the D. canadensis afpgene was synthesized,  cloned into the pGEX-4T-1, and transformed into E. coli BL21 The optimal inductive condition was selected by  different experimental approaches. The results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the antifreeze protein was expressed successfully in E.coli BL21 The expressed antifreeze protein, existing in the soluble and fusion form, with the molecular weight of about 40 kD, could increase low temperature resistance of bacteria as shown by the biological activity detection.
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Mapping and expression analysis of GOBP/PBP subfamily gene cluster during pupal and adult stages of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
ZHANG Sheng-xiang
null    2010, 53 (10): 1069-1076.  
Abstract6823)      PDF(pc) (2043KB)(1266)       Save
Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in insects play a primordial role in foraging, courtshipping, multiplying, and chemical communication with the environments. General odorant binding protein/pheromone binding protein (GOBP/PBP) is an important monophyletic group of Lepidoptera OBP family. We analyzed the GOBP/PBP in the silkworm Bombyx mori, the model organism of Lepidoptera, using chromosome mapping and semi-quantitative RT-PCR for further understanding of the expression and function of GOBP/PBP. Chromosome mapping showed that these genes were organized in the nscaf3052 of chromosome 19 in the form of gene cluster, with similar gene structure and identical transcription direction, suggesting that they were originated from the duplication of homologous genes and probably possess functional similarity. Analysis of the expression profiles in different tissues of males and females during pupal and adult stages revealed that these genes possessed conspicuous temporal and spatial expression differences (P<0.05), the highest relative expression level occurred in the antenna, and lower relative expression levels in other most non-olfactory tissues without significant sex differences. The results suggest that these genes may have other functions undiscovered besides olfactory-related function.
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Interactions between the parasitoid Lysiphlebus japonicus Ashmead and its ho st Aphis craccivora Koch: host-stage selection and its effect on development
GAN Ming1,2, MIAO Xue-Xia1, DING De-Cheng1*
null    2003, 46 (5): 598-604.  
Abstract6667)      PDF(pc) (531KB)(1343)       Save
Host-stage selection of Lysiphlebus japonicus Ashmead, a parasitoid of Aphis craccivora Koch and the effect of host stage being parasitized on the parasitoid development and fecundity were investigated at (25±1)℃. When aphids of mixed stages were provided, the parasitoid showed a preference for younger aphids to parasitize. The relative parasitism on the 2nd instar aphids was the highest (26.4%), followed by 1st instar aphids (20.6%), and rather low on the adults. The development of the aphids was delayed after being parasitized. The durations of the 1st, 2nd and the 3rd instar of the hosts significantly prolonged when 1st instar aphids were parasitized,and those of the 3nd and 4th instar were also markedly extended after alate were parasitized. However, no obvious influence on development of apterae and alate was observed after they were parasitized. The life span of the adults of the aphids parasitized at various nymphal stages sharply shortened. All of the parasitized 1st instar aphids turned to mummies before the adults. The fecundity of the adults from younger aphids parasitized distinctly declined in comparison with the control adults. Immature stage of the parasitoid In 2nd instar of the hosts developed the fastest with duration of 194.10h, and the slowest of 215.80 h in 1st instar of the hosts.Total contents of protein and glycogen in A.craccivora of different stages were also assayed.
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Effects of parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) on immunoreaction of the coconut hispine beetle, Brontispa longissima (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
LIU Kui
null    2008, 51 (10): 1011-1016.  
Abstract6474)      PDF(pc) (616KB)(1279)       Save
For evaluating the effects of parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae on immunoreaction of Brontispa longissima, the changes of total number of hemocytes, the percentage of spread plasmatocytes, the rate of melanization, phenoloxidase activity and hemagglutin activity in the parasitized Brontispa longissima pupae were measured. The results indicated that compared with the unparasitized pupae, the parasitization by the parasitoid resulted in a significant decrease in the total number of hemocytes and the spread percentage of plasmatocytes at 2 d post parasitization and a significant increase in the parasitized pupae at 4 d post parasitization. The rate of melanization in the hemolymph in the parasitized pupae was higher than that of the unparasitized pupae during 0.5-2 d post parasitization and decreased to 0 in 3-4 d post parasitization. The phenoloxidase activity in the hemolymph in the parasitized pupae increased significantly at 0.5, 1 and 4 d post parasitization. A peak of the hemagglutin activity appeared at 2 d post parasitization in the parasitized pupae, which decreased to the lowest level at 1 and 4 d post parasitization. The results suggest that the parasitization by Tetrastichus brontispae may result in irregular changes of immunoreaction of its host Brontispa longissima.
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Effects of tannic acid on the development of larvae of the fenvalerate-resistant and susceptible strains of Culex pipiens pallens (Diptera: Culicidae)
ZHANG Shi-Miao, MO Jian-Chu, CHENG Meng-Lin, XUE Zhi-Hui, SHEN Li-Feng, CHENG Jia-An
null    2005, 48 (6): 886-891.  
Abstract6341)      PDF(pc) (279KB)(1569)       Save

The tannic acid is one of plant allelochemicals. In order to evaluate the potential of tannins in the larval control of noxious mosquitoes, the toxicity of tannic acid to 1st-4th instar larvae of the fenvalerateresistant and susceptible strains of Culex pipiens pallens was investigated in the laboratory, and the impact of tannins on the development of larvae was also observed. The results indicated that the larvae of the susceptible strain was more sensitive to tannins than that of the fenvalerateresistant strain, and the sensitivity of the former to tannins was 6.4, 4.9, 4.7 and 2.0 times as high as that of the latter for 1st-4th instar larvae, respectively. Among larvae of all instars of the two strains, the first instar larvae were always the most sensitive to tannins, while the third instar larvae appeared to be the most insensitive. In the solution of 1 000 mg/L tannins, the survival rate of larvae of the two strains declined with the rearing time. The survivors of larvae exposed to 100-500 mg/L tannic acid solutions had slower development than the control larvae in both strains, and the developmental duration from the first instar to pupation delayed 34.5-38.3 h for the susceptible strain and 59.2-93.4 h for the fenvalerate-resistant strain. Furthermore, the developmental duration of 1st-4th instar larvae were significantly different (P<0.05) between the control and the treatment when the concentration of tannic acid for the treatment was 125 mg/L in the susceptible strain and 250 mg/L in the fenvalerate-resistant strain. However, treating the first instar larvae of the two strains with 100-250 mg/L concentrations of tannic acid had no influence on the pupation, emergence and adult sex ratio of the survivors. The results suggested that tannic acid affected mainly the developmental duration of C. pipiens pallens larvae and the degree of influence was related to the susceptibility of larvae to fenvalerate. 

 

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Species identification of Noctuidae moths (Insecta: Lepidoptera) from Baihuashan, Beijing, China with DNA barcoding
YANG Cong-Hui, HAN Hui-Lin, CHI Mei-Yan, JIN Qian, WU Chun-Sheng, ZHU Chao-Dong, ZHANG Ai-Bing
null    2012, 55 (9): 1082-1092.  
Abstract5883)      PDF(pc) (4849KB)(1738)       Save
To explore the feasibility of DNA barcoding in the identification of Noctuidae moths, the COI genes of 75 samples belonging to 43 species from Noctuidae in Baihuashan, Beijing, were amplified using universal barcoding primers. The intraspecies and interspecies genetic distances were calculated using the Kimura-2-parameter model, the phylogenetic trees were reconstructed by neighbor-joining (NJ) and maximum parsimony (MP) method, and the identification of MOTU was performed using sequence divergence threshold technique. The results showed that all of Noctuidae species were successfully distinguished by the phylogenetic tree. The average intraspecific genetic distance (0.02%) was much less than the average interspecific genetic distance (11.28%). Seventy-five Noctuidae samples were divided into 42 MOTUs based on 1% sequence divergence threshold and the accuracy rate was 95%. Most of MOTUs (41/42) were classified into their corresponding morphospecies with only one exception (MOTU04). The study indicates that the species from Noctuidae family can be well distinguished with the commonly used COI barcodes, which are potentially well utilized in moth species identification.
