• Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
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Progress in sex pheromone communication of the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
JIANG Nan-Ji, WANG Chen-Zhu
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (8): 993-1002.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.012
Abstract1193)      PDF(pc) (1406KB)(436)       Save
 The fall armyworm (FAW), Spodoptera frugiperda, was originally distributed in America and is able to migrate over a long distance. It spread to Europe in 1988 and Africa in 2016, and caused huge loss to grains. It first invaded Asia in 2018, and then invaded China from Myanmar in 2019 and has been rapidly distributed in a dozen provinces in China. According to its specific hosts and molecular markers, FAW can be classified into two host-specific strains, the corn strain and the rice strain. (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate was identified as a sex pheromone component of FAW in 1967 for the first time. Up to 1986, the blend of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate and (Z)-7-dodecen-1-ol acetate at a ratio of 96.6∶3.4 showed the strongest attractiveness to FAW, and was used to monitor the population dynamics of FAW broadly. In addition, (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate, (Z)-9-dodecen-l-ol acetate and (E)-7-dodecenyl acetate in the pheromone gland extracts of female adults of FAW were reported to contribute to attracting males in different geographic regions. Both the strains are morphologically indistinguishable and share the same gland extract components, but have strain-specific ratios of pheromone components. The two strains can be hybridized in the laboratory, and the pheromone component ratio of F1 generation females is similar to that of the maternal parents. The periphery coding mechanisms to sex pheromone in FAW males are still unclear. In consideration of the occurrence of FAW in China and the progress in its sex pheromone communication, the following aspects of FAW are suggested to be investigated urgently: (1) identifying the sex pheromone of the invaded populations of FAW and using the sex pheromone for its population monitoring and control as soon as possible; (2) the olfactory coding mechanisms of males of FAW to pheromone blends; (3) the behavioral isolation between the two stains of FAW and outcomes of the hybrids.
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Age-stage, two-sex life table and its application in population ecology and integrated pest management

CHI Hsin, FU Jian-Wei, YOU Min-Sheng
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (2): 255-262.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.02.012
Abstract1092)      PDF(pc) (3931KB)(398)    PDF(mobile) (3931KB)(191)    Save
Life tables are the prime tool in population ecology and pest management. Because traditional female age-specific life tables are not capable of describing the stage differentiation and ignore males entirely, the age-stage, two-sex life table is being widely used by many scientists. In this article, we first overviewed the basic principles of the age-stage, two-sex life table, including the stage differentiation of insect populations, the effect of sex ratio on population growth, the difference between the total preoviposition period and adult preoviposition period, and the difference between the oviposition period and oviposition days. We then explained the advantages of life table analyses based on the bootstrap technique. Finally, we introduced the major applications of the computer programs (TWOSEX-MSChart, CONSUME-MSChart, and TIMING-MSChart), i.e., population projection and timing of pest management, correct analyses of the predation rate of predators and the consumption rate of pests, prediction of the population growth of predators and their predation potential, and guidance of mass-rearing and harvesting of natural enemies. As a powerful tool for data analysis, insect life tables have been extensively used in population ecology and pest managements. Looking forward to the future, we expect that they will be widely adopted in studies involving insect physiology, pesticide resistance, sublethal effect of pesticides, symbionts, etc.
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Mechanisms of sex determination in hymenopteran insects
WANG Zi-Long, PAN Lu-Xia, HU Wan-Wan, LI Mang, ZENG Zhi-Jiang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1335-1343.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.011
Abstract961)      PDF(pc) (1514KB)(235)    PDF(mobile) (1514KB)(56)    Save
The sex determination mechanisms of insects are diverse and complex. In hymenopteran insects, males are haploid and females diploid. In this article, we reviewed the modes and molecular mechanisms of sex determination in hymenopteran insects. Six patterns for sex determination of hymenopteran insects have been reported, including the complementary sex determination (CSD), multiple-locus hypothesis (multiple-locus CSD, ml-CSD), genomic imprinting, maternal effects, endosymbionts inducing female parthenogenesis, and paternal genome elimination (PGE). Among them, CSD is a widely accepted model of sex determination in hymenopteran insects represented by honeybees. Sex determination of honeybees is controlled by the cascade of csd→fem→dsx.
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Vertical transmission of insect symbionts
AN Peng, XU Yi-Peng, WU Jia-Min, ZHENG Rong-Er, YU Xiao-Ping
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (7): 877-884.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.07.011
Abstract900)      PDF(pc) (1797KB)(224)       Save
Symbionts universally exist in insects, not only providing host insects with nutrients such as amino acids and sterols that are necessary for their growth and development, but also improving the adaptability of insects to external adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, parasites and viruses. Insects provide a stable living environment and nutrients for symbionts. Symbionts and host insects are interdependent. In most cases, symbionts are vertically transmitted between generations of their host insects, from the mother to its offsprings. In this article, based on the relevant studies in recent years we reviewed the vertical transmission modes of different insect symbionts. Except for a small number of intestinal symbionts that can be transmitted vertically through contaminated egg shells and then eaten by host larvae, most of vertically-transmitted symbionts are transovarially transmitted. According to different infection periods, most of the transovarial transmission modes of symbionts can be divided into the following four types: infecting germline stem cells in host insect larvae, infecting germline stem cells in the young female adult of host insect, infecting mature oocytes in the female adult of host insect, and infecting blastocyst embryos of host insect. Among them, some symbionts enter the host ovary in the form of bacteriocyte. In addition, a few intestinal symbionts are also vertically transmitted through the ovary. Such symbionts firstly infect the lateral oviduct and accumulate in it, and then enter the oocyte when the oocyte is discharged into the lateral oviduct. We also explored the cellular and immune mechanisms of vertical transmission of insect symbionts, including the avoidance of host immune responses by symbionts, the entry of symbionts into ovaries by endocytosis, and the synergistic effects between different symbionts.
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Application of RNAi in insect pest management: important progress and problems 

HU Shao-Ru, GUAN Ruo-Bing, LI Hai-Chao, MIAO Xue-Xia
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (4): 506-515.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.04.012
Abstract802)      PDF(pc) (1399KB)(404)       Save
RNAi is regarded as a green pest control strategy most likely to be applied in insect pest control. In June 2017, United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved the first transgenic insect-resistant maize MON87411 expressing insect double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in the world, and this brought a new upsurge of research of using RNAi technology in insect pest management. However, there are still some problems to be addressed in the application of RNAi technology in pest control, e.g., screening and application strategies of effective target genes, the sensitivity of lepidopteran insects to RNAi, the stability of dsRNA in environment, etc. In this article, we summarized the research and application of RNAi technology in relation to pest control over the past two decades. We also reviewed the feasibility, application methods, existing problems and some current solutions of RNAi technology. We found that the degradation of dsRNA in the midgut or hemolymph of some lepidopteran insects may be the primary reason of the low RNAi efficiency through a comprehensive analysis of recent research results. Through dsRNA modification or embedding by liposome or nanoparticle, it is possible to solve the problem of dsRNA degradation to a certain extent, thus improving the RNAi efficiency.
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Isolation and identification of the aggregation pheromone in Megalurothrips usitatus (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
LI Xiao-Wei, LUO Xue-Jun, WANG Li-Kun, ZHANG Jin-Ming, ZHANG Zhi-Jun, HUANG Jun, WU Jian-Hui, LU Yao-Bin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (9): 1017-1027.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.002
Abstract729)      PDF(pc) (2123KB)(321)    PDF(mobile) (2123KB)(140)    Save
【Aim】 Megalurothrips usitatus is an important leguminous pest in South China and has caused enormous losses to cowpea planting industry. Development and application of lures based on aggregation pheromone is one of the environmentally friendly control methods for M. usitatus, which would play a key role in bio-control of this pest. 【Methods】 Behavioral responses of female and male adults of M. usitatus to headspace volatiles collected from female and male conspecifics were tested in a Y-tube olfactometer. Headspace volatiles released by female and male adults were collected using headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and hexane extraction. The active compound in the volatiles and hexane extracts was identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The behavioral responses of female and male adults to the synthetic aggregation pheromone component were tested in a Y-tube olfactometer. 【Results】 Behavioral results showed that both male and female adults of M. usitatus were attracted to the odors released by conspecific males but not those released by females. The volatiles from female and male adults could be extracted by both SPME and hexane extraction, but the extraction with SPME was more effective and suitable. GC-MS analysis showed that there was one major compound [(E,E)-farnesyl acetate] in the headspace volatiles from male adults, and this compound was absent from the headspace volatiles from female adults. Olfactometer results showed that both male and female adults showed significant preference to synthetic (E,E)-farnesyl acetate at certain doses. 【Conclusion】 This study confirmed the presence of aggregation pheromone in M. usitatus male adults and identified its active compound as (E,E)-farnesyl acetate, providing a basis for population monitoring and control of M. usitatus using aggregation pheromone.
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Molecular identification of citrus fruit flies and genetic diversity analysis of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in China based on mtDNA COI gene sequences
CUI Zhong-Yi, ZHOU Qiong, LIU Yi-Peng, SI Pin-Fa, WANG Yang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (1): 85-96.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.010
Abstract693)      PDF(pc) (2200KB)(138)    PDF(mobile) (2200KB)(20)    Save
【Aim】To clarify the species of fruit flies that harm citrus and the genetic diversity of different geographical populations and different host populations of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax in China. 【Methods】 The mtDNA COI gene was detected to identify the species of fruit flies that harm citrus. The sequences of this mtDNA COI gene fragment (about 505 bp) of citrus fruit flies of 535 individuals from the 28 geographical populations were aligned, and the inter- and intra-species genetic distance was calculated and the phylogenetic tree was constructed by using MEGA software. The genetic diversity of different geographical populations and different host populations of B. minax was analyzed by using DnaSP software. 【Results】 Four species of fruit flies (B. minax, B. dorsalis, B. tsuneonis, and B. ruiliensis) were identified from the infested citrus fruits, with the inter-species genetic distance of 0.0264-0.2410 and the intra-species genetic distance of 0.0000-0.0140. There was no overlap between the intra-and inter-species genetic distances. There was usually only one fruit fly species in single citrus fruit, and very few fruits were harmed by two species of fruit flies (4/43). Among all the fruit fly species, the proportion of B. minax individuals was the highest (90.70%). The genetic diversity of geographical populations of B. minax was high, and there were 17 haplotypes in 28 populations. 【Conclusion】 In the regions surveyed in this study, B. minax is the dominant fruit fly species that damages citrus fruits. There exist a high degree of genetic differentiation and a high risk of proliferation hazard of B. minax. The results of this study are helpful for monitoring and controlling citrus fruit flies.
