Please wait a minute...
Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2021, Volume 64 Issue 5
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Regulation of histone methylation modification in 20E signaling transduction detected by CRISPR/Cas9 system in Drosophila cells
    ZHANG Wen-Hao, LONG Shi-Hui, NI Yi-Lu, ZHANG Jia-Hui, LI Sheng, LI Kang
    2021, 64(5):  549-557.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.001
    Abstract ( 351 )   PDF (3507KB) ( 159 )   PDF(mobile) (3507KB) ( 26 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 To screen and detect the regulation of histone methylation modification in 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) signaling transduction by CRISPR/Cas9 knockout system in Drosophila melanogaster cells. 【Methods】 Histone methyltransferases of D. melanogaster and their modification sites were analyzed and summarized from Flybase website. After transfection of the constructed knockout vector pAc-sgRNA-Cas9 inserted with the sgRNA of five histone methyltransferase genes [trr, Mes-4, ash1, Su(var)3-9 and egg] into Kc cells of D. melanogaster, the gene mutation was detected by TA cloning and sequencing. Taking Trr inducing 20E primary response gene Br-C as a positive control, qRT-PCR and Western blotting were used to test the validity of pAc-sgRNA-Cas9 knockout system. The dual luciferase assay of 20E response element (EcRE) was used to determine whether trr, Mes-4, ash1, Su(var)3-9 and egg participate in 20E signaling transduction. 【Results】 Drosophila histone methylation modification occurs mainly on histone H3 lysine residues and less on H3 arginine residues. Besides, there was less methylation modification on histone H4. After the transfection of its knockout vector pAc-trr-sgRNA-Cas9 in Kc cells, trr was mutated successfully, the tri-methylation level of H3K4 was reduced, and the 20E-induced transcriptional level of its primary response gene Br-C was inhibited, indicating the validity of this knockout system. Besides trr, Mes-4 and egg knockouts also reduced the dual luciferase activity of EcRE. 【Conclusion】 The pAc-sgRNA-Cas9 knockout system inserted with sgRNA of target gene is effective and fast for gene mutation in Drosophila Kc cells. Using this knockout system, in addition to Trr, Mes-4 and egg were found to participate in the regulation of 20E signaling transduction via manipulating the activity of EcRE. This study lays the theoretical basis and work foundation for CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene knockout in insect cells and further studying histone methylation modification involved in regulating 20E signaling transduction.
    Role of Bursicon genes in regulating wing expansion and fecundity in Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae)
    YANG Jia-Peng, LONG Gui-Yun, JIN Dao-Chao, DAI Ren-Huai, WU Li-Hong, ZHOU Cao, YANG Xi-Bin
    2021, 64(5):  558-565.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.002
    Abstract ( 301 )   PDF (4964KB) ( 78 )   PDF(mobile) (4964KB) ( 16 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 Bursicon secreted by nervous system is a heterodimer neuropeptide and plays an important role in regulating cuticle hardening and wing expansion of insects during molting cycle. This study aims to investigate the relationship between Bursicon genes and the genes involved in wing development and fecundity in Bombyx mori and to ascertain their role in regulating wing expansion and fecundity. 【Methods】 The RNAi technique was used to silence the Bursicon genes by injecting Bursicon dsRNA (dsBmBurs-α, dsBmBurs-β and dsBmBurs-α+dsBmBurs-β) into the 1-day-old pupae of B. mori, and the individuals injected with dsGFP were used as the control. After RNAi, the phenotype of B. mori was observed, and the number of eggs laid per female was calculated. The real-time quantitative PCR technology was used to detect the expression levels of wing development-related genes (BmWg, BmFt, BmFj and BmDs)  in the 24 h-old adults of B. mori and reproduction-related genes (vitellogenin gene BmVg and vitellogenin receptor gene BmVgR) in pupae at 48 and 72 h after RNAi. 【Results】 After RNAi of Bursicon genes, the wings of the 24 hold adults of B. mori were not able to expand normally. In the three treatment groups injected with dsBmBurs-α, dsBmBurs-β and dsBmBurs-α+dsBmBurs-β, the wing deformity rates were 93.33%, 96.67% and 96.43%, respectively, and the average numbers of eggs laid per female were 312.67, 332.00 and 284.00, respectively, significantly lower than that of the control (406.00). After RNAi of Bursicon genes, the expression levels of Bursicon genes BmBurs-α and BmBurs-β in B. mori decreased significantly, and the expression levels of the related genes BmWg, BmFt, BmFj, BmDs, BmVg and BmVgR were significantly lower than those of the control group. 【Conclusion】 Bursicon genes are involved in regulating wing expansion by regulating the transcription levels of genes related to wing development in B. mori. They also regulate the expression of reproduction-related genes BmVg and BmVgR, and thus influence reproduction in B. mori.
