›› 2017, Vol. 60 ›› Issue (8): 950-961.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.08.012

• RESEARCH PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Limenitis helmanni (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

WANG Ju-Ping1,2, CAO Tian-Wen1,2,*, ZHANG Yue2,3, FAN Ren-Jun1,2, ZHANG Miao1,2, SHI Bao-Ming1,2, PENG Fu-Cheng1,2    

  1.  (1. Shanxi Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management in Agriculture,Institute of Plant Protection, Shanxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Taiyuan 030031, China; 2. Shanxi Insect Information Infrastructure, Taiyuan 030031, China; 3. Shanxi Agricultural Seed Station, Taiyuan 030031, China)
  • Online:2017-08-20 Published:2017-08-20

Abstract: 【Aim】 To explore the complete mitochondrial genome structure and molecular phylogenetics of Limenitis helmanni. 【Methods】 The complete mitochondrial genome of L.  helmanni was sequenced and analyzed by using PCR and primer walking. Based on the sequences of 13 protein-coding genes and two rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome, the phylogenetic tree of 66 lepidopteran species were constructed with Bayesian inference method. 【Results】 The complete mitochondrial genome of L. helmanni is a circular molecule of 15 178 bp (GenBank accession no.: KY290566), including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a 346 bp A+T-rich region. The mitogenomic gene arrangement is consistent with those of other closely related species. The mitochondrial genome of L. helmanni is biased toward a high A+T content (81.1%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except that COI starts with the CGA codon and ND5 with the GTT codon. Most of the 13 PCGs have a complete termination codon (TAA), except COII and ND4 genes which have incomplete stop codons (T). All tRNA genes show the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer(AGN) forms a simple loop. The A+T-rich region of L. helmanni contains some conserved structures such as the motif ATAGA, 20 bp poly(T) stretch and some tandem repeat units, which is similar to those of other related lepidopteran species. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses supported that the relationship of Nymphalidae subfamilies is (Calinaginae+Satyrinae)+((Nymphalinae+Apaturinae)+(Heliconiinae+Limenitidinae)). 【Conclusion】 Limenitini is closely related with the Euthaliini, and Parthenini may be the earliest diverged lineage in Limenitidinae. The phylogenetic relationship of Limenitidinae species based on the mitochondrial genome is not consistent with the results of the traditional morphology-based taxonomy

Key words:  Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Limenitis helmanni, mitochondrial genome, phylogeny