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Structure and function of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels in insects
SU Jian-Ya
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (6): 756-768.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.06.011
Abstract673)      PDF(pc) (11296KB)(125)       Save
 Inwardly-rectifying potassium channels (Kir) play important roles in various tissues of animals. Although the research on insect Kir channels is limited, some important findings about insect Kir had been achieved in the recent five years, which were reviewed in this article. Until now the studies on insect Kirs have been mainly focused on the insect orders Diptera and Hemiptera. The analysis on genomic data and gene cloning demonstrated that insects have much fewer Kir genes than mammals. The dipteran insects Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae harbor five to six Kir genes, Drosophila melanogaster has only three Kir genes, and the hemipteran insects Nilaparvata lugens and Cimex lectularius also have only three Kir genes. The number of Kir genes in soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) reduced to only two, and the third one was lost, which conjecturally is related with the degeneration of Malpighian tubules during the evolution of aphids. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that insect Kirs belong to three subfamilies; however, they are not orthologous to the seven subfamilies of mammal Kirs. Even so, insect Kirs have similar structural characteristics with mammal Kirs: insect Kirs are tetramer channels composed by four Kir subunits, each subunit has two transmembrane domains (TM1 and TM2), and K+ selective filter sequence is present between TM1 and TM2. The Kir genes are highly expressed in salivary gland and Malpighian tubules of insects. Kir inhibitors, which block the inward potassium current of Kir in insects, suppress the secretion activities of salivary gland and Malpighian tubules, and therefore disrupt the processes of insect feeding and excretion, and finally lead to the death of insects. These results suggest that the secretion activities of salivary gland and Malpighian tubules are regulated by Kir, and the transmembrane transport of K+ mediated by Kir drives the secretion activities in these epithelial cells. The most important discovery is that flonicamid, an insecticide with long-sought-after mode of action, has high blocking activity on Kir in N. lugens, and disrupts the physiological function of salivary gland and renal tubes. These results demonstrate that Kir is the molecular target of flonicamid, suggesting that Kir is the excellent insecticidal target. Finally, the author analyzed the emerging scientific issues in insect Kir research remaining to be solved and highlighted the research prospects on the development of new insecticides targeting at Kir channels.
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Application of CLARITY on honey bee gut tissues
ZHANG Yang-Yi, HUANG Wei-Fone, HE Nan, LI Jia-Huan, CHEN Wen-Feng, HUANG Shao-Kang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (6): 703-709.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.06.006
Abstract652)      PDF(pc) (5196KB)(104)       Save
【Aim】 This study aims to investigate whether clear lipid-exchanged acrylamide-hybridized rigid imaging/immunostaining/in situ hybridizationcompatible tissue-hYdrogel (CLARITY) technique is feasible in insect tissue treatments, using guts of Apis mellifera workers as the test samples, and to test the feasibility of CLARITY in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in the clarification of insect gut tissues. 【Methods】 A. mellifera worker guts were fixed and solidified according to the regular CLARITY protocol and clarified using the passive method. The in situ hybridization of the clarified gut tissues was conducted using species-specific oligonucleotide probes including Nosema ceranae-specific 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and a universal eukaryotic 18S rRNAtargeted oligonucleotide probe labeled with Texas RED. The nuclei were counter-stained with DAPI (in blue), and the stained tissues were observed under a confocal laser scanning microscope. 【Results】 For the first time, A. mellifera guts were successfully processed and clarified.  The original morphology of Malpighian tubules in the abdomen was observed, and the spatial distribution of Nosema with higher density at the distal part of the midgut was clearly labeled in the 3D scanning using confocal laser scanning microscope. 【Conclusion】 CLARITY can be used in the clarity of honey bee gut tissues, and the clarified gut tissues can be stained by FISH and observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. CLARITY in combination with FISH provides a reliable and specific labeling method for insect physiological and pathological studies without the troubles of antibody preparation and paraffin sectioning usually required for a similar study.
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Research progress in pigmentation and the formation mechanisms of black stripes and spots on the body in insects
GAO Yun, LIANG Yan-Ting, LIU Yi-Qin, XU Yu-Song, WANG Hua-Bing
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (10): 1268-1275.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.012
Abstract645)      PDF(pc) (3193KB)(188)    PDF(mobile) (3193KB)(38)    Save
 Insects are constantly attacked by predators and exhibit adaptive traits for defense against predators during their growth and development. One of the defense strategies is an adaptive stripe pattern. The various coloration patterns of insects represent warning signals or mimic host plants to escape detection by predators and hasten avoidance learning. Furthermore, insect pigmentation patterns play important roles in such processes as mate preference, geographical adaptation, thermoregulation, and ultraviolet resistance. Thus, multifarious pigmentation patterns are highly researched. Lepidopteran insects include multiple species that are widely distributed. The adaptive stripe pattern is often observed in lepidopteran insects; thus, its biological roles are more evident than those in other insects. Recent research suggests that pigmentary color and schemochrome are the main determinants of insect color patterns, and ommochromes, melanin, and peridines significantly influence visual color patterns. In addition, hosts, environmental factors, and hormones are also thought to dramatically affect the diversity of color patterns in insects. In recent years, many genes that are crucial to pigmentation have been identified through positional cloning strategies, classical linkage maps, RNA interference, and high-throughput sequencing technologies combined with genome editing techniques. Recent studies suggest that TH, DDC, yellow, laccase2, ebony, AA-NAT, tan, and GTPCHI all play key roles in pigment synthesis. Furthermore, the pleiotropic genes spz3, apt-like, and wnt1 as well as the 20E-inducible transcription factors E75A and spalt target the melanin synthesis pathway, affecting the synthesis and deposition of melanin. In this article, we reviewed the progress in the research of the formation and influencing factors of the diversity of insect body color and markings, the type and material basis of insect coloration, and the regulation of black spots and markings on insects, hoping to provide a theoretical basis for the utilization of pigmentation-related genes and new insights for pest control.
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Ultrastructure of sensilla on the antennae, proboscis and tarsi of adult Achelura yunnanensis (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)
LI Gen-Ceng, ZHAO Yu-Jie, LI Jia-Li, LU Guo-Yan, LIU Nai-Yong
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (11): 1385-1398.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.11.011
Abstract626)      PDF(pc) (1540KB)(104)    PDF(mobile) (1540KB)(32)    Save
【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the types and differences of sensilla on the main chemosensory organs, including the antennae, proboscis and tarsi, of female and male adults of Achelura yunnanensis, so as to lay a basis for further studies associated with chemosensory reception of this moth. 【Methods】 The morphological characteristics of the antennae, proboscis and tarsi of female and male adults of A. yunnanensis and the types and ultrastructure of sensilla on them were observed under light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. 【Results】 Seventeen subtypes of seven types of sensilla were identified on female and male antennae of A. yunnanensis adults, including five sensilla basiconica (SB), three sensilla trichodea (ST), three sensilla chaetica (SCH), two Bhm bristles (BB), two sensilla coeloconica (SCO), one sensilla auricillica (SAU) and one sensilla squamiformia (SSQ). Among them, BBI is present only on male antennae, and ST-II, ST-III and SCO-I show sexual dimorphism in length. Five subtypes of two types of sensilla were identified on female and male proboscises, including four SB and one SCH. Of these sensilla, SB-III is distributed only on female proboscis. In addition, 13 subtypes of five types of sensilla were found on female and male tarsi, including four ST, four SB, two SSQ, two BB and one SCH. Notably, ST-I is present only on female tarsi, while SB-II and SB-III are present only on male tarsi. The lengths of SB-IV and BB-I on female and male tarsi show sexual dimorphism. 【Conclusion】 There are 17, 5 and 13 subtypes of sensilla on the antennae, proboscis and tarsi of female and male adults of A. yunnanensisrespectively. Some of these sensilla exhibit sexual dimorphism in the type, length or number.
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Observation of antennal sensilla of the malaria vector Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) under scanning electron microscope
ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Jing-Jing, SHI Zong-Pan, YAN Zhen-Tian, CHEN Bin, HE Zheng-Bo
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (3): 312-322.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.03.005
Abstract617)      PDF(pc) (10259KB)(142)       Save
【Aim】 To determine the type, morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of female adults and larvae of Anopheles sinensis. 【Methods】 The morphological structure of the antennae of female adults and larvae of An. sinensis were observed under optical microscope, and the types, morphology and distribution of sensilla were observed under scanning electron microscope. 【Results】 The female antennae of An. sinensis adults are comprised of basal scape, pedicel, and a long flagellum with 13 flagellomeres. Four types of sensilla, including sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipped), sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla basiconica or grooved pegs (types I and II) and sensilla coeloconica (large and small), were found on the female antennae of adults. Averagely the flagellum is covered with 1 135.67±86.75 sensilla. Among them, sensilla trichodea are the most numerous sensilla type found on the flagellum (662.00±6.22), followed by sensilla chaetica (294.67±33.35), sensilla basiconica (146.00±42.39) and sensilla coeloconica (36.50±5.90). Sensilla trichodea, sensilla chaetica and sensilla basiconica are distributed on each flagellomere, while the large sensilla coeloconica were not found on the 9th-11th flagellomeres, and the small sensilla coeloconica were only found on the distal tip of flagellomere 13. There is only one tubular flagellomere on larval antennae with a terminal sensory cone. Many pegs similar to the sensilla basiconica of female adults were found on the tubular flagellum, which were tentatively named as sensilla basiconica-like. Their numbers and sizes dramatically increase with the larval instar, and the grooves along the surfaces gradually become obvious, but their functions need to be further determined through ultrastructural and electrophysiological analysis. 【Conclusion】 In this study the morphological characteristics, type, number and distribution of antennal sensilla of An. sinensis larvae and female adults were observed and analyzed. The results provide a basis for further investigating the physiological functions of the sensilla of An. sinensis.
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Plant-mediated RNA interference in insect pests
FU Shu, LIU Zhao-Xia, CHEN Jin-Zhi, SUN Geng-Xiao, SUN Cui-Ying, YANG Guang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (12): 1448-1468.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.12.011
Abstract604)      PDF(pc) (6158KB)(188)    PDF(mobile) (6158KB)(47)    Save
Insect pest control by plant-mediated RNAi has received extensive attention in the recent decade. The process involves two steps: the first is the expression, transport and storage of the dsRNAs of target genes in a plant, and the second is that the expression of target gene in the pest is specifically inhibited after the pest feeds on this plant. So far, plant-mediated RNAi has been focused on Coleoptera, Lepidoptera and Homoptera pests, causing the abnormal growth and development, reduced fecundity, and mortality of insect pests, and even the abnormal growth and development of their offspring. There are many factors affecting the efficacy of plant-mediated RNAi for pest control, including the selection of target gene/locus, the length of dsRNA, dsRNA expression vector and the transformation method of plant. Plant-mediated RNAi for pest control is still facing some challenges, such as the ecological safety of transgenic plant and the potential off-target effect of RNAi. With the development of this technology, it could become a new strategy for pest control.
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Advances in aphid salivary protein research
SHANG Zhe-Ming, LIU De-Guang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (12): 1435-1447.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.12.010
Abstract596)      PDF(pc) (1720KB)(188)    PDF(mobile) (1720KB)(46)    Save
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a group of important agricultural pests, ingest plant phloem sap and transmit plant viruses with piercing-sucking mouthparts. The outbreak of aphids often causes serious economic losses. In the long history of co-evolution, plants have established effective defense systems against the threat of aphids. In order to overcome these plant defenses, aphids also have developed sophisticated countermeasures. Among them, aphids secrete salivary proteins during the feeding process, which can modulate plant defenses and degrade plant secondary metabolites. Therefore, salivary proteins play a critical role in plant-aphid interactions. In this review, we summarized recent advances in the identification of aphid salivary proteins and the functional research of associated proteins, and brought forward the prospects about application of salivary proteins in aphid control and new directions for future research. Common methods used to identify and predict aphid salivary proteins include enzymatic activity assay of salivary proteins, proteomic analysis of aphid saliva, and transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of salivary glands. However, these methods all have their own advantages and disadvantages, and individual method may just reveal partial real information of the whole aphid secretome. The combination of different techniques can provide more realistic and detailed information. Aphid salivary proteins can be classified into various categories including detoxifying enzymes, protective enzymes, hydrolases, binding domain proteins, effector proteins of unknown function categories and so on. Aphid salivary proteins have multiple functions, such as participating in salivary sheath formation, inducing or repressing plant defenses, promoting aphid feeding and enhancing aphid fecundity. Silencing aphid salivary protein coding genes via RNAi technology can significantly affect feeding behaviors, and decrease aphid survival rate, fecundity and fitness. Therefore, aphid salivary proteins are ideal targets for manipulation in aphid control. Now, in several crops, some effective aphid-resistant lines, which can target salivary protein coding genes, have been established, via the HIGS (host-induced gene silencing) technique, and they have showed good application prospects. According to the present studies, it is urgent to analyze aphid secretomes with combination of multiple Omic techniques. There is still a serious lack of research on the specific functions of various salivary proteins. It is necessary to explore the functions and related molecular mechanisms of salivary proteins of aphids from multiple dimensions, such as aphids, plants and the interactions between them, so as to lay a foundation for the development of new aphid control strategies based on the regulation of salivary proteins in aphids.
