Acta Entomologica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (1): 99-108.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.01.011

• RESEARCH PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Culturing of pupal Wiebesia pumilae (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae) on agar culture medium

ZHAO Meng, WU Wen-Shan*, CHEN You-Ling, WU Ting-Ting   

  1.  (Fujian Key Laboratory of Developmental and Neural Biology, College of Life Science, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China)
  • Online:2021-01-20 Published:2021-02-18

Abstract:  【Aim】 The achene of Ficus pumila var. pumila has extremely high nutritional and edible values, and F. pumila depends on the pollination of Wiebesia pumilae so that it can bear fruit. This study aims to explore the possibility of laboratory culture of herbivorous parasitic wasps in pupal stage. 【Methods】 The W. pumilae pupae were cultured on agar culture medium at different temperatures (22, 24, 26, 28, 30 and 32℃) and photoperiods (0L∶24D, 10L∶14D, 12L∶12D, 14L∶10D and 24L∶0D), the developmental morphology and duration of W. pumilae pupae at various stages, the female adult longevity and the water content of galls were determined, and the processes of morphological development of galls were observed. 【Results】 As the temperature increased within the range of 22-28℃, the developmental rate of W. pumilae pupae increased, the emergence time became earlier, but the emergence rate showed no significant difference. The developmental duration of W. pumilae pupae was the shortest at 28℃ in agar culture, and the developmental duration from prepupa to adult were 25.65 d for female and 21.79 d for male, which was 44.00 d shorter than that of female and male fig wasps in the wild. A few W. pumilae pupae could develop to mature pupal stage at 30℃, and W. pumilae prepupae entered into diapause at 32℃, suggesting that 30℃ may be the extreme temperature of heat tolerance for the development of W. pumilae pupae. There were no significant differences in the developmental rate and emergence rate of W. pumilae in the pupal stage under different photoperiods. The water content of galls decreased fast with the temperature increasing within the range of 22-28℃, the longer the culture time, the lower the water content of galls. When W. pumilae wasps cultured on agar culture medium emerged at 28℃, the water content of galls was 41.79%, which was significantly lower than that in the wild (51.63%). The gall shell was very hard due to the low water content, and it is difficult for W. pumilae wasps to dig out the hole for flying out, which may be the main reason for the failure of wasp flying out after emergence in agar culture. 【Conclusion】 The agar culture method of this study provides possibilities for continuous observation of the development of herbivorous parasitic wasps at the pupal stage and acquisition of experimental wasp materials.

Key words: Wiebesia pumilae, prepupa, developmental duration, temperature, photoperiod; longevity, gall, water content