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RNA interference of FTZ-F1 gene mediated by bacterially expressed dsRNA in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
WANG Gen-Hong, ZHU Hui-Min, LUO Hui-Song, WANG Ke-Ke, YANG Xiao-Bo, JIANG Liang, XIA Qing-You
null   
Baculovirus chitinase: Advances in research and application
LIU Yan-He
null    2008, 51 (4): 430-436.  
Abstract5781)      PDF(pc) (207KB)(1861)       Save
The chitinase gene of baculovirus is the gene that is not essential for the virus replication. It is expressed in the late phase of the virus replication in insect cells, and it is highly conservative. The chitinase contains three functional regions: N-terminal secretion signal peptide, central active region that includes the active site of family 18 chitinases and a functional C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retention sequence. The enzyme possesses high performance of both exo- and endo-chitinase activity, which can hydrolyze inherent chitin in insect body, and promote liquefaction of the host after death. The chitinase may also serve as a molecular chaperone of pro-V-Cath, the precursor of V-Cath, for its proper folding and transportation in the ER. It has an influence on the polyhedra releasing and cell lysis. The chitinase is also relevant to the baculovirus infection. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that baculovirus acquires the chitinase gene from bacterium via horizontal gene transfer, but insect chitinase gene may directly come from baculovirus. For biological control of pests, the baculovirus chitinase can control insect pests as an insecticide, or work together with Bacillus thuringiensis or a baculovirus as its potentiator; the baculovirus chitinase gene can also be introduced into plants to get the transgenic plants that increase resistance against herbivorous pests and fungal pathogens without affecting non-target insects. The baculovirus chitinase ER-retention motif was deleted or modified, or heterologous chitinase was introduced into the baculovirus genome, which made the biological activity of the recombinant virus enhanced. Deletion of the chitinase and v-cathepsin genes from the baculovirus expression vector through genetic engineering has a positive effect on the integral membrane and secreted proteins.
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Purification of destruxins produced by Metarhizium anisopliae and bioassay of their insecticidal activities against grubs
HU Qiong-Bo, REN Shun-Xiang, LIU Shu-Yan
null    2007, 50 (5): 461-466.  
Abstract5759)      PDF(pc) (200KB)(1533)       Save
Five crystal destruxins were purified from the fermentation broth of Metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae strain MaQ10 via preparative HPLC and re-crystalization, which were classified to destruxin A, B, C, E and A2, respectively. Contact toxicities of destruxins A and B against the grubs Exolontha serrulata (Gyllenhall) and Holotrichia ovata Chang were bioassayed by immersing the insects in aqueous dilutions. The results indicated that at 96 and 120 h after treatment, the LC50s of destruxins A and B were estimated as 78.1571 mg/L and 88.7562 mg/L towards E. serrulata and 66.5308 mg/L and 79.4309 mg/L towards H. ovata, respectively. At the concentration of 300 mg/L, the LT50s of destruxins A and B were 13.4159 h and 10.5331 h towards E. serrulata, and 13.6399 h and 9.9451 h towards H. ovata, respectively.
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Cloning and differential expression of Bombyx mori carboxylesterase gene
GAO Gui-Tian, CHEN Ke-Ping, YAO Qin, WANG Lin-Ling, CHEN Hui-Qing
null    2006, 49 (6): 930-937.  
Abstract5614)      PDF(pc) (515KB)(1921)       Save
Total RNA was isolated from the fully resistant silkworm (Bombyx mori) strain Qiufeng against BmDNV-Z, the highly susceptible silkworm strain Huaba and near-isogenic line BC8 which was bred by using Qiufeng to cross with Huaba followed by successive backcrossing to Huaba till the eighth generation, respectively, and then subjected to fluorescent differential display reverse transcription PCR (DDRT-PCR). A full-length cDNA of B. mori carboxylesterase was obtained. Its expression in the midgut of the susceptible strain and the resistant strain against BmDNV-Z was analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR at 12 h, 36 h and 72 h after administration with BmDNV-Z. The results showed that: (1) cDNA quantity of carboxylesterase in the midguts of the resistant strains reached the peak 12 h after infection. The cDNA quantity in the resistant strains BC8 and Qiufeng were 17.714 and 3.602 times respectively that in the susceptible strain Huaba. (2) Within the same strain, there existed a remarkable difference in the detected carboxylesterase cDNA quantity at 12 h between the infected group and the control group. The expression in the resistant strains BC8and Qiufeng were 15.08 and 3.39 times respectively that of the control group. On the other hand, the expression of carboxylesterase was quite low in the susceptible strain Huaba of both the infected group and the control group. (3) The expression of carboxylesterase varied at different time after infection. Expression in the resistant strains BC8 and Qiufeng reached its peaks 12 h after infection, remarkably higher than those at 36 h and 72 h. There was no significant difference of the expression in the susceptible strain Huaba infected for 12 h, 36 h and 72 h. The results suggested that the expression of carboxylesterase in B. mori might be related to its resistance against DNV.
 
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Extraction of catnip essential oil components and their repellent activity against Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens pallens
HAO Hui-Ling, DENG Xiao-Jun, DU Jia-Wei
null    2006, 49 (3): 533-537.  
Abstract5584)      PDF(pc) (179KB)(2480)       Save
Nepetalactone, the primary component of catnip oil, were extracted by the using method of simultaneous distillation extraction and separated by using silica gel chromatography column. To compare the repellency of nepetalactone and DEET on mosquitoes, topical bioassay method on the skin and a cage olfactometer were employed to assess the effective protection time and the spatial repellency. The results showed that essential oil of catnip was comprised of 55% nepetalactone, with the constitution of 32% Z, E-nepetalactone and 23% E, Z-nepetalactone. Evaluated by using laboratory efficacy criterions and bioassay method of public health insecticides for pesticide registration, the results showed that the protection time for DEET and nepetalactone against Aedes albopictus was 9.6±0.2 h, and 2.2±0.2 h respectively, and against Culex pipiens pallens was 11.5±1.5 h and 4.3±0.8 h respectively. When used alone, nepetalactone attracted mosquitoes to the trap of the olfactometer, however, when mixed with human odor or a L-lactic acid dichloromethane solution, nepetalactone inhibited the attractiveness obviously. Nepetalactone exhibited a spatial repellency, but was not an ideal topical repellent. DEET did not have the attractiveness to mosquitoes, and did not exhibit inhibition on L-lactic acid dichloromethane solution too, but enhanced the attractivity of human odor to mosquitoes.
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Toxicity and action mechanism of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to silkworm (Bombyx mori)
SI Shu-Ding
null    2008, 51 (11): 1157-1163.  
Abstract5570)      PDF(pc) (901KB)(1338)       Save
In order to definite the toxicity of tebufenozide derivative 0593 to silkworm Bombyx mori, we detected the toxicity of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to B. mori with food intake method, observed the growth and development of B. mori at their respective sublethal concentration, and determined their effects on endogenous protective enzymes in B. mori larvae. Based on the experimental results, we primarily discussed the action mechanism of ebufenozide derivative 0593. The results showed that the LC50 of tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 to 2nd instar larvae of B. mori were 1.2863 mg·L-1 and 0.3364 mg·L-1 after 96 h exposure, respectively, and both were of high toxicity. At the sublethal dose, the growth and development of B. mori had been obviously affected, which could shorten larval period by 0.52 d. Compared with control, larval weight during molting stage, whole cocoon weight, pupal weight and pupation rate decreased of the treatments dramatically. The  PPO activity in 4th instar larvae of B. mori was activated at 6 h after treatment, and then inhibited at 12 h after treatment. Both tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 significantly activated the chitinase activity in 4th instar larvae of B. mori. 0593 showed more significant effects on endogenous protective enzymes than tebufenozide. These results indicate that tebufenozide and its derivative 0593 belong to high toxicity grade to B. mori, and have adverse effects on its development and endogenous protective enzymes. So they are not suitable to be used in and around mulberry fields.