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Molecular cloning, prokaryotic expression and expression profiling of the laccase gene MaLac1 in Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
CHEN Hao, LUO Qiao-Yu, MA Qiu-Yu, CHU Xu, YUAN Chao, LIU Ying, YU Wei, WU Song-Qing, WANG Rong, LIANG Guang-Hong, ZHANG Fei-Ping, HU Xia
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 381-389.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.001
Abstract596)      PDF(pc) (2548KB)(246)    PDF(mobile) (2548KB)(66)    Save
【Aim】 This study aims to clone and identify the laccase gene MaLac1 from the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus, and to analyze its expression levels in different developmental stages of the beetle, so as to provide some clues for further study of the function of MaLac1. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome sequencing data of M. alternatus gut, the full-length cDNA of MaLac1 was cloned from M. alternatus using the RACE method and analyzed by bioinformatic software. MaLac1 sequence was then inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a(+) to construct a recombinant plasmid pET-MaLac1, which was then transformed into Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) to express MaLac1. The expression patterns of MaLac1 in the gut of M. alternatus at different developmental stages (early instar larva, mature larva, pupa, female adult, and male adult) were assayed by qPCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of MaLac1 from M. alternatus (GenBank accession no.: KY073340) were obtained. Its open reading frame is 2 067 bp in length, encoding a protein of 688 amino acids, with an estimated molecular mass of 78.34 kD and an isoeletric point of 5.30. MaLac1 was predicted to contain an N-terminal signal peptide with 15 amino acids by SignalP 4.1 Server. Sequence alignment analysis showed that MaLac1 shows the typical characteristics of insect laccase genes, with 93% amino acid sequence identity with the laccase gene of Tribolium castaneum. SDS-PAGE results showed that IPTG induced a specific protein band of about 78 kD, which was consistent with the estimated size. The qPCR results showed that MaLac1 was expressed in the gut of M. alternatus at various developmental stages, with the highest expression level in the female adult gut, followed by that in the male adult gut, and the lowest expression level in the larval gut. 【Conclusion】 The expression level of MaLac1 in adults of M. alternatus is significantly higher than that in larvae, and this may be relevant to the feeding differences between adults and larvae. Further study is needed to reveal the exact function of MaLac1 in M. alternatus
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Biology, ecology and integrated management of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
YAN Jun-Jie, ZHANG Meng-Di, GAO Yu-Lin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (12): 1469-1482.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.12.012
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The potato tuber moth (PTM), Phthorimaea operculella, also known as tobacco leafminer, is a worldwide agricultural pest of Solanaceae crops, especially destructive to potatoes. It originated from the northern region of Central and South America and now has been distributed in more than 100 countries in Asia, Europe, North America, Africa and other regions. At present, this pest occurs in southern potato production areas in China, especially in Yunnan, Sichuan and Guizhou provinces, and the moth is likely to spread to other potato producing areas with climate change. P. operculella reproduces mainly by sexual reproduction and occasionally by parthenogenesis. Its larvae burrow into cavities in potato leaves and tubers. There is no sexual dimorphism in the newly hatched larvae; however, the sex of the 4th instar larva, pupa and adult can be distinguished based on the morphological characteristics. The number of generations of PTM depends on local agricultural climatic conditions, ranging from 2-12 generations per year. P. operculella has high adaptability to temperature fluctuations, and it is prone to large outbreaks in dry and hot years. Early prevention and control mainly focus on agricultural control measures such as selecting resistant varieties, deep seeding and irrigation. Chemical control is still the main way to control PTM. However, due to the widespread use of chemical pesticides, this insect has developed resistance to organophosphates, pyrethroids and other insecticides. In order to reduce the use of chemical pesticides and to slow down the development of pesticide resistance, a variety of natural enemies and insect pathogenic microorganisms have been found and screened for the control of PTM. The sex pheromone of PTM with (E4, Z7)tridecadienyl acetate and (E4, Z7, Z10)tridecacenyl acetate as the main components are effective for monitoring and control of PTM. Eucalyptus, ruffle mint and other plantderived compounds can inhibit the PTM oviposition. Transgenic insect-resistant potatoes and sterile insect technique have also become new methods for the prevention and control of PTM. Previous studies have revealed that it is difficult to achieve the ideal control effect by using a single biological control method, so integrating chemical substances, natural enemies and pathogenic microorganisms compatible with biological control technology is an important trend to effectively control the PTM population. In this article we reviewed the research progresses of the occurrence and damage and the comprehensive prevention and control technology of PTM at home and abroad systematically, hoping to provide reference sources for the sustainable management of PTM.
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Taxonomy of Holcoderus from China, with description of a new species (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Lebiini)
LIU Yi-Zhou, SHI Hong-Liang, LIANG Hong-Bin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (5): 634-644.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.05.012
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【Aim】 The genus Holcoderus Chaudoir belongs to the order Coleoptera, family Carabidae, tribe Lebiini. This study aims to revise the taxonomy of every species of the genus in China. 【Methods】 Based on the collections of Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and the types deposited in European museums, specimens were observed by using morphology comparative methods. 【Results】 Total five species of the genus Holcoderus are recognized in China, including one new species (Holcoderus bisetus sp. n., type locality: Xishuangbanna, Yunnan), and three newly recorded species (H. gracilis, H. smaragdinus and H. aeripennis). Morphological descriptions, photographs of habitus and aedeagus for each species are provided, and a key to Chinese species is compiled. 【Conclusion】 To date, the species number of the genus Holcoderus found in China have increased from one to five. 
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Analysis of the gut microbial diversity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) by highthroughput sequencing
WANG Tian-Zhao, WANG Zheng-Liang, ZHU Hang-Feng, WANG Zi-Ye, YU Xiao-Ping
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (3): 323-333.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.03.006
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【Aim】 To reveal the gut microbial community structure and diversity in adults of the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens. 【Methods】 The total gut DNA was extracted from the adult BPH. The V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS2 fragments were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq (PE300), and then the number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs), species composition, abundance and alpha diversity of gut microbes were analyzed. The high-throughput sequencing data of four randomly selected gut microbes annotated were verified by qPCR. 【Results】 A total of 32 395 valid tags and 235 OTUs were obtained for gut bacteria of adult BPH, while the numbers of valid tags and OTUs for gut fungi were 24 986 and 128, respectively. The total OTUs of gut bacteria were annotated into 7 phyla, 15 classes, 26 orders, 45 families and 73 genera, while the fungal OTUs were annotated into 3 phyla, 9 classes, 12 orders, 15 families and 18 genera. At the phylum levels, the dominant gut bacteria were Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, while the dominant gut fungi with the highest abundance belonged to Ascomycota. Acinetobacter, one indeterminate genus in Porphyromonadaceae and one indeterminate genus in Lachnospiraceae were dominated at the genus level in the bacterial communities, with the abundance of 36.37%, 17.22% and 15.01%, respectively. Fungi belonging to an indeterminate genus in Sordariomycetes were the most dominant, accounting for 95.77%. The alpha diversity analysis revealed that the number of observed species, Chao1 index, Shannon index and Simpson index were 235, 262.64, 3.90 and 0.62 for gut bacteria, and 128, 165.40, 0.91 and 0.75 for gut fungi, respectively. The qPCR results of four gut microbes confirmed that the highthroughput sequencing data had a high validity. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that the bacteria and fungi are diverse in the gut of adult BPH. The results of this study not only lay the foundation for the further studies on the environmental adaption mechanisms of BPH from a microbial standpoint, but also facilitate the studies on the development of new technology for the biocontrol of BPH.
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Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Scythropus yasumatsui (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
ZHANG Feng, HONG Bo, WANG Yuan-Zheng, LI Ying-Mei, CHEN Zhi-Jie
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1305-1314.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.008
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【Aim】 To explore the phylogenetic relationship between Scythropus yasumatsui and related species at the mitochondrial genome level. 【Methods】 Using Illumina MiSeq platform, the mitochondrial genome of S. yasumatsui was sequenced, and the genome sequences were assembled, annotated and characterized. Based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 protein-coding genes in the mitochondrial genome, the Bayesian and ML phylogenetic trees of 13 species of the family Curculionidae were constructed. 【Results】 The results showed that the sequence length of the mitochondrial genome of S. yasumatsui is 16 472 bp (GenBank accession no.: MF807224), including 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and 2 non-coding regions, and the order of genes is consistent with that of the ancestral insect mitochondrial genes. All of the 13 PCGs use ATN as the start codon, and except that cob and nad1 use TAG as the termination codon, other 11 PCGs use TA(A) as the termination codon. All of the 22 tRNA genes were predicted to contain typical cloverleaf secondary structures except the gene trnS1 lacking DHU arm and changing anticodon from GCT to TCT. Phylogenetic tree based on the nucleotide sequences of 13 PCGs showed that the phylogenetic relationship among eight subfamilies of the family Curculionidae was: (((Cryptorhynchinae+(Curculioninae+Molytinae))+Platypodinae)+(Entiminae+Cyclominae))+Dryophthorinae+Scolytinae). 【Conclusion】 The phylogenetic tree based on the mitochondrial genome showed that among the 13 species of the family Curculionidae, S. yasumatsui and Naupactus xanthographus belonging to the subfamily Entiminae clustered together in the same branch of phylogenetic tree, and this result is consistent with that of traditional morphological classification.
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Effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of the tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
LI Dong, LI Xiao-Wei, MA Lin, FU Kai-Yun, DING Xin-Hua, GUO Wen-Chao, LU Yao-Bin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (12): 1417-1426.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.12.008
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【Aim】 The tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta, is a devastating invasive alien pest worldwide, causing severe damage to global tomato industry. In this study, the effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of T. absoluta were studied in order to provide the basic information for prediction of its potential distribution and population dynamics in newly invaded areas. 【Methods】 The developmental duration, survival rate and population growth parameters of T. absoluta on tomato leaves under laboratory conditions were investigated, and the lower temperature threshold, upper temperature threshold, optimum temperature, effective accumulative temperature and occurrence generation were determined by using models based on developmental rates or population growth parameters. 【Results】 Within the constant temperatures ranging from 15 to 30℃, the duration of different developmental stages of T. absoluta shortened as the temperature rose. At 25℃, the survival rate at the larval and entire immature stages, the total fecundity, the net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of natural increase and the finite rate of increase were all the greatest. At 35℃, the survival rate of eggs decreased sharply to 11%, and the larvae could not finish development. The effective accumulative temperatures of egg, larval, pupal, entire immature stages and the whole generation were 104.17, 232.59, 129.87, 434.78 and 526.32 degree-days, respectively. T. absoluta could have four to five generations per year in Yining County and Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County, Xinjiang. Thermal requirement parameters estimated by the model based on the relationship between the developmental rate and temperature showed different results from those by the model based on the relationship between the intrinsic rate of natural increase and temperature. The lower temperature threshold, upper temperature threshold and optimum temperature based on the intrinsic rate of natural increase were 12.46, 30.40 and 27.36℃, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The range of adaptive temperature for the invasive T. absoluta population in Xinjiang is wide, suggesting that it has a high diffusion threat to most parts of China.
