• 研究论文 •

### 近零磁场对褐飞虱翅型分化、趋光性及飞行能力的影响

1.   (1. 南京农业大学植 物保护学院昆虫系, 昆虫信息生态研究室, 南京 210095; 2. 中国科学院电工研究所, 北京电磁重点实验室, 北京 100190)
• 出版日期:2019-01-20 发布日期:2019-01-24

### Wing-form differentiation, phototaxis and flight performance of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) under near-zero magnetic fields

ZHANG Ming1, LIU Rui-Ying1, HE Jing-Lan1, YUAN Rui1, WAN Gui-Jun1, PAN Wei-Dong2, CHEN Fa-Jun1,*

1.  (1. Insect-Information Ecology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095, China; 2. Beijing Key Laboratory of Bioelectromagetics, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China)
• Online:2019-01-20 Published:2019-01-24

【目的】地磁场(geomagnetic field, GMF)不是恒定不变的，而是随时间和空间时刻变化的。目前，动物对磁场变化的响应研究主要集中于迁徙性动物地磁定向导航中的磁感受方面，而迁徙性动物迁出地和迁入地之间地磁场强度差异对动物生理和行为潜在的磁场效应尚不明确。【方法】迁飞性昆虫褐飞虱Nilaparvata lugens试虫采自江苏省农业科学院试验田。本文采用亥姆霍兹线圈室内模拟近零磁场(near-zero magnetic field, NZMF)和GMF，调查了褐飞虱成虫在NZMF和GMF下的翅型分化、趋光性和飞行能力。【结果】结果表明，与GMF相比，NZMF显著提高了褐飞虱雄成虫短翅型比例(6.4%)(P<0.05)，但对雌成虫长翅型比例影响不显著(P>0.05)；对于长翅雌成虫，NZMF显著提高了其2日龄成虫的上灯比例(55%)(P<0.05)，但显著降低了其4日龄成虫的上灯比例(22%)(P<0.05)，对趋光性的影响总体呈现出随着龄期先增强后减弱的效应。NZMF对长翅雄成虫趋光性的影响也呈现出相同的效应，但对各日龄成虫的影响不显著(P>0.05)；NZMF显著缩短了2日龄长翅雄成虫的飞行时间(46%)(P<0.05)，并显著提高了长翅雌成虫(65%)和长翅雄成虫(101%)的飞行速度(P<0.05)。此外，GMF对照组的褐飞虱长翅雄成虫飞行速度显著低于长翅雌成虫(96%)，而NZMF处理组中二者无显著差异。【结论】结果说明，近零磁场可提高褐飞虱成虫短翅比例，对长翅成虫趋光性的影响呈现出基于龄期增长先增强后减弱的效应，并在未影响长翅成虫飞行距离的情况下，改变了其飞行策略，即提高飞行速度，同时缩短飞行时间。

Abstract: 【Aim】 The geomagnetic field (GMF) is not constant and varies with space and time. To date, most studies related to the animal responses to magnetic field changes focus on magnetoreception during the magnetic orientation and navigation in migratory animals. However, it is still unclear how the changes in GMF intensity between the emigration and immigration regions of migratory animals affect the physiology and behavior of these animals. 【Methods】 The test insects of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a migratory species, were collected from the paddy fields of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science. The wing-form differentiation, phototaxis and flight performance of N. lugens adults under near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) and GMF, were investigated by indoors simulating NZMF and GMF with Helmholtz coil systems. 【Results】 The results showed that compared to the GMF, the NZMF significantly enhanced the proportion of brachypterous male adults by 6.4% (P<0.05), while showed no significant effects on the proportion of brachypterous female adults (P>0.05). For macropterous females, the NZMF significantly increased the proportion of the 2-day-old adults that moved towards the light by 55% (P<0.05), while significantly decreased this proportion in the 4-day-old adults by 22% (P<0.05). Overall, the NZMF showed an age-dependent effect on the phototaxis of N. lugens, strengthening the phototaxis at the younger age and then weakening it at the older age. Similar effects were found in macropterous male adults, but no significant effects on the phototaxis of adults at a certain age were found (P>0.05). The NZMF significantly decreased the flight time of the 2-day-old macropterous male adults by 46% (P<0.05), and significantly increased the flight speed of macropterous female and male adults by 65% and 101% (P<0.05), respectively. In addition, the flight speed of macropterous male adults was significantly lower than that of macropterous female adults under the GMF (96%) (P<0.05), while no significant differences were found under the NZMF (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the NZMF can enhance the proportion of brachypterous individuals of N. lugens, with an age-dependent effect on the phototaxis of macropterous adult, strengthening the phototaxis at the younger age and then weakening it at the older age. Moreover, the NZMF can also change the flight strategy of macropterous individuals in a way that increases the flight speed and shortens the flight time at the same time without changing their flight distance.