Acta Entomologica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 64 ›› Issue (5): 605-610.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.007

• RESEARCH PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

 Biological characteristics of Hylaeus perforata (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) and its natural enemy Gasteruption corniculigerum (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) and their correlation with environmental variables

 GUO Peng-Fei1,2, WANG Ming-Qiang2,3, LI Yi2,3, CHEN Jing-Ting2,3, GUO Shi-Kun2,3, CHEN Guo-Hua1,*, ZHU Chao-Dong2,3,4,*   

  1. (1. College of Plant Protection, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, China; 2. Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and Evolution, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China; 3. College of Biological Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China; 4. State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China)
  • Online:2021-05-20 Published:2021-05-31

Abstract:  【Aim】 The study aims to record the biological characteristics of solitary Hymenoptera in the subtropical areas and to clarify the effects of tree species diversity on Hylaeus perforata and its natural enemy Gasteruption corniculigerum. 【Methods】 From August 2015 to September 2018, H. perforata and G. corniculigerum were collected in an artificial forest at Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions Experimental Sites in Xingangshan Town, Dexing City, Jiangxi Province, eastern China by using standardized trap nests, and their biological characteristics were observed. The correlation between the abundance of H. perforata and G. corniculigerum and the parasitism rate of G. corniculigerum and five environmental variables, tree species richness, elevation, slope, northness and eastness, was analyzed. 【Results】 H. perforata occurs more than one generation a year. It builds nests using resin from May to September, and its adults emerge from April to August every year. An average of 3.75±2.24 nests were constructed per time, and the average nest diameter is 4.73±1.31 mm. It overwinters in the form of late instar larva and the sex ratio of offspring is significantly female-biased. G. corniculigerum is cleptoparasitic and parasitizes H. perforata in July, and its adults emerge in September every year, with the emergence time much later than that of its host H. perforata. Its offsprings consume all the stored food in host nest. The abundance of H. perforata and G. corniculigerum was positively correlated with tree species richness, but the other four environmental variables did not significantly affect the abundance of both species. 【Conclusions】 H. perforata is a typical solitary bee, produces multiple offsprings during the nesting period, and moves around in spring, summer and early fall. G. corniculigerum parasitizes H. perforata in summer, with adults emerging in fall, and takes much longer time to develop than their host. Other cleptoparasitic groups generally parasitize a single host cell, while G. corniculigerum destroys all host cells and consumes all host stored food. Environment with higher diversity of tree species may be more beneficial to the survival of species at higher trophic levels.

Key words: Hylaeus perforata, Gasteruption corniculigerum, trap nest, tree diversity, cleptoparasitism, environmental variable