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Dose-response and time-effect relationships of low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole on food utilization and related physiological and biochemical parameters in Pleonomus canaliculatus (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
HE Fa-Lin, QIAO Zhi-Hua, YAO Xiang-Feng, YU Hao-Yong, SUN Shi-Ang, LI Xiang-Dong, ZHANG JI-Wang, JIANG Xing-Yin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (8): 948-959.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.007
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【Aim】 To explore the physiological and biochemical mechanism of the sublethal effect of chlorantraniliprole against Pleonomus canaliculatus, and to elucidate the effects of low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole on food utilization, the contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources and the activities of digestive enzymes, protective enzymes and detoxification enzymes in P. canaliculatus larvae. 【Methods】 The toxicity of chlorantraniliprole against the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus was determined by soil mixed pesticide method in the laboratory. The effects of chlorantraniliprole at the LC10, LC25 and LC40 doses on the nutritional indices and contents of biochemical substances used as energy sources in P. canaliculatus larvae were determined. The dynamic changes in the activities of digestive enzymes (protease, α-amylase, lipase and trehalase), protective enzymes (CAT, POD and SOD) and detoxifying enzymes (CarE, MFO and GST) in the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus at 1, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after exposure to chlorantraniliprole were detected by enzyme kinetic method. 【Results】 Chlorantraniliprole had higher toxicity to the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus, with the LC50 value of 1.2397 mg/kg. The mean relative growth rate (MRGR) and approximate digestibility (AD) were significantly decreased when the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus were exposed to LC25 and LC40 of chlorantraniliprole, leading to serious disturbance of their food utilization. Chlorantraniliprole at LC10, LC25 and LC40 doses significantly decreased the contents of protein, lipid, carbohydrate and trehalose, and the activities of protease, α-amylase, lipase and trehalose, significantly increased the activities of detoxifying enzymes (CarE, MFO and GST) and protective enzymes (CAT, POD and SOD) in the 3rd instar larvae of P. canaliculatus treated with these doses of chlorantraniliprole, and caused the delayed growth and development of the treated larvae. 【Conclusion】 Chlorantraniliprole has high insecticidal activity against P. canaliculatus larvae. In P. canaliculatus larvae exposed to low lethal doses of chlorantraniliprole, the activities of digestive enzymes are inhibited, resulting in the reduction of food utilization and delaying the growth and development of P. canaliculatus, and the activities of detoxifying and protective enzymes are induced, preventing the invasion of external toxicants. These results provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the mechanisms of sublethal effect and action of chlorantraniliprole against P. canaliculatus.
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Research progress in odorant binding proteins of insects
DU Ya-Li, XU Kai, ZHAO Hui-Ting, LIU Yu-Ling, NIU Qing-Sheng, JIANG Yu-Suo
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (3): 365-380.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.013
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Abstract: Insects depend critically on their sophisticated and sensitive chemoreception system to recognize and distinguish a variety of semiochemical signals from the environment. Olfaction is a sensory modality responsible for the olfactory signal transduction, which can evoke insect survival and reproduction behaviors, such as foraging, oviposition, capulation, and avoiding predators. As essential proteins in the normally functioning olfactory system, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) initially interact with external lipophilic chemicals in the process of olfactory sensing, and transfer them to chemical receptor neurons to activate olfactory receptors (ORs) distributed on the surface of dendritic membrane. In recent years, with the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing and molecular biology technologies, more and more OBPs have been identified in different species and their biological functions have been explored. Insect OBPs are a class of soluble small molecular proteins, and generally contain a stable and compact hydrophobic binding pocket consisting of 6 αhelices, where the conformational change varies with insect species and ligand structures. The expression of OBPs is not limited to olfactory organs, but also in non-olfactory tissues such as mouthparts, legs, midgut and glands. Insect OBPs can perform different physiological roles in olfaction recognition, gustatory perception, nutrient transport, pheromone synthesis and release, and histological development and differentiation. It is reasonable to suspect that the common property linking their very different functions is the ability of OBPs to bind and solubilize small hydrophobic compounds including pheromone components, common odor molecules, and nonvolatile substances. The stability and versatility of OBPs suggest their extensive application potentials in many fields including pest control, biosensors, analytical chemistry and ecology. In this article we reviewed the relevant studies of insect OBPs over the last 20 years to provide theoretical references for the in-depth study on the functions of OBPs.
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Determination of larval instars and the observation of head morphology and sensilla of the final instar larva of Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
CUI Xiao-Lin, WANG Hong-Min, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Xian-Hong, ZHENG Hai-Xia
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 512-522.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.014
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【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the number of larval instars and to understand the types, morphology and distribution of sensilla on the final instar larval head of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis. 【Methods】 The body length, head capsule 
width and mandible width of C. chinensis larvae were measured. Based on the frequency histograms, regression relationship and Dyar’s rule of the obtained data, the optimal morphological index for determining the larval instars of C. chinensis was determined. The obtained result was verified by Crosby growth rule and linear regression method. The morphology and sensilla on the head of the final instar larva of C. chinensis were observed under scanning electron microscope. 【Results】 The frequency histograms of the body length, head capsule width and mandible width of C. chinensis larvae showed four obvious peaks, and it is so inferred that C. chinensis larvae have four instars. The four instars had the body length range of 1.581-2.556, 2.406-3.381, 3.381-4.281 and 4.206-4.881 mm, the head capsule width range of 0.444-0.689, 0.654-0.934, 0.934-1.179 and 1.144-1.389 mm, and the mandible width range of 0.080-0.256, 0.234-0.344, 0.322-0.542 and 0.542-0.652 mm, respectively. The body length, head capsule width and mandible width are in accordance with Dyar’s rule and Crosby growth rule, and show obvious linear relationship. Therefore, the body length, head capsule width and mandible width can be used as important indexes for the division of larval instars of C. chinensis. The Crosby ratio of head capsule width is smaller than those of body length and mandible width, and the correlation coefficient between the logarithmic value of head capsule width and body length and larval instar is higher than that between mandible width and larval instar, so the head capsule width can be used as the optimal index for the division of larval instars. Seven types of sensilla including sensillum basiconicum, sensillum trichodeum, sensillum lageniform, sensillum chaeticum, sensillum placodeum, sensillum styloconicum and sensillum ampullaceum were observed on the head and are mainly located on the antennae, maxillary palp, labrum and mandible. 【Conclusion】 The morphological indexes of the division of larval instars and the observation of head morphology and of the C. chinensis provide a theoretical basis for the study of behavior and integrated control.
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Molecular characterization and functional analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase gene in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
YAO Xue, LI Lin-Hong, WEI Ji-Zhen, XI Yu-Qiang, DU Meng-Fang, CUI Jiang-Kuan, AN Shi-Heng, LIU Xiao-Guang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (3): 294-303.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.03.003
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 【Aim】 Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is a key enzyme of melanin biosynthesis and plays an important role in epidermal sclerotization. This study aims to obtain the cDNA sequence of TH gene of Helicoverpa armigera, and to analyze its molecular characteristics, expression pattern and function, so as to provide a foundation for further exploring its action mechanism. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of TH gene was cloned from H. armigera by using bioinformatics and molecular cloning technique. The developmental expression pattern of this gene was assayed with qRT-PCR. The expression of TH gene in the 5th instar larva of H. armigera after treatment with 20E (20-hydroxyecdysone) (400 ng/individual) for different time and RNAi of ecdysone receptor gene (EcR) followed by 20E treatment (400 ng/individual) was analyzed by qRT-PCR, respectively. The TH acitivity in the fat body of H. armigera larvae after treatment with bio-stimulants bursicon (30 μg/mg tissue) and cAMP (200 ng/mg tissue) was determined by biochemical method. 【Results】 We cloned the full-length cDNA sequence of TH(GenBank accession no.: MF440319) from H. armigera, which is 2 270 bp in length with a 1 686 bp open reading frame encoding 561 amino acids. TH is ubiquitously expressed in all the examined developmental stages of H.armigera and relatively highly expressed in day-3 of egg stage, day-1 of the 2nd instar larval stage, 3rd-5th instar molting stages, prepupal stage and 1 day-old adult. In vitro treatment, the steroid hormone 20E (400 ng/individual) significantly up-regulated the transcription level of TH, but the 20E treatment after RNAi-mediated knockdown of 20E receptor gene EcR showed no obvious effect on the transcription of TH as compared with the control (injected with dsGFP only). Enzymatic activity assay demonstrated that both bursicon (30 μg/mg tissue) and cAMP (200 ng/mg tissue) led to significant increase of the TH activity. 【Conclusion】 20E is involved in the regulation of TH expression at the transcriptional level, and both bursicon and cAMP can promote the TH activity at the protein level.
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Plant pathogen-insect vector interactions: research progress and prospects
YAN Feng-Ming
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (2): 123-130.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.02.001
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 Most plant viruses and some plant pathogenic bacteria are transmitted by insect vectors. Understandings on plant pathogen-insect vector interactions can facilitate the recognition of key issues in effective management of plant pathogens and their vectors. Therefore, pathogen-vector interaction has become one of the core topics in the studies of pathogen transmission mechanisms. This article reviewed the recent research progress in plant pathogen-insect vector interactions, introduced the main contents of papers in this issue, and based on them proposed the following three directions for future research from ecological and evolutionary perspectives: (1) the roles of the interactions between plant pathogens and insect vectors in reshaping ecological systems; (2) the inter-relationships between different modes of plant virus transmission by insect vectors, and issues related to co-evolution among viruses, vectors and plants; and (3) the mechanisms of interactions between plant pathogens and insect vectors in nature. Studies on plant pathogen-insect vector interactions are not only fundamentals in ecology and evolutionary biology, but closely related to effective management of plant pathogens and their insect vectors as well.
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Observation of the morphological and biological characteristics of Thaumantis hainana (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
GE Si-Xun, ZHOU Xing-Miao
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1344-1350.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.012
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【Aim】 This study aims to determine the morphological and biological characteristics of different developmental stages of Thaumantis hainana and to define its host plant. 【Methods】 Female adults of T. hainana were collected from wild habitats and put into triangular paper envelopes for laying eggs. Its larvae were bred with the obtained eggs in an incubator under the conditions of 26℃, 40% relative humidity and 16L∶8D photoperiod with Phoenix loureirii leaves. The morphological characteristics of larvae were observed, and the body length and the width of head capsule of larvae of different instars were recorded. Some morphological characteristics of other developmental stages were also recorded. 【Results】 T. hainana exhibits complete metamorphosis with four developmental stages including egg, larva, pupa and adult. Eggs are round and have a smooth surface. Eggs are about 2.5-2.8 mm in diameter. The larva has 5 instars, and the body length and the width of head capsule of the larva increase gradually with the increase of larval instar. And it has hanging pupa. Adults do not show sexual dimorphism.【Conclusion】 This study primarily clarified the morphological and biological characteristics of different developmental stages of T. hainana, and defined P. loureirii as one of its host plants, enriching the basic data of T. hainana.
