›› 2015, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (4): 382-390.

• 研究论文 • 上一篇    下一篇


张波1,2, 何余容2, 陈婷1, 齐国君1, 吕利华1,*   

  1. (1. 广东省农业科学院植物保护研究所, 广东省植物保护新技术重点实验室, 广州 510640; 2. 华南农业大学资源环境学院昆虫学系, 广州 510642)
  • 出版日期:2015-04-20 发布日期:2015-04-20
  • 作者简介:张波, 男, 1985年生, 陕西咸阳人, 硕士研究生, 研究方向为农业昆虫与害虫防治, E-mail: zb051@foxmail.com

Dietary composition of foragers of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in two habitats, mulberry orchard and barren land, in South China

ZHANG Bo1,2, HE Yu-Rong2, CHEN Ting1, QI Guo-Jun1, LU Li-Hua1, *   

  1. (1. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of High Technology for Plant Protection, Plant Protection Research Institute, Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, China; 2. Department of Entomology, College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642, China)
  • Online:2015-04-20 Published:2015-04-20

摘要: 【目的】红火蚁 Solenopsis invicta  Buren是世界最危险的有害入侵生物之一,2004年入侵我国华南地区,并给农林业安全、生态安全带来极大危害。调查并明确田间红火蚁觅食工蚁的食物种类及数量,不仅为评估红火蚁猎食对生态环境中节肢动物群落的影响,而且为红火蚁防治饵剂的改进提供科学依据。【方法】本研究采用蚁道剖析法,对华南地区桑园和荒地两种生境中红火蚁觅食工蚁搬运的固体残片取样和鉴定;依搬运工蚁及其固体残片尺寸进行测量分级并称重,以分析工蚁多态性与固体食物大小的关系;采用薄层色谱法和氨基酸分析法测定嗉囊液体样品的营养成分及含量。【结果】在华南地区桑园和荒地中,红火蚁觅食工蚁搬运回巢的固体食物包括固体的动物残片和植物种子,其中动物残片属于3门7纲21个类群(包括14个昆虫目),昆虫纲动物所占比例为总固体食物的45.53%~46.10%。工蚁偏好搬运长1.400±0.043 mm~2.306±0.063 mm和宽0.723±0.028 mm~1.261±0.051 mm的固体残片,其重量在0.203~0.413 mg之间。红火蚁觅食工蚁嗉囊液体由多种氨基酸、果糖和葡萄糖组成,在桑园和荒地采集到的红火蚁嗉囊液体样本中的氨基酸总含量分别为1 544.31 mg/L和861.48 mg/L,氨基酸种类分别为33种和32种,其中31种氨基酸为共有的。【结论】华南地区桑园和荒地中,红火蚁固体食物组成均以昆虫纲动物为主;参与固体残片搬运觅食蚁的80%属于中型工蚁,搬运较大型固体残片的大型工蚁仅占5%;红火蚁工蚁嗉囊液体含有丰富的氨基酸和单糖。

关键词: 红火蚁, 觅食工蚁, 食物组成, 固体残片, 嗉囊液体, 多态性

Abstract: 【Aim】 The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren, one of the worst invasive species in the world, has been found to occur in South China in 2004 and caused serious destruction to agricultural and forestry industry as well as to ecosystem in the infested region. The elaborate survey and analysis on food composition transported by fire ant foragers in the field would not only let us accurately assess the potential impact of fire ant forager predation on arthropod communities, but also provide us a scientific basis for improving baiting efficacy for fire ant control. 【Methods】 Foraging solid materials including arthropod pieces and plant seeds were collected by exposing foraging trails and capturing each foraging ant transporting a particle toward to the mound in two habitats, mulberry orchard and barren land, in Guangzhou, Guangdong province, South China. Meanwhile, the size of the foragers transporting those items was measured for the analysis of forager polymorphism. Each solid particle was identified and measured individually by the combination of length and width and weighed, and the components and content of liquid stored in crops of foragers collected on exposed foraging trails were analyzed using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and amino acid analysis. 【Results】 The results showed that solid particles that fire ant foragers transported for consumption mainly consisted of animal particles and plant seeds, and the former originated from 21 groups (including 14 orders of insects) of 7 classes of 3 phyla of animals. Solid foraging materials from Class Insecta accounted for 45.53% and 46.10% of the solid foraging materials in both habitats of mulberry orchard and barren land. During foraging, 80% foragers, which were medium-sized workers, preferred taking solid particles as large as 1.400±0.043 mm -2.306±0.063 mm in length and 0.723±0.028 mm-1.261±0.051 mm in width, being 0.203-0.413 mg in weight. The liquid foods from the foragers’ crops were composed of fructose, glucose, and amino acids. There were 33 and 32 kinds of amino acids with the total contents of 1 544.31 mg/L and 861.48 mg/L in crop liquid from foragers in mulberry orchard and barren land, respectively, of which 31 kinds of amino acids were shared by foragers in both habitats. 【Conclusion】 In South China, fire ant foragers prey insect pieces as major food sources. Most foragers involving in transporting solid particles back to nests are medium-sized workers. We assumed that foragers in mulberry orchard and barren land prefer liquid food rich in amino acids and monohydrates.

Key words: Solenopsis invicta, foraging worker, dietary composition, solid particle, crop liquid, polymorphism