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A gynandromorphy of Polistes nimphus(Christ, 1791) (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Polistinae) in China
YUAN Feng, ZHAO Y H, ZHANG Y Z, ZHU C Dong
null    2009, 52 (9): 1055-1057.  
Abstract5485)      PDF(pc) (1434KB)(1049)       Save
This note reports the occurrence of gynandromorphism in Polistes nimphus (Christ, 1791) in China. External features of the insect are presented. The insect was collected in Mt. Donglingshan, Mentougou, Beijing. The specimen studied is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.
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Morphological adaptation of aphid species on different host plant leaves
FANG Yan, QIAO Ge-Xia, ZHANG Guang-Xue
null    2011, 54 (2): 157-178.  
Abstract5455)      PDF(pc) (26724KB)(1703)       Save
 Morphological adaptation of insects to their host plants is an important part of the relationship between the two types of organisms. This paper dealt with herbivorous aphids to study their morphological adaptation on different host plant leaves. Twenty-six aphid species which feed on the leaves of 7 genera host plants belonging to 4 families (Poaceae, Salicaceae, Fagaceae, and Pinaceae) were studied. Based on alate viviparous females and apterous viviparous females, 37 morphological characters were compared and measured by using light microscope. Then the characters were statistically analysed. Based on the clone means, with the variables such as ultimate rostral segments, tarsi and claws which are related to aphid feeding behavior and adhesion on the surfaces of plants, three clustering dendrogram (alate viviparous female, apterous viviparous female, all morph) were output and mapped with host plant families and genera. The results indicated that some characters of the aphids, such as body, siphunculi and antennae, were different among different aphid families, but some of them, such as the ultimate rostral segments, tarsal segments Ⅰ, tarsal segments Ⅱ and claws, varied among different host plant families. The variations of morphologies within species were within a range with their CV (coefficient of variation) between 1.89% and 26.08%. The clustering analysis showed that the aphids were divided into the clusters which were corresponding to certain host plant family/genera; and the positions of Doraphis populi, Epipemphigus imaicus and Pemphigus matsumurai were special, because the first is the secondary host-plant morph and the latter two are the gall makers. The results suggest that the distinct separation of the aphid species with respectively different morphological character variations is corresponding to different host plants whose surface structures are diverse. These prove morphological adaptation of aphids to host plants.
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Characterization, classification and phylogenetic analysis of long terminal repeat retrotransposons in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
XU Hong-En, HAN Min-Jin, ZHANG Hua-Hao, SHEN Yi-Hong, XIANG Zhong-Huai, ZHANG Ze
null    2011, 54 (11): 1211-1222.  
Abstract5374)      PDF(pc) (8638KB)(8967)       Save
In eukaryotes, transposable elements (TEs) constitute a large fraction of a genome. TEs are usually classified into two classes based on their transposition mechanisms. ClassⅠ elements use an RNA-mediated mode of transposition, while classⅡ elements (transposons) use a DNA-mediated mode of “cut and paste” transposition. ClassⅠ elements are further divided into two subclasses: the elements that are characterized by long terminal repeats (LTR retrotransposons) and the elements that lack terminal repeats (non-LTR retrotransposons). In order to reveal the classification and evolution of LTR retrotransposons, we identified LTR retrotransposons in the domesticated silkworm (Bombyx mori) using de novo and homology search approaches and found 38 families in the silkworm genome, of which 6 families are novel. The sequences of these families constitute 0.64% of the whole genome, which is much less than that previously reported. We also found that 26 of 38 families have EST evidence, implying that they had potential activity. Then RT-PCR was performed to validate the expressions of 11 families (6 families have EST evidence and 5 families have no EST evidence), and the results showed that these 11 families were expressed in some tissues, further supporting their transcriptional activities. Based on these results, we speculated that most of LTR retrotransposon families in the silkworm genome have potential activity. We estimated the insertion time of LTR retrotransposons, and found that most of them were inserted into the silkworm genome within the past million years. A comparison of Ty3/Gypsy superfamily in Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae and B. mori showed that this superfamily experienced different expansion patterns. Given the importance of LTR retrotransposon activity in the evolution of other genomes, our results provide some insights into the roles of LTR in insect genome evolution.
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Structure and function of sterol carrier proteins in insects
ZHANG Li-Li, GUO Xing-Rong, FENG Qi-Li, ZHENG Si-Chun
null   
Behavioural responses of Bemisia tabaci B biotype to three host plants and their volatiles
CAO Feng-Qin
null    2008, 51 (8): 830-838.  
Abstract5295)      PDF(pc) (1087KB)(1744)       Save
Using Y-type olfactometer, behavior response of female Bemisia tabaci B biotype to three kinds of host plants, volatile extracts, volatile reference compounds, volatile ananogues were studied, and components and contents of volatiles in different host plants were compared as well. The results indicated that: 1 Strong behavior selection reaction of female adults of B. tabaci to tomato leaves and cabbage leaves, and their volatile extracts occured, respectively, whereas no significant behaviour selection to the pepper leaves and their extracts were found, respectively. When odors from the three host plants and their volatile extracts were comparatively tested, the female adults showed the strongest host preference to tomato, followed by cabbage, and then pepper leaves. 2 There were significant difference in volatile profile, components and contents among the three host plants. Volatile quantity of tomato leaves is much more than that of cabbage leaves and pepper leaves. Main components were terpene in volatile extract of tomato (89.8%), but hydrocarbon in volatile extract of cabbage (53.0%). 3) Among eight kinds of reference samples tested, 1,8-cineole always showed strong attractableness to female B. tabaci at five concentration levels. Eugenol, limonene, linanlool and myrcene showed strong attractableness to female B. tabaci just at appropriate concentrations. However, both α-pinene and Cis-3-Hexen-l-of displayed repellency to B. tabaci at high concentrations, but had no effect at low concentrations. Dodecane had no distinct effect on B. tabaci at any concentrations. 4Peper plants applied with tomato and cabbage volatiles analogues, respectively, could significantly attract B. tabaci adults. However, there was no significant difference in attractableness to female B. tabaci between tomato plants applied with pepper volatiles analogues and CK. The results suggest that volatile infochemicals from host plants play important roles in orientating behavior of Bemisia tabaci B-biotype.
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Morphological and biological observations on Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), a leaf miner of Jatropha curcas
null    2009, 52 (2): 228-233.  
Abstract5289)      PDF(pc) (1154KB)(1651)       Save
A leaf miner of Jatropha curcas L., Stomphastis thraustica Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae), was newly found in China. The morphology, development and life history of the pest were studied both in fields and laboratory. The color, width and length of the pest at each stage were reported in details. The 95.54 percent of the larvae (n=426) climbs out to make cocoon from 10:00 am to 18:00 pm. The 89.19 percent of the eclosion (n=111) takes place from 20:00 pm to 6:00 am. Mating occurs in the early morning and will lasts 30-210 minutes. The 87.53 percent of the eggs are laid during the 20:00 pm to 6:00 am. The adult likes to oviposit in the concave near the leaf nervure. The 66.77 percent (n=8 266) of the eggs are laid on the back of the leaf. Each female can lay 60.03 eggs on average. The moth appears throughout the year in Panzhihua and has to endure the dry season in the adult from February to May. The moth has over ten generations per year in this region and the generations overlap. The development durations of different stages were investigated at natural temperature averaged 25.15℃ in June in fields. The duratin of a whole generation is 18 to 20 days including 3 to 4 days for the egg stage, 1 day for the first instar, 1 to 2 days for the 2nd instar, 1 to 2 days for the 3rd instar, 1 to 2 days for the 4th instar, 2 to 3 days for the 5th instar, 1 day for prepupa, 4 to 6 days for pupa, and 1 day for preoviposition.