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Advances in the degradation of lignocellulose by microbes in fungus combs of fungus-cultivating termites
LIANG Shi-You, WANG Cheng-Pan, YIN Xue-Jie, LI Hong-Jie, MO Jian-Chu
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1325-1334.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.010
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The mechanism that termites and their symbiotic microorganisms synergistically degrade the lignocellulose-rich cell wall of plant has been well noticed and investigated by scientists around the world. Higher termites with fungus-cultivating ability have more diverse diets than lower termites. In this article, we reviewed the advances in the degradation of lignocellulose by microbes in fungus combs, so as to provide some references for a better understanding of the process and mechanism of the lignocellulose degradation in fungus combs, exploring the lignocellulosedegrading capacity of fungus combs, and developing biomimetic system of fungus combs to utilize biomass. Fungus-cultivating termites rely on the external symbiotic system, fungus combs, to degrade diverse plant materials. Funguscultivating termites cultivate their symbiotic fungi, Termitomyces spp., on the spongy structure, fungus combs built by plant materials. They develop specific food processing to degrade lignocelluloses gradually with the cooperation of symbiotic microbes. Younger workers ingest food foraged by older workers together with nodules of symbiotic fungi from combs, and excrete primarily feces to establish fresh combs on the surface of combs. In the gut passage of younger workers, Termitomyces release lignin-degrading enzymes to break the lignin barrier. Then, microbes including Termitomyces decompose lignin further, and turn polysaccharides to short chains, making the substrates of combs degraded from bottom to top. Finally, mature combs in the bottom are consumed by older workers. Endogenous enzymes of the midgut and microbes in the hindgut utilize the short chains. In conclusion, fungus combs and their microbes are fundamental for fungus-cultivating termites to utilize lignocelluloses efficiently. Studies of chemical changes in fungus comb indicated that fungus comb can decompose lignocelluloses and detoxify plant secondary compounds. Termitomyces might play a role in these processes, but the efficiency and specific functions vary in different genera of symbiotic fungi. Meanwhile, the specific functions of comb microbes require further investigation. Unlike lower wood-feeding termites which utilize lignocelluloses with the assistance of symbiotic microbes in the hindgut, fungus-cultivating termites degrade lignocelluloses based on fungus comb with two advantages, no requirement for anaerobic environment and fewer limits of food types. Imitation of fungus comb to process lignocelluloses is of great significance for the recycling use of dead wood and fallen leaves in forests.
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Oviposition behavior of Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae)
XU Qiang, LV Hong-Wu, WU Cheng-Peng, MAO Yu, SONG Guang-Hui, SHI Juan
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (4): 468-474.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.04.009
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Aim To study the oviposition behavior of Sirex noctilio, and to determine its oviposition capability, so as to provide a data basis for evaluating its reproductive potential and damage. Methods Logs of host Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica damaged by S. noctilio were collected from Xindian State Forest Farm of Duerbote Mongol Autonomous County,Daqing,HeilongjiangProvince,Northeast China. The oviposition behavior process and pattern of S. noctilio under the laboratory conditions were observed and analyzed. The oviposition holes of S. noctilio on P. sylvestris var. mongolica were dissected, and their structure characteristics were observed. Results The results revealed that S. noctilio wasps were sexually mature upon emergence, and they could mate and/or lay egg immediately. The ovipositing process of female adults of S. noctilio was divided into four stages: drilling into the bark, drilling into the xylem, laying egg (including injection of poisonous mucus and symbiotic fungi Amylosereum areolatum), and withdrawing the ovipositor. The most frequent oviposition time was between 360 to 540 s, accounting for 41.40% of the total frequency of various oviposition time. During these four stages, the time of drilling into the xylem was the longest, taking at least 90% of the total duration of oviposition. S. noctilio female adult would carry out 1-4 drillings once it confirmed a position. The oviposition time (t) showed a significantly positive correlation with the number of oviposition cycles: 1 cycle when t<360 s; 2 cycles when 360 st<540 s; 3 cycles when 540 st<780 s; and 4 or more cycles when t780 s. The proportions of 1, 2, 3 and 4 cycles of oviposition at one oviposition hole were 21.66%, 41.40%, 27.39% and 9.55%, respectively. Conclusion The number of oviposition cycles of female adults of S. noctilio is positively correlated to its oviposition time. Based on this relationship, the number of oviposition cycles can be inferred once the oviposition time is investigated. The more the oviposition cycles of S. noctilio, the higher the risk of its harm to P. sylvestris var. mongolica.
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Identification of the active components of sex pheromone of female moths of Micromelalopha sieversi (Lepidoptera: Notodontidae)
LIU Fu, GUO Li, LI Qing-Chun, ZHANG Su-Fang, KONG Xiang-Bo, ZHANG Zhen, HUANG Fan-Quan
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (7): 814-822.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.07.004
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 【Aim】 This study aims to identify the structure of active components of sex pheromone of female moths of Micromelalopha sieversi. 【Methods】 The sex pheromone was extracted from sex glands of virgin female moths of M. sieversi by n-hexane. The active ingredient was located by gas chromatography-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD). The additive derivative was obtained by the reaction of the extract from sex glands of virgin female moths with 4-methyl-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5(4H)-dione (MTAD). The characteristic ions of the extract and additive derivative were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 【Results】 The GC-EAD results indicated that the antenna of male moth of M. sieversi showed sensitive reaction to one component of the extract from sex glands of virgin female moths. Based on the GC-MS data of the extract and additive derivative, the active component of sex pheromone was identified as 13,15-octadecadienal. 【Conclusion】 The identified planar structure of the active component of sex pheromone of female moths of M. sieversi is 13,15-octadecadienal, but the stereoscopic configuration of conjugated double bonds needs to be further identified through synthesizing more standard compounds. This study provides the direction in screening synthetic pheromone candidates and establishes the foundation for determining the sex pheromone structure of female moth of M. sieversi.
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Identification of the IKK related genes and their antiviral roles in response to Rice stripe virus infection in Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
LU Yan-Hua, LU Gang, QI Yu-Hua, YE Zhuang-Xin, LI Jun-Min, CHEN Jian-Ping
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (2): 131-141.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.02.002
Abstract541)      PDF(pc) (2733KB)(132)    PDF(mobile) (2733KB)(38)    Save
【Aim】 This study aims to identify the IκB kinase (IKK) related genes in the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, and to investigate its antiviral role in this insect, so as to further understand the innate immune mechanisms in insect vectors responsive to plant viruses. 【Methods】 The IKK related genes in the L. striatellus genome were identified and characterized using bioinformatics approach. The healthy and the rice stripe virus (RSV) infected planthopper were used as the materials. The expression levels of IKK related genes in various developmental stages (egg, 1-5 instar nymphs, male and female adults) and adult tissues (gut, salivary gland, hemolymph, fat body, ovary and testis) of the RSV-free planthoppers were detected by RT-PCR. The relative expression levels of IKK related genes in the above different developmental stages and adult tissues between the RSV-free and RSV-infected planthoppers were assayed by qRT-PCR. In addition, the transcription levels of coat protein (CP) gene indicating the accumulation levels of RSV were determined after RNAi by injection of the double-stranded RNA of IKK related genes in the 3rd instar nymph of RSV-infected planthoppers. 【Results】 Two IKK related genes, IKKα (GenBank accession number: MK903504) and TANK-binding kinase 1 gene TBK1 (GenBank accession number: MN124506), were identified in the genome of L. striatellus. The open reading frame (ORF) of IKKα is 2 379 bp in length, encoding 792 amino acids, while the ORF of TBK1 is 1 551 bp in length, encoding 516 amino acids. The proteins coded by both genes have a conserved serine/threonine kinase domain and a ubiquitin folding domain. The RT-PCR results confirmed that IKKα and TBK1 were ubiquitously expressed in various developmental stages and different adult tissues of RSV-free L. striatellus. Significant expression differences of IKKα and TBK1 in various developmental stages and different adult tissues between the RSV-free and RSV-infected planthoppers were observed. The accumulation level of RSV was significantly increased after RNAi of IKKα and TBK1 in the 3rd instar nymphs of the RSV-infected planthoppers, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that IKKα and TBK1, the important genes of NF-κB signaling pathway, are widely expressed in L. striatellus and may play important roles in L. striatellus in response to RSV invasion. These results will contribute to the further investigation on antiviral immune pathway in insect vectors against plant virus.
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Nanoinsecticides and their application in agricultural insect pest management
ZHANG Da-Xia, PAN Shou-He, BAI Hai-Xiu, DU Jiang, LIU Feng, HOU You-Ming
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (10): 1276-1286.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.10.013
Abstract537)      PDF(pc) (2035KB)(588)    PDF(mobile) (2035KB)(55)    Save
 Nanotechnology has received great attention in the field of agriculture, and it is expected to improve the utilization rate and application effect of pesticides and fertilizers. In recent years, a number of experiments have been carried out to verify the potential for nanoinsecticides controlling agricultural insect pests and laid the foundation for the green agriculture, modern agriculture and intelligent agriculture. In this article, we reviewed the research status of the advantages of nanoinsecticides and the mechanisms of their synergistic effects. The advantages of nanoinsecticides lie in that: nanocarriers may damage the body wall, causing water loss or disturbing the normal physiological function of pests; the active ingredients can be delivered to the target position by the functionalized nanocarriers for improving utilization rate; the adhesion of insecticides on plant surface and their absorption by plants can be improved due to the functional groups and nanoscale effects of nanocarriers; and nucleic acid pesticides can be transported into plants by nanocarriers to regulate the expression of target genes in plants or pests. Although nanoinsecticides show many advantages, there are still some problems to be studied: (1) the uptake of nanoinsecticides by plants depends on the size and type of carrier, so suitable scales and carriers should be selected according to the application scenarios to improve the utilization rate of pesticides while reducing pesticide residues; (2) it is of great significance to comprehensively evaluate the environmental risks of nanoinsecticides by studying their degradation, transfer, and enrichment behavior in the environment as well as the influence caused by the difference in carriers; (3) at present, the preparation process of most of nanoinsecticides is too complex and sophisticated to be suitable for industrialization; and (4) the standard of nano-preparation and the evaluation criteria of environmental risks should be established to provide the basis for pesticide registration. In addition, the potential of nanosensors in agricultural pest monitoring is also worth attention.
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Wing morph differentiation of plant-pathogen borne vector insects  
YU Jin-Ting, CHEN Xiao-Fang, REN Ying-Dang, CUI Feng
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (2): 229-234.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.02.013
Abstract530)      PDF(pc) (1085KB)(124)    PDF(mobile) (1085KB)(24)    Save
Wing polymorphism is one of insect polyphenism phenomena, including short-winged or apterous morph without flight ability and long-winged or alate morph for long distance migration. Wing polymorphism is often observed in vector insects that transmit plant pathogens, and therefore affects the spatial-temporal distribution and outbreak of plant diseases. In this article we reviewed the research progress of wing dimorphism in aphids and planthoppers from the genetic laws, induction factors, molecular mechanisms, and other physiological modification accompanying wing morph differentiation. Wing dimorphism is mainly induced by abiotic factors, such as temperature, humidity and photoperiod, and biotic factors, such as population density, host nutrition and viruses. The underlying molecular mechanisms are involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) pathway, c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway, Wingless and olfactory receptor SaveOrco. Wing morph differentiation of insects is accompanied by changes in physiological status. The short-winged insects have stronger reproduction ability, while the long-winged insects contain richer flight muscle components. So far, the research of wing dimorphism is not comprehensive, and many problems need to be solved, such as identifying the target genes in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway, the regulation mechanisms of JNK on wing dimorphism and the molecular mechanisms of wing dimorphism mediated by viruses in vector insects. This review may shed light on the control of vector-borne pathogens and the research of wing polymorphism of other insects.
