›› 2018, Vol. 61 ›› Issue (1): 122-138.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.01.014

• 综述 • 上一篇    下一篇


付文博, 陈斌*   

  1. (重庆师范大学昆虫与分子生物学研究所, 媒介昆虫重庆市重点实验室, 重庆401331)
  • 出版日期:2018-01-20 发布日期:2018-01-20

Taxonomy and fauna of Culicidae: history and current knowledge

FU Wen-Bo, CHEN Bin*   

  1.  (Chongqing Key Laboratory of Vector Insects, Institute of Entomology and Molecular Biology, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China)
  • Online:2018-01-20 Published:2018-01-20

摘要: 蚊科昆虫是最重要的医学昆虫类群,是人类最致命的动物杀手。准确的蚊虫分类鉴定是媒介蚊虫基础研究和控制的基础。蚊科现代分类学研究起自于林奈1758年对库蚊属Culex种类的记述,200多年来,已定名的种类日渐增多,分类系统已基本成形。本文在系统地编制了蚊科昆虫的世界名录和地理分布记录的基础上,概述了世界范围内蚊科昆虫的分类研究历史,属级及以上类群的分类系统、种类及其生物学研究现状,并作了初步讨论和展望。目前,全球已知蚊虫41属201亚属3 573种,其中我国已知20属63亚属419种。按蚊亚科(Anophelinae)被认为是蚊科内单系类群,包括按蚊属Anopheles、白蚊属Bironella和沙蚊属Chagasia 3属11亚属489种。其中,按蚊属已知476种,占按蚊亚科已知种97%,是疟疾的单一传播媒介。库蚊亚科(Culicinae)被认为是一个复系类群,共计11族38属190亚属3 084种,系统发育关系尚未解决。伊蚊族(Aedini)、库蚊族(Culicini)、煞蚊族(Sabethini)和蓝带蚊族(Uranotaeniini)是其中的较大族,分别拥有1 262, 800, 432和270种。特别是库蚊属Culex、伊蚊属Aedes和曼蚊属Mansonia的许多种类是非常重要的医学媒介昆虫。在所有这些蚊虫种中,东洋区的种类最多,达1 075种;其次为新热带区(951种),非洲区(798种),澳洲区(542种),古北区(251种);新北区分布种类最少,有196种,不少种类跨区分布。这些信息有助于对世界范围内蚊科昆虫分类和分布现状的整体了解。由于隐存种(cryptic species)广泛存在,实际种数应是已定名种数的3~5倍。蚊科昆虫的系统分类对于蚊科昆虫的准确鉴定、基础生物学及蚊媒病传播机制研究、媒介蚊虫及蚊媒病控制都具有非常重要的理论和应用价值,蚊科昆虫的分类、系统发育和区系仍是急需要研究的重要课题。

关键词: 蚊科, 系统分类学, 支序系统学, 系统发育, 区系分布, 媒介昆虫

Abstract: The family Culicidae (all true mosquitoes) is the most important medical insect group and thought to be the deadliest animal killer. Accurate classification and identification of mosquitoes are the basis of the basic research and control of vector mosquitoes. Modern taxonomy of mosquitoes originated from the species description of thegenus Culex by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, and since then the taxonomic system of the Culicidae has basically formed with named species gradually increasing. In this article we reviewed the taxonomic research history of the Culicidae in the world, and the taxonomic system, species and biology at the genus level and above with some preliminary discussions and perspectives, on the basis of compiling worldwide species name list and geographical distribution records. Up to date, there are 41 mosquito genera, 201 subgenera and 3 573 species known in the world, among which 20 genera, 63 subgenera and 419 species recorded in China. The subfamily Anophelinae is believed to be a monophylum, and contains three genera (Anopheles, Bironella and Chagasia), 11 subgenera  and 489 species. There are 476 known species in the genus Anopheles, accounting for 97% of the total species in Anophelinae, which contains all malaria vectors. The subfamily Culicinae is believed to be polyphyletic with a total of 11 known tribes, 38 genera, 190 subgenera and 3 048 species, and its phylogeny is still not settled. The tribes Aedini, Culicini, Sabethini and Uranotaeniini have 1 262, 800, 432 and 270 known species, respectively, ranking as the four largest tribes in Culicinae. Many species especially in the genera Culex, Aedes and Mansonia are serious vectors of infectious diseases. Among all these mosquito species, the highest species number (1 075 species) is recorded for the Oriental Region, followed in species number by Neotropical Region (951 species), Ethiopian Region (798), Australian Region (542 species) and Palaearctic Region (251), and Nearctic Region has the least number of species (196). However, a large number of species exist across different regions. The information will provide a basis for the understanding of the taxonomy and distribution of Culicidae. Due to the wide existence of cryptic species, the actual number of species should be 3-5 times as high as the established species number. The systematics of Culicidae is of important theoretical and application value for the accurate identification of mosquito species, the research of basic biology and mosquito-borne disease transmission mechanism, and the control of vector mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. The taxonomy, phylogeny and fauna of mosquitoes are still urgent and important research subjects.

Key words: Culicidae, systematics, cladistics, phylogeny, fauna, vector