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Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
XU Lang, YU Dao-Jian, ZHANG Run-Jie, LI Jian-Guang, KANG Lin, CHEN Zhi-Lin, JIAO Yi
null    2007, 50 (8): 755-761.  
Abstract5288)      PDF(pc) (373KB)(2383)       Save
The complete mitochondrial genome of the Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis is important for general molecular and evolutionary studies in Tephritidae. Via sequencing and cloning the target DNA sequences, a complete mitochondrial genome sequence of B. dorsalis from the Chinese population was determined and analyzed. The results indicated that the complete mitochondrial genome of B. dorsalis is a circular molecule of 15 915 nucleotides (GenBank accession no.: DQ845759). Its overall composition is 39.3%A, 16.2%C, 10.2%G, and 34.3%T, and the gene content includes 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs and a long non-coding region (A+T-rich region). Seven protein genes and 13 tRNA genes are transcribed from J strand, and the other 6 protein genes and 9 tRNA genes are transcribed genes from N strand. Protein coding genes on J strand show a fairly similar A% and T%, whereas those encoded on N strand have a higher proportion of A than T. The similarity analysis of mtDNA CO genes between B. dorsalis and the other 14 fruit flies showed that there was a high similarity among B. dorsalis and the other species belonging to the same subgenus Bactrocera.
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Resistance reduction to lambda-cyhalothrin and activity change of multi-function oxidases in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, under non-selection pressure in the laboratory
LIU Yong-Jie, SHEN Jin-Liang, JIA Bian-Tao, LUN Cai-Zhi
null    2007, 50 (4): 349-354.  
Abstract5257)      PDF(pc) (186KB)(1474)       Save
Larvae of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), originally collected from the field of sugar beet, were reared on artificial diet and evaluated for resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin for 43 generations under laboratory condition without exposure to any insecticide (under non-selection). Lambda-cyhalothrin showed LD50 value of 0.9672 μg/larva at F1 generation and decreased gradually in onward generations,  resulting in LD50 value of 0.0325 μg/larva at F43 generation by using topical application, and the resistance level of the non-selected strain decreased from 4 836.0 fold to 162.5-fold compared with the susceptible strain. In leaf dipping bioassay, lambda-cyhalothrin exhibited LC50 value of 185.6 mg/L at F1 generation and decreased gradually to onward generations with LC50 value of 9.2 mg/L at F43 generation. Correspondingly, the resistance level of the non-selected strain decreased from 964.7-fold to 47.8-fold compared with the susceptible strain. Though decreased 29.8-fold (topical application) or 20.2-fold (leaf dipping bioassay) from F1 to F43 generation, the resistance levels of F43 generation was still quite high,  and this indicated that it was very difficult for the beet armyworm to recover the sensitivity to lambda-cyhalothrin. Activities of four monoxygenases,  i.e., methoxyresorufin O-demethylase (MROD), ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD),  arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) and aldrin epoxidase (AE), of F2, F20 and F41 generation were compared with that of the susceptible strain, respectively. Compared with the susceptible strain, the activities of MROD and AE in midguts in the 5th instar larvae of F2 generation was significantly higher, but those of F20 and F41 generations showed no significant difference. Similarly,  the activities of EROD and AHH of F2,  F20 and F41 generation were also significantly higher compared with the susceptible strain. The results suggested that the resistance of S. exigua to lambda-cyhalothrin was closely correlated with multi-function oxidase which may play different roles at different resistant levels.
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Effect of different hostfruits on the cold hardiness of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae)
REN Lu, LU Yong-Yue, ZENG Ling, PANG Shu-Ting
null    2006, 49 (3): 447-453.  
Abstract5238)      PDF(pc) (252KB)(2118)       Save
The influence of different host fruits on the cold hardiness of oriental frit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) was evaluated in the laboratory. One day old pupae bred with 15 different melons and fruits were chosen to test for their supercooling points (SCP). Furthermore, the SCPs of 3rd instar larvae, one day old pupae, 3 days old pupae, 5 days old pupae, 7 days old pupae and 2-3 days old adults (male and female) bred with five host plants (pumpkin, tomato, citrus, guava and star fruit) were measured, and the survival of one day old pupae bred with these five plants at low temperatures was observed. The results showed that the mean SCPs of one day old pupae of B. dorsalis bred with 15 different host fruits ranged from -11.03℃ to -13.17℃. Moreover, these values were significantly different at 0.05 level, and these fed on rose apple had the highest SCP (-11.03℃), while those fed on balsam pear had the lowest SCP (-13.17℃). The mean SCPs of B. dorsalis at the same developmental stages bred with the five host fruits further tested were significantly different from each other (F(4863)=35.6,P<0.01). The mean SCPs at different developmental stages of B. dorsalis bred with the same host were also markedly different from each other (F(6863)=392.9,P<0.01), and there were notable interaction between host fruits and the fruit fly developmental stages (F(24863)=9.4,P<0.01). There were some changes among the mean SCPs of different developmental stages of B. dorsalis. From the 3rd instar larvae to one day old pupae, the SCP values were low and there were no significant difference between them. But for the pupae of 3 days old, 5 days old and 7 days old, their SCP values decreased notably, with the lowest point -20℃; however, there were no significant difference among them. For the 2-3 days old adults (female and male), the mean SCPs increased again to -10℃. The SCP values for the 3rd instar larvae, one day old pupae and adults were significantly higher than that of pupae at other three developmental stages. In order to determine the survival response to various cold stress in different host fruits of B. dorsalis, acute low temperature (-3℃) (1-8 h) and chronic low temperature (6℃) (1-8 days) regimes were designed, the corrected survival rate of the one day old pupae fed on guava, star fruit and pumpkin were higher significantly than that of the pupae fed on tomato and citrus. By exposing them to the selected low temperatures (0℃, 3℃, 6℃ and 9℃) for 2 days, the same results were obtained. Therefore, it could be concluded that different host fruits could influence the cold hardiness of next generation of B. dorsalis, and the reason underlying this needs to be further explored.
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Biological characteristics of the ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana (Diptera: Tephritidae)
HU Long-Sheng, TIAN Cheng-Ming, ZHU Yin-Fei, ZHOU Zhong-Zan, REN Ling, QI Chang-Jiang
null    2013, 56 (1): 69-78.  
Abstract5229)      PDF(pc) (8290KB)(1583)       Save
The ber fruit fly, Carpomya vesuviana Costa, is currently listed as a quarantine pest which is prohibited into China, and its occurrence has led to disastrous damage to Ziziphus, especially its larvae feed sarcocarp, affecting the quality and commodity price of jujube products. The biological characteristics of the ber fruit fly, including eclosion, mating, oviposition and the effective accumulated temperature, were studied through field survey and laboratory observation in Xinjiang. The results showed that the process of eclosion can be divided into four stages: cracking and crawling out pupal shell, crawling around, wing stretching and flying. About 86.3% eclosion of the ber fruit fly mainly occurred from 8:00 to 11:00, and the peak time was around 10:00. The mating process lasted about 309.00±8.46 min, with the peak time occurring at 11:00-12:00 and 20:00-21:00. Oviposition consists of four stages, i.e., orientation, puncture, ovulation and ending, with the average time about 8.20±0.51 min. Fewer eggs were laid before 9:00 and after 21:00. The highest number of eggs laid per female per day was 16, the average number of eggs laid per female per day was 6-9, and 1-6 eggs were laid in each oviposition aperture. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature were different during each stage (egg, 13.75℃and 48.18 day-degrees; pupa, 6.38℃and 357.17 day-degrees; from egg to pupa, 8.78℃ and 283.29 day-degrees; larva, 6.39℃ and 245.61 day-degrees, respectively). This study provides basic data for further studying and sustainable control of this serious pest.