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Intraspecific variation in Eysarcoris aeneus revealed by geometric morphometrics (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)(In English)
LI Rong-Rong, LI Min, YAN Jiang, ZHANG Hu-Fang, BAI Ming
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (9): 1081-1089.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.009
Abstract529)      PDF(pc) (9066KB)(101)    PDF(mobile) (9066KB)(27)    Save

【Aim】 Eysarcoris aeneus, a main pest of many economic crops, is widely distributed in Palaearctic region with humeri variable. Difference in the humerus length of “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form” suggests that intraspecific variation may exist in E. aeneus. 【Methods】 In this study, 142 specimens (98 for E. aeneus and 44 for the outgroup E. ventralis ) from 19 regions of China were examined to ascertain the morphological variation of four characters (forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum) between the two forms, “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form”, respectively, of E. aeneus with the use of geometric morphometrics approaches, including multivariate regression, principal component analysis (PCA), canonical variate analysis (CVA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA). 【Results】 Allometry was not found in all of the four characters (forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum) examined. For the four characters, though the principal component analysis showed overlap between the two forms of E. aeneus, the canonical variate analysis showed significant differences between them (P-values for Procrustes distance and Mahalanobis distance were all less than 0.01). The correctly assigned percentages of “rounded humerus form” and “needle-like humerus form” ranged from 67% to 89% specimens based on the four characters using the discriminant function analysis. 【Conclusion】 This study proved that forewing, hindwing, head and scutellum can serve efficient evaluation criteria in describing intraspecific morphological difference of E. aeneus, and scutellum is the most informative character. The geometric morphometric descriptors showed significant shape differences and overlapped centroid size between the two forms of E. aeneus, indicating that the analysis of shape is more sensitive for detecting differences among lineages than that of size. Our study shows that geometric morphometrics is efficient in describing intraspecific morphological difference of E. aeneus, and lays a foundation for intraspecific variation studies of stink bugs in future.

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Diversity analysis and function prediction of gut microbiota in three springtail species
CHEN Wei, CHEN Xia, LI Juan, MA Xin-Ran, CUI Wei, QU Feng-Tian, XIE Gui-Lin, ZHAO Hong-Qing
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 450-461.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.008
Abstract517)      PDF(pc) (8308KB)(81)    PDF(mobile) (8308KB)(41)    Save
【Aim】 Springtails make a significant contribution to the soil ecosystem. This study aims to investigate the gut microbial structure and diversity and their potential functions in three springtail species, Sinella (Coecobrya) oligoseta, Proisotoma minuta and Tomocerus missus. 【Methods】 Microbes in the adult intestinal contents of the three springtail species were analyzed and compared by 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing, and the function prediction of gut microbial genes was conducted using Tax4Fun method. 【Results】Among the three springtail species, T. missus showed the highest adult gut microbial diversity, while S. (C.) oligoseta showed the lowest adult gut microbial diversity. At the phylum level, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the most predominant microbes in the adult gut microbiota of the three springtail species, followed by Actinobacteria. At the genus level, the abundance of Pseudomonas in the gut of S. (C.) oligoseta (16.21%) was significantly higher than those in the guts of P. minuta (0.87%) and T. missus (1.37%). The abundance of Vibrio in the gut of P. minuta (25.81%) was significantly higher than that in the gut of S. (C.) oligoseta (3.35%) and T. missus (0.004%). Additionally, based on KEGG pathway annotations, we predicted that the genes in adult gut microbiota of the three springtail species may be involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates and amino acids, infectious diseases and drug resistance. 【Conclusion】 In the intestines of the three springtail species, S. (C.) oligoseta, P. minuta and T. missusthe core microbiota are the same at the phylum level, but obviously different at the genus level. The influencing factors should include the genetic traits and the abundance and diversity of microbes in the habitat of each species. Actinomycetes in springtail guts are conducive to the discovery of new strains and the application of their metabolites. Drug-resistant and pathogenic bacteria likely exist in the intestines of the three springtail species, implying new directions of functional studies on gut microbiota in springtails.
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Research progress in ionotropic receptors and their functions in insects
GUO Jin-Meng, DONG Shuang-Lin
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (11): 1399-1410.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.11.012
Abstract514)      PDF(pc) (1624KB)(145)    PDF(mobile) (1624KB)(25)    Save
 As the largest group in the animal kingdom, insects have evolved complex sensory systems in response to various environmental stimuli, in which the chemosensation (olfaction and gustation) is the most important. The odorant receptors (ORs) and gustatory receptors (GRs) play a key role in olfaction and gustation, respectively. However, in recent years, it has been found that ionotropic receptors (IRs) are also involved in chemosensation as well as non-chemosensation such as sensation of temperature and humidity. The IR family is evolved from ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) which contain three typical transmembrane domains. Similar to ORs, each IR needs to be co-expressed with at least one of the four identified co-receptors (IR8a, IR25a, IR76b and IR93a) for its normal function. Two or more IRs can be co-expressed in a same olfactory neuron, and different IR combinations lead to their different response profiles in neurons. One insect species usually contains several to over one hundred IRs, with some IRs showing antennaespecific expression patterns, but most IRs remaining unknown in the function and the mechanism of action. In this article, the research advances in the structure and evolution of IRs, and the identification, expression and function of IR genes in insects were reviewed, hoping to provide some references for the further studies on the function and mechanisms of action of IRs, and the potential use of insect IRs as targets in pest control.
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Comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of male adult and the 5th instar larva of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
LIAO Yong-Lin, LI Yan-Fang, YANG Bin, ZHAO Hua, GAO Yan, CHEN Wei-Ping, CAI Shi-Ke, WANG Ji-Hua
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (5): 523-532.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.05.001
Abstract512)      PDF(pc) (12663KB)(248)    PDF(mobile) (12663KB)(97)    Save
【Aim】 The fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda, is a newly invaded important pest in China. This study aims to comparatively analyze the transcriptomes of two developmental stages, male adult and the 5th instar larva, of S. frugiperda. 【Methods】 High-throughput sequencing technology was used to sequence and assembly the transcriptomes of male adult and the 5th instar larva of S. frugiperda, and the functional annotation and comparative analysis of transcriptome data were performed. 【Results】 After a de novo assembly, a total of 209 002 transcripts were obtained, with an average length of 687.55 bp and an N50 of 982 bp. A total of 46 198 (57.43%) unigenes were annotated in at least one database, among which 1 713 (2.13%) unigenes were annotated in all databases. In the GO database, 205 269 unigene annotations were obtained, mainly including 68 functional classifications. A total of 3 408 unigenes were annotated in KEGG database, involving 277 metabolic pathways. A total of 424 olfaction-related genes were identified and showed differential expression in male adults and the 5th instar larvae of S. frugiperda. By comparative transcriptome analysis, 9 162 up-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 6 399 down-regulated DEGs were identified in male adult. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that the up-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathways involved in pheromone and signal transduction, while the down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathways related to detoxification. 【Conclusion】 These transcriptome data provide some valuable information for exploring the functional genes related to the growth and development and olfaction and candidate molecular targets in S. frugiperda.
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Comparison of the supercooling capacity and contents of main biochemical substances between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae)
LI Xin-Chang, CUI Juan, TANG Jia-Wei, XIA Ting-Ting, XU Wei, SHI Shu-Sen
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (9): 1009-1016.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.001
Abstract509)      PDF(pc) (1628KB)(230)    PDF(mobile) (1628KB)(91)    Save
【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the difference in the contents of biochemical substances and protective enzyme activities between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of Leguminivora glycinivorella so as to provide a basis for further exploring the molecular mechanism of diapause regulation. 【Methods】 The diapausing and non-diapausing larvae of L. glycinivorella were obtained by controlling the photoperiod conditions at a suitable temperature (25℃). The supercooling point, the freezing point, the contents of main biochemical substances including carbohydrate, lipid substance and soluble protein, and the activities of protective enzymes including peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) beween the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae were assayed and compared. 【Results】 At 25℃, the supercooling point (-19.20℃) and the freezing point (-13.49℃) of the diapausing larvae of L. glycinivorella were lower than those of the non-diapausing larvae (-16.42℃ and -11.22℃, respectively), suggesting significant difference in the supercooling capacity between both. The contents of total sugar, glycerin, glycogen and other energy substances in the diapausing larvae were significantly higher than those in the non-diapausing larvae. The total sugar content and the glycerol content in the diapausing larvae were 2.17 and 1.76 times as high as those in the non-diapausing larvae, respectively. However, there was no significant difference in free water and soluble protein contents between the diapausing and non-diapausing larvae. At the same time, the POD and CAT activities in the diapausing larvae were significantly higher than those in the non-diapausing larvae, while the SOD activity in the diapausing larvae was slightly lower than that in the non-diapausing larvae, but there was no significant difference between both. 【Conclusion】 During the process of L. glycinivorella larvae entering diapause state from non-diapause, the contents of biochemical substances like carbohydrates are significantly increased, and the activities of some protective enzymes are significantly enhanced by the regulation of physiological metabolism, which in turn significantly improves their supercooling capacity to effectively cope with adverse environmental conditions like low temperature.
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Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of the alpine butterfly Parnassius glacialis (Papilionidae: Parnassinae) inChina: evidence from mitogenomic AT-rich region

WANG Yun-Liang, PAN Zhong-Qi, CHEN Ke-Ke, TAO Rui-Song, SU Cheng-Yong, HAO Jia-Sheng, YANG Qun
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (4): 475-488.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.04.010
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Aim This study aims to analyze the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and phylogenetic relationships of populations of the alpine butterfly Parnassius glacialis in China, to infer their origin and divergence time, and to explore their spatiotemporally evolutionary history. Methods The mtDNA AT-rich sequences of 325 individuals from 13 geographic populations of P. glacialis inChinaand 11 individuals of other 11 Parnassius species were amplified and sequenced, and their sequence variation and genetic differentiation were analyzed using MEGA 6.0, Dna SP 5.1, Arlequin 3.5 and other genetics analysis software. Using the closest relatives as the outgroups, the P. glacialis phylogenetic trees were reconstructed with such analytical software as PhyML3.0, MrBayes 3.2, and BEAST V1.8.3, and the origin and divergence time of the P. glacialis lineages were estimated by using relaxed molecular dating method and calibrations of the previous studies. Based on the present biogeographic distribution of P. glacialis and the main earth environmental events since the Quaternary Period, its dispersal route and spatio-temporal pattern and the underlying earth environmental factors were tentatively inferred. Results The AT-rich sequences of 325 P. glacialis individuals from 13 geographic populations ranged from 487 to 495 bp in length with the mean of 491 bp, being relatively conserved in length. The main length difference of the AT-rich region lies in the Poly-T or Ploy-A copy number, and the mean A+T content of the region is up to 95.76%. Totally 239 halotypes based on mtDNA AT-rich sequences were found in the 325 individuals of the 13 populations of P. glacialis, with its haplotype diversity (Hd) value of 0.9971, the nucleotide polymorphism index π of 0.02948, and the Theta (per site) Eta value of 0.06594. The reconstructed phylogenetic trees and molecular dating showed that P. glacialis is most closely related to P. stubbendorfii, and these two sister species began to differentiate at about 7.49 million years (Ma) ago in the late Miocene. The ancestors of P. glacialis were originated in the southwest of China (near the Hengduan Mountain-Himalaya Mountain of the Qinghai-Tibet northeastern edge nowadays) at about 1.53 Ma ago; then, they dispersed from their originating site into Xiaolongshan and Qinling Mountains; later, they diverged into two main lineages with some inter-mingled halotypes along the mountainous routes, accompanied by the Quaternary glacial-interglacial changes; lastly, the one lineage continuously spread northeastward to Funiu, Songshan, Taishan, Kunyushan Mountains, and the other lineage spread step-by-step to Dabie, Langyashan, Zijinshan and Tianmushan Mountains. Conclusion The results of our phylogenetic analysis of P. glacialis indicate that no pronounced correlations exist between genetic differentiation and geographical distance judged from higher genetic variance within populations than between populations. In addition, we propose that the divergence of the two main lineages of P. glacialis occurred in the mountainous areas with relatively higher latitude in the Middle Pleistocene and then spread to the mountainous areas with relatively lower latitude in South and East China due to the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycles and different dispersal routes.
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Honeydew excretion mechanisms in the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae): progress and prospects
SHU Ben-Shui, WU Zhong-Zhen, CUI Yang, LIN Jia-Hao, LIN Jin-Tian
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (2): 235-244.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.02.014
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The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a general pest causing economic losses in orchards, mainly feeds on the highly osmotic sap of citrus phloem and transmits pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus to induce a devastating disease of citrus named huanglongbing (HLB). The osmotic pressure of phloem sap is a challenge for hemipteran insects, which is regulated by a set of osmoregulation mechanisms evolved in insects. The excessive sugars are converted into long chain oligosaccharides and excreted outside of insects as honeydew. In this article, the behavior of honeydew excretion, composition of honeydew and factors affecting honeydew excretion of D. citri are summarized, and the functions of osmoregulatory genes involved are overviewed. The studies show that the behavior of honeydew excretion and the color, texture and composition of honeydew were different among male and female adults and nymphs of D. citri. The host plants, insecticides, pathogenic microorganisms and compounds secreted by natural enemies were demonstrated as the main factors affecting the excretion behavior of D. citri. In addition, the pivotal osmoregulatory genes encoding α-glucoside hydrolases, aquaporins and sugar transporters were considered as the potential genes involved in the regulation of honeydew excretion. This review may provide a reference for further studying honeydew excretion behavior of D. citri and exploring the new targets for developing new insecticides for the control of this insect.
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Comparative analysis of cell dissociation and programmed cell death in the prothoracic gland and fat body of Bombyx mori during the larval-pupal metamorphosis
LONG Shi-Hui, LI Yu, TIAN Ling, LI Sheng, LI Kang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1239-1249.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.001
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 【Aim】 To detect the cell dissociation, autophagy and apoptosis in the prothoracic gland of the silkworm, Bombyx mori during metamorphosis, and to compare tissue demise in the prothoracic gland with that in the fat body, so as to uncover the similarities and differences of tissue remodeling during the larval-pupal metamorphosis. 【Methods】 With the prothoracic gland and fat body tissues of B. mori at the 5th instar, wandering, prepupal and pupal stages as the test materials, the cell dissociation in the prothoracic gland and fat body of B. mori was observed under light microscopy. The autophagy and apoptosis were observed after Lyso-Tracker and TUNEL staining, respectively, under fluorescence confocal microscopy. The expression profile of the autophagy marker gene Atg8 in the prothoracic gland was detected by qRT-PCR. The autophagosome in the prothoracic gland and fat body as well as the morphological changes of mitochondria in the prothoracic gland were observed under transmission electron microscopy. The Caspase3 activity was assayed using Capase3 enzyme assay kit. The expression profiles of Halloween genes Spo, Phm, Dib and Sad were detected by qRT-PCR. The ecdysone content in the prothoracic gland was detected by enzyme-immunoassay (EIA) aiming at furthermore determining the activity of the synthesis of ecdysone. 【Results】 During the transition from larva to pupa of B. mori, both the prothoracic gland and fat body began to undergo cell dissociation on the 1st day of pupation. Autophagy and apoptosis in the fat body began to appear at the wandering stage and day 1 of prepupa, respectively, and gradually increased. However, autophagy and apoptosis did not occur in the prothoracic gland until the 2nd day after pupation. In addition, the morphological changes of mitochondria and the transcription levels of Halloween genes were consistent with the activity of ecdysone synthesis in the prothoracic gland at the corresponding developmental stage of B. mori【Conclusion】 The time of tissue demise is different in different tissues of B. mori during metamorphosis. Cell dissociation appears on the 1st day after pupation in both the prothoracic gland and the fat body; however, autophagy and apoptosis in the prothoracic gland do not occur until the 2nd day after pupation, which may be related to its function in continuous synthesis of ecdysone. This study provides important scientific basis for the in-depth study of tissue demise during the larval-pupal metamorphosis in insects.
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Ultrastructure of the sensilla on adult antenna and larval head of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
ZHANG Fang-Mei, JIN Yin-Li, ZHANG Li-Li, YIN Jian, CHEN Jun-Hua, ZHAO Qi, PAN Peng-Liang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (6): 743-755.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.06.010
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【Aim】 This study aims to observe the types, morphology, quantity and distribution of sensilla on adult antenna and larval head of the tea geometrid Ectropis grisescens, so as to explore the behavioral mechanism of E. grisescens. 【Methods】 The ultrastructure of sensilla on adult antenna and larval head of E. grisescens was observed with scanning electron microscopy. 【Results】 The results showed that there are eight kinds of sensilla on the adult antennae, including sensilla styloconica, sensilla auricillica, sensilla trichodae (type Ⅰ-Ⅳ), Böhm bristles, sensilla coeloconica (type Ⅰ and Ⅱ), sensilla squamiformia, sensilla basiconica (type Ⅰ and Ⅱ), and sensilla chaetica. Sensilla styloconica were found only on female adults, while sensilla auricillica and sensilla trichodae (ST Ⅰ-Ⅲ) only on male adults. One sensillum styloconicum, one sensillum basiconicum and two sensilla chaetica were found on the antenna of the 5th instar larvae, six pairs of sensilla chaetica on the labrum, three pairs of sensilla chaetica and one pair of sensilla digitiformia on the epipharynx, two sensilla chaetica on the outer face of mandible, five sensilla chaetica, nine sensilla basiconica and two sensilla styloconica on the mandible and maxillary palp, one sensillum basiconicum and one sensillum chaeticum on the labial palp, and one pair of sensilla chaetica on the front of spinneret. 【Conclusion】 The antennal sensilla show sexual dimorphism in E. grisescens, with more kinds and quantity of sensilla on male antenna. It is so inferred that males have stronger ability to identify host plants and sex pheromones. The sensilla on larval head are associated with gustation and olfaction, and play a vital role in judging the varieties and suitability of foods.
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Analysis of alkaloid components in the soil from the nest of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
LI Xiao-Ling, CHEN Li, FANG Shou-Guo
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 494-501.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.012
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 【Aim】 The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, inhabits the soil environment rich in bacteria and fungi. Although they are vulnerable to infection of bacterial and fungal diseases, fire ants with defensive and antibacterial venom alkaloids can survive in such soil environment. This study aims to establish an optimal extraction method of alkaloids from the soil of the red imported fire ant nest and then to quantify the major components of venom alkaloids. 【Methods】 In the recovery experiment, S. invicta venom was added to soil obtained 3 m away from S. invicta nests. Venom alkaloids were then extracted from soil using a filtration method. GC-FID was used for quantitative analysis of venom alkaloids, screening of the optimal extraction solvent, and determination of the optimal volume of triethylamine. The optimized method was used for quantitative analysis of venom alkaloids from the soil of ant nest. 【Results】 Among the five extraction solvents including n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol, the recovery rate of alkaloids by n-hexane extraction was relatively higher. The best extraction efficiency was achieved by adding 1 mL or more triethylamine. Among the venom alkaloids in the soil of S. invicta nest, the content of trans-C15∶1 was the highest, followed by that 
of trans-C13∶1. The content of total alkaloids in S. invicta nest soil was about 22 μg/g. 【Conclusion】 Triethylamine is very effective for extracting venom alkaloids from the soil of ant nests. The concentration of alkaloids in the soil of S. invicta nest is relatively high, which may have an important impact on the microbial community in the nest environment.
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Observation of antennal sensilla of flower-visiting insect Bibio rufiventris (Diptera: Bibionidae) with scanning electron microscope
YUAN Ke, ZHU Hui, QU Ye-Kuan, REN Bing-Zhong, YOU Yang
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 439-449.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.007
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【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the types and distribution of antennal sensilla of flower-visiting insect Bibio rufiventris. 【Methods】 The type, quantity and morphology of antennal sensilla of B. rufiventris were observed with scanning electron microscope (SEM), and their differences between male and female adults were compared. 【Results】 The female and male adult antennae of B. rufiventris include three parts, scape (Sc), pedicel (P) and flagellum (F), and the flagellum consists of eight flagellomeres. The average lengths of antennae of female and male adults are 862.556±78.662 and 880.361±83.253 μm, respectively. There is significant difference in the length of the 8th flagellomere, while the lengths of other flagellomeres are almost equal. Four types of sensilla including sensilla chaetica (Sc), sensilla basiconca (Sb), sensilla trichodea (St) and Böhm bristles (Bb) were observed on the female and male antennae. The antennal sensilla of female adults have six subtypes, i.e., sensilla chaetica (Sc), sensilla trichodea subtype 2 (St.2), sensilla basiconca subtypes 1, 2 and 4 (Sb.1, Sb.2 and Sb.4) and Böhm bristles (Bb), while those of male adults have five subtypes, i.e., sensilla chaetica (Sc), sensilla trichodea subtype 1 (St.1), sensilla basiconca subtype 2  (Sb.2) and sensilla basiconca subtype 3 (Sb.3) and Böhm bristles (Bb). 【Conclusion】 The types, amounts and characteristics of antennal sensilla of B. rufiventris adults show some 
differences between females and males. This study provides a morphological basis for studying the physiological functions of these sensilla and the molecular mechanisms of behavioral activities of B. rufiventris
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First record of Liriomyza huidobrensis (Diptera: Agromyzidae) and a survey of its parasitoids in Tibet, China
PAN Li-Ting, XU Yong-Qiang, DU Su-Jie, WANG Wei, Zoya YEFREMOVA, DAWA, LIU Wan-Xue
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (9): 1072-1080.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.09.008
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【Aim】 Liriomyza huidobrensis is an important invasive pest in China. It was firstly found in Tibet in July, 2017. This study aims to confirm the occurrence status of L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids in Tibet. 【Methods】 The occurrence and damage of L. huidobrensis and its parasitoids were investigated in four regions, Lhasa, Nyingchi, Lhoka and Shigatse, in Tibet from early June to mid-September in 2017 and 2018. 【Results】 The results revealed that L. huidobrensis has already colonized and caused damage in all the four regions surveyed in Tibet from early June to mid-September in 2017 and 2018. The population occurred from early June to mid-September in green house and the peak of occurrence in the field was from late July to early August. Twenty-one species of host plants were reported to be damaged by L. huidobrensis and they belong to nine families, mainly Fabaceae, Solanaceae and Umbelliferae. L. huidobrensis caused the most serious damage to such economic crops as Vigna unguiculata, Lablab purpureus, Lactuca sativa var. angustana and Brassica rapa ssp. pekinensis. Sixteen species of parasitoids including Diglyphus bimaculatus, Diglyphus isaea, Diglyphus minoeus, Diglyphus wani, Diglyphus sp., Cirrospilus vittatus, Hemiptarsenus sp., Neochrysocharis formosa, Chrysocharis pentheus, Chrysocharis pubicornis, Chrysocharis sp., Pediobius metallicus, Pnigalio sp., Dacnusa sibirica, Dacnusa sp., and Gronotoma sp. were recorded, and they belong to nine genera of three families (Eulophidae, Braconidae and Cynipidae). Da. sibirica, Di. bimaculatus and Di. isaea were identified as the dominant species and their individuals accounted for 48.7%, 22.1% and 12.9% of the total individuals collected, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The parasitoid species of L. huidobrensis are quite rich in Tibet, and these parasitoid species show strong natural control effect. It is suggested that the study of biology, control potential and utilization of dominant parasitoids should be strengthened in the future for the prevention and control of the invasive L. huidobrensis.