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Repellent activity of capsaicin and its effects on glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase activity in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
JI Ming-Shan
null    2008, 51 (10): 1039-1043.  
Abstract5199)      PDF(pc) (870KB)(1437)       Save
The repellent activity of capsaicin against Plutella xylostella, and the effects of capsaicin on activities of glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase in the 3rd instar larvae of the moth were tested in the laboratory with conventional methods. The results showed that capsaicin had strong oviposition deterrence and antifeedant activity against P. xylostella. At a concentration of 6.25×104 mg/L, the nonselective oviposition deterrence rate was 96.55% 24 h after capsaicin application, while the selective oviposition deterrence rate was 84.30%. At the same concentration, the nonselective antifeedant rate and selective antifeedant rate was 81.47% and 69.69% respectively 48 h after capsaicin application. In addition, glutathione-S-transferase and Na+, K+-ATPase activities fluctuated after P. xylostella was treated with capsaicin for different hours. When P. xylostella was treated with 1.25×105 mg/L capsaicin, the highest GSTs and ATPase activities were found at 18 h and 1 h after treatment, respectively. These results suggested that capsaicin can disturb the oviposition and feeding of the moth, and influence some enzymes in its body.
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Insect genomes and their sizes
XUE Jian, CHENG JA, ZHANG CX
null    2009, 52 (8): 901-906.  
Abstract5192)      PDF(pc) (876KB)(2295)       Save
The difference of genome size between different insects is due to varieties of duplication of the genome sequence in the amplification, deletion and differentiation. Fifty-nine insect species have been included in genome sequencing projects, whole-genome sequences of six insect species, i.e., Drosophila melanogaster, Anopheles gambiae, Bombyx mori, Apis mellifera, Aedes aegypti and Tribolium castaneum, have been reported. The sizes of 725 insect genomes have been estimated, ranging from 0.09-16.93 pg (88-16 558 Mb). The estimation methods for insect genome size are introduced, and the variation of insect genome sizes and its significance are also discussed.
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Advances in the research on the nervous system of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
YU Qi, ZHOU Qi-Sheng, LIU Qing-Xin
null    2011, 54 (10): 1172-1180.  
Abstract5182)      PDF(pc) (3299KB)(1733)       Save
The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has a ventral nerve cordtype nervous system, which is more simple in structure than that of vertebrates; however, the simple system controls the complex behavior of the silkworm. Therefore, B. mori is an ideal model animal for neurobiology study. The silkworm nervous system, including the central nervous system, the peripheral nervous system and the sympathetic nervous system, plays a role in the regulation of sight, smell, feeding, cocooning, mating, excretion and other life activities of the silkworm by transferring signals. The genes coding for neurotransmitters, e.g., acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid and dopamine, and neuropeptides, e.g., prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and diapause hormone (DH), were found in the nervous system of the silkworm. The development of the silkworm nervous system is regulated by a variety of genes and MicroRNA, such as bmo-miR-92. At present, the main research methods for silkworm nervous system include electroantennogram, immunocytochemistry, transgenic methods, neuroinformatics, and three-dimensional reconstructions. The research on silkworm nervous system will help to illuminate the signal transmission mechanisms of nervous system and the formation mechanisms of biological neural networks.
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Effects of transgenic corn hybrids expressing Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab toxin on survival and growth of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner)
WANG Zhen-Ying, WANG Dong-Yan, HE Kang-Lai, BAI Shu-Xiong, LIU Hui, Cong Bin
null    2005, 48 (2): 214-220.  
Abstract5177)      PDF(pc) (278KB)(1766)       Save
Effects of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis corn on survival and growth of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) larvae, were evaluated with laboratory bioassay and field tests. Two Bt corn hybrids of events MON810 and Bt11 expressing Cry1Ab toxin and their non-Bt controls were employed. The results showed that the neonates of the beet armyworm could not survive when fed on whorl leaves, tassels and silks separately of the two Bt corns, in laboratory bioassay. A small number of  neonates could survive and develop to pupate when fed on tassels and silks of MON810 and Bt11: the pupation rate is 5.2% and 2.1% with the emergence rate of 2.1% and 1.0% on MON810 and Bt11 tassels; 1.0% and 2.1% larvae pupates without emergence on MON810 and Bt11 silks, respectively. The duration for the larvae from neonate to pupae was 17 d and 28.5 d when fed on silks of MON810 and Bt11, compared with 14.0 d and 16.0 d on the corresponding non-transgenic isogenic controls, respectively. The larvae fed on tassels and silks of Bt corns had significantly lower weights than that fed on non-Bt controls in 7 days after infestation. The weight of the larvae fed on the non-Bt control husks of MON810 and Bt11 was 27.6 and 52.9 times the weights of the larvae fed on MON810 and Bt11, respectively. Development of the beet armyworm larvae fed on Bt corn was significantly delayed. Resistance level of the Bt corn whorl tissues to the 4th instar larvae was low. No significant difference was found in the pupation rate for the 4th instar larvae fed on the whorl leaves of MON810 (71.7%) and its non-Bt control (75.0%), but otherwise for those fed on Bt11 (56.7%) and its non-transgenic hybrid (85.0%). The weights of female and male pupae and the percentage of emergence when the 4th instar larvae fed on the Bt corn were significantly lower than that fed on non-Bt controls. Larval survival rate and the percentage of injured ears when larvae fed on MON810 and Bt11 silks were significantly lower compared with non-Bt controls assayed 10 d after the inoculation of the neonates in the field tests.
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Induction of apoptosis by botanical components in Spodoptera litura  cultured cell line
ZHONG Guo-Hua, SHUI Ke-Juan, HUANG Jin-Fei, JIA Jian-Wen, HU Mei-Ying
null    2008, 51 (4): 449-453.  
Abstract5160)      PDF(pc) (405KB)(1687)       Save
In order to determine the apoptotic inductivity of botani cal components toSpodoptera litura cultured cell line SL-1, th e concentration and time dependence of apoptotic-induce ability of nine botanic a l components, including azadirachtin and comptothecin, to SL-1 was investigated by inverted phase contrast microscope. The results showed that a great deal of a poptotic bodies appeared, one of the typical morphological characteristics of ap optosis, 24-48 h after treatments with azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.1-5.0 μg/mL and comptothecin at 0.5-20.0 μmol/L; the same changes, however, di d not appear in SL-1 cells within the whole observation period of 72 h after tre atments with tea saponin, ricinine, sassafras, paeonolum, nicotine, matrine and macleay cordata at concentrations of 0.5-20 μg/mL. Treated by azadirachtin at a concentration of 0.75 μg/mL, the early, mid and late apoptotic stages apoptosis of SL-1 cells appeared during0-36 h, 36-60 h and 60 h af ter treatment, respectively; and treated by comptochetin at a concentration of 5.0 μmol/L, these appeared during 0-24 h, 24-52 h and 54 h after treament, re spectively. It is tentatively concluded that azadirachtin and camptothecin both possess the concentration\|time-dependence induction of apoptosis to SL-1 cel ls.
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The relation of interaction between insects and plants to evolution
QIN Jun-de, WANG Chen-zhu
null    2001, 44 (3): 360-365.  
Abstract5122)      PDF(pc) (326KB)(2911)       Save
Insects and plants are important components of the terrestrial biocommunities on the globe; living together they perform diversified interactions including patterns of insectan trophic activity and mode of pollination. In this paper the relationship between these interactions and evolution is discussed. According to the breadth of hostplant range, phytophagous insects are usually classified into specialists (with narrow host range) and generalists (with broad host range). If the seemingly advantage to feed on many different plants by insects is considered, the generalists would be regarded to attain a higher level of evolution. However, a careful examination on the biocommunities in nature usually gives rise to the hard question of why there are so many specialists among insect herbivores. The explanation seems to lie in the higher efficiency of hostplant foraging and the ease of escaping or avoidance from natural enemies in the specialists. Plant adaptation to insect herbivory presumably would cause corresponding reactions in insects, leading to the proposals of coevolution theory. For hostplant selection by insects, several theories are proposed to clarify the present status as paired reciprocal, diffused and community coevolutions. The precedence of diversification of secondary metabolic chemicals in plants and the mutability and adaptation in insect sensory function as well as learning and memory also lead to the proposal of the theory of sequential evolution or colonization. In pollination the mutualistic adaptations between flowers and pollinator insects are manifested in convincing examples including the changing signalling cues from flowers as scents, colors in different plant species, and the blooming schedules, and the behavioral responses and structural modifications of the pollinator insects.
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STUDIES ON THE LONGEVITY OF ADULT AEDES(S.) ALBOPICTUS (SKUSE):THE LONGEVITY OF CAGED FEMALES UNDER LABORATORY CONDITIONS
GAO JU-ZHEN, ZHEN ZHAO-YU, XUE JING-MIN, HUANG PIHG-YI, ZHAO JUN-PING, CAO NIAN-HOU
null    1984, 27 (2): 182-188.  
Abstract5075)      PDF(pc) (443KB)(682)       Save
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Honeybee: a newly emerged model organism
null    2009, 52 (2): 210-215.  
Abstract5055)      PDF(pc) (1088KB)(1613)       Save
The honeybee is a group of eusocial insects with high economical and ecological value. The Honeybee Genome Project has provided a molecular basis for further researches on honeybee biological characteristics, molecular mechanism and evolution of social behavior, and thereby equipped the honeybee to be a model organism from an economic insect. We introduced the advantages of the honeybee as a model organism and its model value in some hot research fields based on its biological characteristics, such as learning and memory, labor division, caste differentiation, and immunity, etc. After summarizing the current status and prospecting the future development of biological research on honeybee at home and abroad, we appealed for interdisciplinary research on honeybees at home.
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Molecular phylogeny of ten Platypodid species (Coleoptera: Platypodidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase Ⅰgene
WANG Yin-Zhu, YU Dao-Jian, ZHANG Run-Jie, XU Lang, CHEN Zhi-Lin, JIAO Yi
null    2010, 53 (4): 457-463.  
Abstract5055)      PDF(pc) (1056KB)(1020)       Save
There are more than 1 500 species of Platypodid beetles (Coleoptera:Platypodidae) known around the world. The taxonomy of this group is disputable. The phylogenetic relationships of Platypodid beetles is explored based on molecular gene information in this study. The mtDNA COⅠgene sequences (549 bp) of ten Platypodid species [Euplatypus parallelus (Fabricius), Euplatypus hintzi Schaufuss, Euplatypus solutus Schedl, Dinoplatypus cupulatus Chapuis, Dinoplatypus cupulatulus Schedl, Dinoplatypus calamus Blandford, Diapus quinquespinatus Chapuis, Treptoplatypus solidus Walk, Platypus quercivorus Murayama and Platypus lewisi Blandford ] were sequenced. Software MEGA3.1 was used to analyze the sequence composition and genetic distances. Three molecular phylogenetic trees of Platypodidae were reconstructed using PAUP4.0 according to distance/neighbor-joining, maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood methods. The molecular results were compared with the morphological taxonomy. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationship among the species and genera to which each species belongs was discussed. The results show that the genetic distances between Platypodid species and the outgroup Orthotomicus erosus Wollaston of Scolytidae (0.288-0.338) are higher than those within Platypodid species (0-0.226). Genus Diapus is diverged the earliest from the phylogeny tree, and then the genus Euplatypus. Genera Treptohlatypus, Dinoplatypus and Platypus are closely related and diverged last. The result of molecular phylogeny of the Platypodidae is basically the same as that based on morphology revised by Wood (1993). This indicates that the taxonomy system of Platypodidae has become more reasonable.
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Effects of heavy metal pollution on insects
SUN Hong-Xia, LIU Ying, ZHANG Gu-Ren
null    2007, 50 (2): 178-185.  
Abstract5043)      PDF(pc) (253KB)(2170)       Save
Heavy metal pollution has become a global environmental problem and severely threatened the biological diversity and people's health. More and more attention has been paid to the potential effects of heavy metal pollution on insects as one of the important groups of global biological diversity. The accumulation of heavy metals in insects may influence their development. It has been demonstrated that insects could be contaminated by respiration, ion absorbing through integument and food intake. Excessive metal accumulation in insects could not only cause cell ultrastructure variations and genetic homeostasis alteration, but also induce cell apoptosis and influence cell viability and proliferation. But, heavy metals can be stored in insect organs with digestive, storage or excretory function in form of “granules”, and be transported into lysosomes to detoxify. Moreover, metallothionein and antioxidant enzymes also play important roles in the process of detoxification.
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Mechanism of cell toxicity of azadirachtin A to Trichoplusia ni Hübner Hi-5 cells
LI Wen-Ou
null    2008, 51 (8): 824-829.  
Abstract5005)      PDF(pc) (1942KB)(1392)       Save
Trichoplusia ni Hübner cells were used to study the toxicity mechanism of azadirachtin A (Aza A) at the cellular level. Growth inhibition effect of Aza A on Hi-5 cells was tested. No obvious growth inhibition effect of Aza A on Hi-5 cells was found in the first two days post treatment. However, the inhibition effect went higher in the following days. By using the Giemsa dying method, we observed the change in shape of Hi-5 cells treated with 1.25 μg/mL Aza A. Most cells could not attach to the bottom wall of tissue culture flasks. The cells changed into rotundity. Apoptotic bodies appeared in the treated cells. The fluorescence microscope was used to observe the cell nucleus after stained with Ho33342. The results showed that some of Hi-5 cell chromosomes were abnormally condensed after treatment for 1 d. The ratios of condensed nuclei increased later, and the nuclear membrane was damaged obviously. To study the effect of Aza A on protein content, the FITC staining was performed. The DI value was 1.070±0.018 on the 1st day post treatment with 1.25 μg/mL Aza A, and increased to 1.912±0.019

 

on the 3rd day. The relative GSH content inhibition in the cells treated with Aza A was examined. Obvious difference was found in the GSH content at different days post Aza A treatment. The results suggest that Aza A has an effect on cell propagation cytoskeleton function and cell viability of in vitro Hi-5 cells.
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Toxicity of β-caryophyllene from Vitex negundo (Lamiales: Verbenaceae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Homoptera: Aphididae) and its action mechanism
LIU Yu-Qing, XUE Ming, ZHANG Qing-Chen, ZHOU Fang-Yuan, WEI Ji-Qian
null    2010, 53 (4): 396-404.  
Abstract4990)      PDF(pc) (1421KB)(1134)       Save
To explore the insecticidal active constituents, toxic effects and toxicological mechanisms of Vitex negundo L. from Taishan Mountain, we investigated the insecticidal components of V. negundo weed seed extract utilizing silica gel column chromatography, GC-MS technology and biological activity tracking, and the toxicity and action mechanism of β-caryophyllene and α-pinene, isolated from V. negundo weed seed extract, against cotton aphid Aphis gossypii using bioassay and biochemical analysis. The results showed that β-caryophyllene and α-pinene with high toxic effect against A. gossypii were isolated from V. negundo weed seed extract by silica gel column chromatography repeatedly, with their contents as high as 7.68% and 5.45%, respectively. The contact toxicities of β-caryophyllene and α-pinene against A. gossypii were all obvious, and the higher one was β-caryophyllene whose LD50 reached 0.65×10-1 μg per individual. We also found strong repellent effect of β-caryophyllene and α-pinene against A. gossypii, with their AFC50 values being 0.80×103 and 0.89×103 mg/L, respectively, 24 h after treatment. At the sublethal dose, they had significant adverse effects on the fertility, honeydew excretion frequency and honeydew production of the aphid. In vitro and in vivo conditions, β-caryophyllene and α-pinene distinctly inhibited the activities of acetylcholine esterase, polyphenol oxidase, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-tramsferases in A. gossypii. The results suggest that β-caryophyllene and α-pinene are important insecticidal compounds of V. negundo, and their action mechanisms show the characteristics of diversity. Therefore, they are worthy of further exploitation and application.