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Morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the alimentary canal of the adult mute cicada, Karenia caelatata (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) (In English)
ZHONG Hai-Ying, ZHANG Ya-Lin, WEI Cong
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (4): 421-432.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.04.005
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【Aim】In order to better understand the morphology and function of alimentary canal of insects in Cicadidae, the alimentary canal of the mute cicada, Karenia caelatata, was investigated at the morphological, histological and ultrastructural levels. 【Methods】 The gross morphology of alimentary canal, ultrastructure of associated organs including oesophagus, filter chamber (including anterior and posterior extremities of the midgut, internal proximal extremity of the ileum, and internal proximal extremities of the Malpighian tubules), conical segment, a midgut loop, and hindgut (ileum and rectum), and histology of filter chamber of male adult of K. caelatata were observed using light and transmission electron microscopy. 【Results】 The results showed that the alimentary canal of K. caelatata consists of the oesophagus, filter chamber, external midgut section and hindgut. The elongated oesophagus is lined with a cuticle containing an epicuticle and an endocuticle. The filter chamber is enveloped by a thin filter chamber sheath, which contains the anterior and posterior extremities of the midgut, internal proximal extremity of the ileum and internal proximal extremities of the Malpighian tubules. Cells of the anterior and posterior extremities of the midgut possess well-developed basal infoldings and densely-packed apical microvilli. Numerous mitochondria and electron-dense secretory granules were observed in the posterior extremity of the midgut. The external midgut section contains a conical segment and a midgut loop. The conical segment is dilated, and consists of two types of cells: the first is featured by the well-developed basal infoldings, and the second lacks basal infoldings. The midgut loop is divided into three distinct regions, i.e., the anterior segment containing numerous secretory granules, mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes in the cytoplasm, the mid-segment containing secretory granules in the cytoplasm, and the posterior segment with cells possessing numerous electron-lucent secretory granules and smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Ferritin-like granules scatter in the cells of the anterior segment and mid-segment of the midgut loop. Filamentous materials coat the microvilli of the cells of the conical and anterior segments of the midgut loop. The hindgut is lined by a layer of cuticle. Microorganisms reside in the oesophagus, mid-segment of the midgut loop and rectum cells. 【Conclusion】 Findings of the morphological, histological  and ultrastructural characteristics of the gut alimentary canal of K. caelatata  in this study improve our understanding of the functional differentiation of alimentary canal in this species. The discovery of microorganisms in the alimentary canal is formative to future study of coevolution between the Cicadoidea and related bacteria.
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Effects of feeding on diets containing components of different plants on the development and detoxifying enzyme activities in Pagiophloeus tsushimanus (Coleptera: Curculionidae) larvae
LI Shou-Yin, CHEN Cong, LI Hui, FAN Bin-Qi, WANG Yan, HAO De-Jun
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (11): 1286-1296.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.11.006
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【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of feeding on diets containing components of different plants on the growth and development and detoxification enzyme activitiesof Pagiophloeus
tsushimanus larvae, so as to explore the roles of host plants on the feeding habits and resistance capabilities of P. tsushimanus.【Methods】 Three semi-artificial diets were prepared separately by using twig powders of three plant species of Lauraceae (Cinnamomum camphora, Cinnamomum chekiangensis, and Phoebe chekiangensis) as the plant components, and fed to P. tsushimanus larvae. The developmental duration, body weight, mortality rate, and pupation rate of the larvae fed on the semi-artificial diets were measured. After the 4th instar larvae were subjected to starvation for 12 h and then fed on the three semi-artificial diets, the temporal changes in the activities of detoxification enzymes[glutathione S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] were measured. 【Results】 There were significant differences in the developmental duration of P. tsushimanus larvae fed on the semi-artificial diets containing different plant components. The developmental duration of P. tsushimanus larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. camphora components was the shortest (100.13 d), while that of larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing P. chekiangensis components was the longest (123.33 d). In the larval stage, the mortality rate of P. tsushimanus larvae
fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. chekiangensis components was the highest (41.67%), while that of larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. camphora components was the lowest (10.00%). The pupation rate of P. tsushimanus larvae fed on the semiartificial diet containing C. camphora components was the highest (87.32%). The growth rate of larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. camphora components was also significantly higher than that of larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. chekiangensis or P. chekiangensis components. Meanwhile, there was no significant difference in the activities of GST and AChE between the larvae fed on the semi-artificial diets containing different plant components after being subjected to starvation for 12 h (P>0.05), while the CarE activity in the larvae fed on the semi-artificial diet containing C. camphora components increased significantly at 60 h after feeding. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that P. tsushimanus has strong physiological adaptability to its natural host plant C. camphora, which may be related to its host specificity. Meanwhile, P. tsushimanus can adapt to different host plants by adjusting its growth and metabolic detoxification.
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Cloning and expression profiling of the odorant binding protein genes HaxyOBP1 and HaxyOBP6 in Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)
HAN Shi-Peng, LIANG Chao, LI Xin-Bing, HAN Hui, ZHAO Feng, HE Yun-Zhuan
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (3): 284-293.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.03.002
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【Aim】 The study aims to explore the structure and distribution of odorant binding proteins of Harmonia axyridis, so as to provide a basis for further understanding the functions of odorant binding proteins in the olfactory system of H. axyridis. 【Methods】 Two odorant binding protein genes were cloned from H. axyridis, and their protein structures were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression levels of the two genes in different developmental stages and adult tissues of H. axyridis were analyzed by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 Two odorant binding proteins genes of H.axyridis, HaxyOBP1 and HaxyOBP6 (GenBank accession numbers: MG757923 and MG757927, respectively), were successfully cloned and sequenced. The open reading frame of HaxyOBP1 is 447 bp in length. It encodes 148 amino acids with six conserved cysteines, indicating that HaxyOBP1 belongs to Classical OBPs subfamily. HaxyOBP1 was expressed in various developmental stages of H. axyridis and had the highest expression level in male adults. Tissue expression profiles showed that HaxyOBP1 had the highest expression level in the head of male adult. The open reading frame of HaxyOBP6 is 414 bp in length. It encodes 137 amino acids with four conserved cysteines, indicating that HaxyOBP6 belongs to Minus-C OBPs subfamily. The expression level of HaxyOBP6 in adults was higher than that in larvae, and the expression level in male adults was significantly higher than that in female adults. Tissue expression profiles showed that HaxyOBP6 had the highest expression levels in the head of male adult and the wing of female adult. 【Conclusion】 In this study, two odorant binding protein genes were cloned from H. axyridis. The expression profiles showed that HaxyOBP1 and HaxyOBP6 were highly expressed in the head and the wing of adults, respectively, suggesting that the OBPs of H. axyridis may also play important roles in non-olfactory tissues. The results of this study lay a foundation for further study on the structure and function of OBPs of H. axyridis.
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Changes in the cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of Histia rhodope (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae)
YANG Hai-Bo, HU Zhen-Jie, DONG Jun-Feng, ZHU Pin-Hong, LI Ding-Xu
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (8): 979-986.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.08.010
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【Aim】 Histia rhodope is one of the major pests of Bischofia polycarpa. This study aims to investigate the cold hardiness of H. rhodope larvae and to provide a theoretical basis for exploring its cold resistance mechanisms. 【Methods】 The body weight, supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP) and contents of water, fat, total sugar and total protein in overwintering larvae of H. rhodope were measured at different overwintering stages (November 7, 2017, December 7, 2017, January 5, 2018, February 4, 2018, and March 5, 2018). 【Results】 There were significant differences in the SCP of H. rhodope larvae among the different overwintering months, and SCP showed a significant positive correlation with the ambient temperature (P<0.05). The lowest mean SCP (-15.26℃) occurred in January, and the highest (-13.30℃) occurred in March. The variation tendency of FP was consistent with that of SCP. The fresh weight and fat content decreased gradually during the overwintering period, and there was no correlation between the SCP and the fresh weight and fat content (P>0.05). The supercooling capacity increased as the free water content decreased, while reduced as the free water content increased. However, the change trend of bound water content was opposite to that of the free water content. The total sugar content in November was the highest (14.95 μg/mg), which was significantly higher than that in March (5.07 μg/mg). The total protein content increased first and then decreased during overwintering, and reached the highest value in January (23.666 μg/mg), which was significantly higher than that in November (16.69 μg/mg). 【Conclusion】 The cold hardiness of overwintering larvae of H. rhodope increases gradually with the decrease of ambient temperature and then weakens with the increase of ambient temperature. Proteins may be the important cold-resistant substance in H. rhodope.
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Comparison of feeding behaviors and pathogen acquisition rates of adults and the 5th instar nymphs of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on huanglongbing-infected citrus plants
WU Tian-Yu, ZHANG Xu-Ying, George A. C. BEATTIE, CEN Yi-Jing
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2020, 63 (2): 166-173.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.02.006
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【Aim】 The Asiatic citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri, is the major vector of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (‘CLas’) (α-Proteobacteria), the pathogen that causes the Asiatic form of huanglongbing (HLB), the most devastating disease of citrus. The aims of this study are to determine whether the feeding behaviors of adults and the 5th instar nymphs of D. citri differ, and if so, whether these differences influence pathogen acquisition efficiency, and whether HLB-infected plants influence feeding by the 5th instar nymphs. 【Methods】 The feeding behavior of adults and the 5th instar nymphs of D. citri on immature shoots of HLB-infected Citrus reticulata cv. Sunki was recorded for 10 h with DC-EPG giga-4. The acquisition efficiency of the pathogen by individual adults and nymphs from HLB-infected shoots was determined by qPCR. The feeding behaviors of the 5th instar nymphs on pathogen-free and HLB-infected shoots were also recorded and compared by EPG. 【Results】 The feeding behaviors of adults and the 5th instar nymphs of D. citri on C. reticulata cv. Sunki shoots infected with HLB differed significantly. The 5th instar nymphs started to ingest xylem and phloem sap sooner than adults. Durations of the phloem salivation and ingestion phases of nymphs were significantly longer than those of adults. When feeding on HLB-infected shoots, 37.5% of the 5th instar nymphs acquired ‘CLas’ in contrast 20% of adults. The frequencies of probing and salivation and phloem sap ingestion by the 5th instar nymphs feeding on HLB-infected shoots were significantly lower than those on healthy shoots. However, HLB-infected plants did not influence the duration of phloem salivation and sap ingestion by the 5th instar nymphs. Feeding also commenced sooner in phloem of HLB-infected shoots than in phloem of healthy shoots. 【Conclusion】 The 5th instar nymphs of D. citri feed for longer intervals, ingest more phloem sap, and acquire higher titers of ‘CLas’ than adults. This may be due to that nymphs require more nutrients for their growth and development than adults. They are therefore less inclined to withdraw their stylets from, and re-insert their stylets into ‘CLas’-infected leaf tissues. ‘CLas’-induced changes in host-plant phytochemistry promote feeding by the 5th instar nymphs of D. citri.
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Transmission of begomoviruses by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae): adaptation of viruses to their insect vectors
PAN Li-Long, CHI Yao, FAN Yun-Yun, LIU Shu-Sheng
Acta Entomologica Sinica    2019, 62 (7): 885-894.   DOI: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.07.012
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Begomoviruses (Geminiviridae) are a group of important plant viruses that affect the production of many crops such as tomato, tobacco and cotton, and they are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci under natural conditions. The outbreak of begomoviruses in the field is shaped by many factors, among which their whitefly vectors are one of the most significant. Therefore, determining the role of whitefly in the transmission and spread of certain begomoviruses is the key to deciphering the nature of plant diseases caused by begomoviruses. In this article, we discussed the factors affecting the transmission of begomoviruses and the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of viruses to their insect vectors. Both begomoviruses and whiteflies are pests with a cosmopolitan distribution, and bioinformatics-based analysis indicates that both exhibit geography-related genetic variation. Transmission assays showed that begomoviruses tend to be transmitted with higher efficiency by the whitefly species sharing the same geographic origin than the ones whose origins are different from those of the viruses. Information provided here offers an important source of references for further research with regard to the transmission of begomoviruses by whiteflies.
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