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Roles of insect salivary components in insect-plant interactions
YIN Hai-Di, HUANG Cui-Hong, XUE Kun, WANG Rong-Jiang, YAN Feng-Ming
null    2006, 49 (5): 843-849.  
Abstract4948)      PDF(pc) (210KB)(2423)       Save
Researches on herbivory insect saliva in recent years have revealed that insect salivary components play important roles in relationships and coevolution between insects and plants. A variety of enzymes and organic components in saliva of herbivory insects can induce series of biochemical responses in damaged plants which could be very specific to species or even to larval instars of the feeding insects. It has been demonstrated that enzymes, such as  β-glucosidase, glucose oxidase, etc., and organic chemicals, such as volicitin, can trigger induced defense responses in plants. However, there have been no direct evidences that salivary components of piercing_sucking insects play roles in induced plant chemical defenses even though plants also responded to feeding by these insects. Salivary components of herbivory insects are variable with host plant species most likely due to biochemical or physiological adaptation of insects to nutrients and toxins in different plants. Insect protein analyses indicated that similar salivary components were found in insects with the same types of mouth parts and similar food resources. Researches in salivary components of herbivory insects may elucidate mechanisms in insect-plant coevolution, formation of insect biotypes, outbreaks and damage of insect pests, and may also have significance in guiding insect pest management.
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Deposition modes, components and functions of secretions associated with oviposition in insects
JIN Feng, JI B Z, LIU S W, TIAN L, GAO J
null    2009, 52 (9): 1008-1016.  
Abstract4942)      PDF(pc) (1492KB)(1357)       Save
Oviposition is the important life phase in insects. Before, during or after egg-laying, most females deposit secretions near eggs. These secretions may serve as egg-adhesive substances or egg-cover substances and protect eggs and early larvae. Some insects also use the secretions as egg marking pheromones which can mediate intra- and inter-specific competition of natural resources. Considering the specific physiological and ecological functions and the influence on population densities, the deposition of secretions associated with oviposition is an evolutionary adaptation. In this article, we reviewed the deposition and physical characteristics of secretions during oviposition in various insects, and the chemical components, possible functions and excretion organs of the sectetions and the microbe species in them were also summarized.
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Species, control status and outbreak causes of main pest insects in mangrove ecosystems in China
LI Zhi-Gang, DAI Jian-Qing, YE Jing-Wen, XU Hua-Lin, HAN Shi-Chou
null    2012, 55 (9): 1109-1118.  
Abstract4936)      PDF(pc) (1809KB)(1481)       Save
Mangrove wetlands are one of the key ecosystems in southeast coast of China. A lot of pest outbreaks have occurred in mangroves in recent years, and thus sustainable uses of mangrove wetlands face serious challenges. Species and control status of main pest insects in mangrove ecosystems in China are summarized in this article. The main pest insects include Acrobasis sp., Lasiognatha cellifera, Latoia lepida, Chalioides kondonis, Chalia larminati, Acanthopsyche subferalbata, etc. Biological control, including biological insecticide, insect growth regulators, and natural enemies are the major measures at present. The outbreak causes of main pest insects are discussed preliminarily in terms of ecosystem health and diversity of insect community. Furthermore, in order to achieve the goal of sustainable pest control, the strategies of habitat regulation in mangrove ecosystem are proposed, which would provide important theoretical references and scientific guidance for improving the level of pest management of mangrove wetlands as well as promoting the sustainable development of mangrove.
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Advances in the characteristics and mechanisms of the transmission of plant viruses by insect vectors
SHI Xiao-Bin, XIE Wen, ZHANG You-Jun
null    2012, 55 (7): 841-848.  
Abstract4844)      PDF(pc) (1429KB)(2362)       Save
Plant virus diseases are the “cancer” of the crops, and up to now there is still no effective method to control them. Currently 80% of the known plant virus diseases depend on insect vectors, and the transmission of plant viruses by insects is an interaction of insects, viruses and host plants. The procedure of plant virus transmission has several processes, such as acquisition, retention and inoculation, and a series of virus receptors or proteins are involved in the process. The ways of plant virus transmission consist of stylet-borne, foregut-borne and circulative types, which are nonpersistent, semipersistent and persistent, respectively. The acquisition access period, retention site and inoculation access period are different depending on different insect vectors. The procedure can be affected by many factors including sex and age of insect vectors, host plants, environmental conditions, and symbionts of insects. The main related proteins are as follows: coat protein, minor coat protein, GroEL, helper component and underside-jaw protein. In recent years, the research of plant virus genome has made a great progress, and the mechanism of the virus transmission has attracted an extensive attention. This article reviews the recent studies and developments of this field, including the ways of plant virus transmission vectored by insects, the factors influencing the efficiency of virus transmission, and the mechanisms of virus transmission, especially the possible receptors of the insects related to the virus transmission.
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Maximum entropy niche-based modeling (Maxent) of potential geographical distributions of fruit flies Dacus bivittatus, D. ciliatus and D. vertebrates (Diptera: Tephritidae)
null    2009, 52 (10): 1122-1131.  
Abstract4823)      PDF(pc) (9617KB)(3753)       Save
In order to predict and analyse the potential geographical distributions of three important quarantine invasive pests, Dacus bivittatus, D. ciliatus and D. vertebratus, three ecological niche modeling techniques, BIOCLIM, DOMAIN and Maximum entropy nichebased modeling (Maxent) were implemented by using distribution records of the three fruit fly species and a set of environmental predictor variables. Differences in prediction performance of the three models with thresholds were observed. An evaluation using independent records of D. bivittatus showed that Maxent offers the most accurate predictions than two other models based on three values of ROC/AUC, Kappa, and TSS. Prediction outcomes made by Maxent revealed that the three fruit fly species have broadly similar potential ranges in Central American, South American, Southeast Asia, and Coastal areas of Australia in general. D. ciliatus has the comparatively widest potential range among the three species, including Coastal areas of Mediterranean Sea, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Oman and South Iran, suggesting that it may be tolerant of the widest range of climatic conditions among the three species. In China, while large areas of Yunnan and Hainan are very habitable for all the three fruit fly species, southern part of Guangdong and Taiwan are also their habitable areas. D. ciliatus has the widest potential distribution area, with southern part of Sichuan, Guizhou and Tibet plus the coastal areas of southern China all being its suitable areas. The risk of the three fruit fly species permanently establishing in Guangdong if introduced exist but low. Jackknife analysis revealed that temperature and its variation have comparative significant influence on the distribution patterns of three fruit fly species both in global and restricted regions.
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Selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr to silkworm and mulberry pests
MA Hui, WANG Kai-Yun, WANG Hong-Yan, SI Shu-Ding
null    2006, 49 (4): 599-603.  
Abstract4792)      PDF(pc) (169KB)(1848)       Save
For comparing the selective toxicity of chlorfenapyr between silkworm and mulberry silkworms and mulberry pests, the toxicity of chlorfenapyr, diazinon, dichlorvos, phoxim and triazophos was determined using food intake method, the toxicity of the five insecticides to Phthonandria atrilineata Butler, Diaphania pyloalis Walker and Porthesia xanthocampa Dyer was assayed in room using leaf dipping method, the period of residual toxicity of chlorfenapyr on mulberry to silkworm was tested by spraying pesticide in mulberry field, and the effect to growth and development of silkworm was investigated using food intake method. The results indicated that the toxicity of diazinon, dichlorvos, phoxim and triazophos in 72 h after treatment was 15.5, 93.3, 154.0 and 188.5 times higher than that of chlorfenapyr, respectively. The LC50 of chlorfenapyr, triazophos, phoxim and dichlorvos in 48 h after treatment to P. atrilineata was 49.1, 3.2, 2.3 and 1.4 times higher than that of diazinon, to D. pyloalis was 79.4, 3.6, 2.4 and 1.8 times higher than that of diazinon, and to E. similis was 67.2, 3.2, 2.2 and 1.7 times higher than that of diazinon, respectively. The period of residual toxicity of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/L of chlorfenapyr sprayed on mulberry field was 3, 0, 0 and 0 days, respectively. The developmental duration of survival larvae, the weight of dormant silkworm, the weight of mature silkworm, cocoon weight, cocoon shell weight, pupa weight and pupation rate in treatments of 100, 50, 25 and 12.5 mg/L of chlorfenapyr showed no significant difference compared with the control. The results suggest that chlorfenapyr is an insecticide suitable to control pests in mulberry field and safe to silkworm.
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Characterization of three new members of the apidermin (apd) gene family from honeybees and sequence analysis of the insect APD family
SUN Liang-Xian, HUANG Zhou-Ying, ZHENG Hua-Jun, GE Qing-Xiu, GONG Li-Ping, CHEN Huai-Yu
null    2012, 55 (1): 12-23.  
Abstract4781)      PDF(pc) (20537KB)(1756)       Save
The apidermin (APD) protein family is a novel structural cuticular protein family of insects. To gain a better understanding of this protein family, by using bioinformatics and RT-PCR amplification, we identified three novel apd genes (apd-1-like, apd-3-like from Apis mellifera ligustica, and apd-2 from Apis cerana cerana) and investigated their structural features, and then we revealed the characteristic motifs of the APD family. The results showed that a cluster of six apd genes were tandemly arranged on chromosome 4 of Apis mellifera. These apd genes were differentially expressed in drone head of A. m. ligustica, and their expression pattern was consistent with that of the cis-acting elements in their promoter sequences. The genomic DNA of apd-2 from A .c. cerana and apd-1-like from A. m. ligustica contain three exons and two introns, while that of apd-3-like from A. m. ligustica contain four exons and three introns. As the deduced proteins of the apd genes were analyzed, it was found that the presently available 10 APDs possess similar N-terminal signal peptide sequences. The mature APD proteins ranged in size from 6.0 to 37.0 kD, and their pI ranged from 6.2 to 10.8. Intriguingly, five small APD proteins, including APD-2 from A. cerana, and APD 1-3 and APD-like from A. mellifera, were rich in hydrophobic amino acid residues (52%-67%)  with Ala being the most abundant (25%-34%). However, the other five larger APDs, including APD 1-3 from Nasonia vitripennis, and APD-1-like and APD-3-like from A. mellifera, were Gly-rich (21%-30%) proteins with hydrophobic amino acid residues constituting 35%-41% of their amino acid sequences. Multiple alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the APD protein family could be classified into two subfamilies. Subfamily Ⅰ, which contains four low complexity sequences (APD 1-3 from A. mellifera and APD-2 from A. cerana), was characterized by a 33-aa N-terminal conserved motif. The other six larger APD proteins were classified as subfamilyⅡ, which was featured by a 50-aa N-terminal motif and a 16-aa C-terminal motif. The diagnostic features of APD protein family described here will be very helpful for identifying novel apd genes from arthropods.
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THE FLIGHT CAPABILITIES OF RICE STEM BORER MOTHSTRYPORYZA INCERTULAS, CHILO SUPPRESSALIS ANDSESAMIA INFERENS
SUN JIAN-ZHONG ZHANG JIAN-XIN SHEN XUE-SHENG
null    1993, 36 (3): 315-322.  
Abstract4748)      PDF(pc) (463KB)(1048)       Save
Adult flight capabilities of three major rice stem borers, Tryporyza incertulas, Chilo sup=pressalis and Sesarnia inferens were determined with flight mill and computer system. The results show that the moths of T. incertulas and C. suppressalis have similar flight capability. Normal flights took place within four days after emergence, and they had no conspicuous pre-repro ductive period and calling and mating could occur whithin 24 hours after emergence. Motlhs within one day after emergence in the second phase of ovarian development had the strongest flight capability. The cumulative flight distance of a female moth was determined to be over 32 kilometers. Female moths showed longer flight duration while most of the male moths made irregular interval flights affected easilty by physical conditions. Flights of thse two species were closely related to calling, mating and ovipositlon behaviours, showing typical mating flight syndrome. Though most flights in the field were trivial, the longest dispersal distance could be over 100 kilometers. The moth of S inferens had the strongest flight capability among the three rice stem boreres and the flight distance of female and male moths were over 32 and 50 kilometers, respectively. Normal flight could occur during the first six days of adult life. The pre-reproductive period were two to three days. Adults in the second phase of ovarian development made the longest flights. Thler flight capability declined with the development of the ovaries. This species has flight capability of long distance dispersal and possesses physiological and behavioural bases of migration flight.
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Broomcorn millet grain cultures of the obligate aphid pathogen Zoophthora anhuiensis (Entomophthorales) and their infectivity to Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
BAO Jia-Sheng, FENG Ming-Guang
null    2006, 49 (3): 393-398.  
Abstract4748)      PDF(pc) (422KB)(1567)       Save
The obligate aphid pathogen, Zoophthora anhuiensis (Li) Humber (Entomophthorales), is difficult to be propagated in vitro. In this study, the broomcorn millet Panicum miliaceum L. in flasks was used as solid substrate to ease in vitro propagation of the fungal pathogen. Properly steamed millet grains in flasks were mixed with pieces of the fungal colonies grown on the plates of Sabouraud egg yolk-milk agar and then maintained for stationary incubation at the regime of 20℃ and 12L∶12D. The 7-day-old millet cultures produced 13.0×104 conidia/grain and persistently sporulated for up to 6 days. The conidia discharged from the cultured grains were used to inoculate via spore shower the nymphs of the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) on cabbage leaves at nine dosages of 7.9~134.9 conidia/mm2. Data resulted from 7-day observation of the inoculated aphids fit very well to the time-dose-mortality model. Based on time- and dose-effect parameters estimated from the modeling, the LC50 and LC90 of the fungus against M. persicae were 59.8 and 354 conidia/mm2 on day 5 after spore shower, 39.5 and 234 conidia/mm2 on day 6, and 33.5 and 198 conidia/mm2 on day 7, respectively. The LT50 decreased to 4.3 days at the dose of 134.9 conidia/mm2 from 5.1 days at 57.7 conidia/mm2. The results showed that the millet method for propagation of the obligate aphid pathogen was not only easy and convenient but produced desirable millet cultures with each grain sporulating very well and infecting aphids as a natural host cadaver.
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ULTRASTRUCTURE OF THE TRICHOID SENSILLUM ON THE ANTENNA OF THE MALE PINE CATERPILLARMOTH, DENDROLIMUS PUNCTATUS WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA: LASIOCAMPIDAE)
ZHANG SHANGAN MA SHUFANG FU HONGLAN CHEN TEMING
Acta Entomologica Sinica    1995, 38 (1): 8-12.  
Abstract4744)      PDF(pc) (5194KB)(903)       Save
The male pine caterpillar moth Dendrolirnus punctatus (Walker) hasa pair of feather-like antennae. The trichoid sensilla are arranged on the inner side (windward side) surface of the antennal stem and branch in each flagella segment. Each trichoid sensillum consists of a cuticular hair, three sensory neurons and three auxiliary cellsthecogen, trichogen and tormogen cells which are arranged in concentric array and serve as the envelope of the neurons. The hair wall is penetrated by many pores. The lumen of the hair is filled with sensillum fluid within which the dendrites of the neurons are immersed. As having proved by single cell recording in the insects of the same family, most likely the trichoid sensillure might possibly be responsible for perception of female produced sex pheromone and thus for the orientation in mating.
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