    Screening of selenium metabolism pathway genes in Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Acari: Tetranychidae) and the prokaryotic expression and characterization of selenophosphate synthetase TcSPS1
    ZHANG Meng-Yu, QI Cui-Cui, HU Jia, XU Zhi-Feng
    2021, 64(5):  566-573.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.003
    Abstract ( 268 )   PDF (1542KB) ( 59 )   PDF(mobile) (1542KB) ( 6 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 This study aims to screen the key genes in the selenium metabolism pathway of Tetranychus cinnabarinus and to explore their functions in selenium metabolism in T. cinnabarinus. 【Methods】 The gene cloning technology was used to clone eight genes in the selenium metabolism pathway of T. cinnabarinus. The differences in the expression levels of these genes in female adults of the short-term selenium-reared strain of T. cinnabarinus with different concentrations of Na2SeO3 (fed with cowpea seedlings treated with 0, 5, 20 and 50 μmol/L Na2SeO3 for 3 d), and in female adults of the normal strain (fed with cowpea seedlings) and the long-term selenium-reared strain (fed with cowpea seedlings treated with 20 μmol/L Na2SeO3 for over one year) were detected by qPCR, and the expression responses of these genes to selenium induction were analyzed. Finally, the prokaryotic expression system was used to express one differentially expressed gene TcSPS1, and the biochemical characteristics of the obtained recombinant protein were assayed. 【Results】 Eight selenium metabolism pathway genes of T. cinnabarinus were successfully cloned, including TcTxnrd1, TcTxnrd2, TcSPS1, TcSPS2, TcSPS2-1, TcSPS2-2, TcSG, and TcPSTK. qPCR results showed that only TcSPS1 and TcTxnrd2 were up-regulated in both the short-term selenium-reared strain and long-term selenium-reared strain of T. cinnabarinus. Among them, the expression level of TcSPS1 was closely dependent on the selenium concentration. The soluble recombinant protein of TcSPS1 was successfully obtained using the prokaryotic expression system. The specific activity and the Km and Vmaxvalues of the recombinant TcSPS1 were measured to be 2.366±0.046 nmol/mg pro·min, 10.054±0.062 μmol/L and 29.633±1.777 nmol/mg pro·min, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Through the analysis of selenium metabolism pathway genes, the molecular mechanism of the adaptation of T. cinnabarinus to selenium was preliminarily explained, and it was proved that the up-regulated expression of the TcSPS1 gene plays an important function in the adaptation of T. cinnabarinus to selenium.
    Effects of Ascosphaera apis infection on the expression of immune- and detoxification-related genes and contents of proteins, lipids and glucoses in the gut of Apis mellifera ligustica larvae
    HOU Meng-Shang, ZHAO Bi-An, QIU Yuan-Mei, WAN Kun-Lin, LIANG Li-Qiang, LI Zhi-Guo, SU Song-Kun
    2021, 64(5):  574-584.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.004
    Abstract ( 291 )   PDF (1423KB) ( 76 )   PDF(mobile) (1423KB) ( 14 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Ascosphaera apis is a fungal pathogen that infects Apis mellifera ligustica larvae and causes chalkbrood in honeybee colonies. This study aims to investigate the effects of A. apis infection on the expression of genes related to intestinal immunity and detoxification and the contents of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates in the gut of A. m. ligustica larvae, and to analyze the relationship between the immune response and nutrients of A. m. ligustica under A. apis infection. 【Methods】 The A. m. ligustica larvae were raised in the laboratory. Each 3-day-old larva was inoculated with 2×106 spores/mL of A. apis in the treatment group, and that in the control group was fed with the normal food. Then, the gut samples of 6-day-old larvae were collected. The expression levels of genes related to immune, detoxification and development and genes of pathogens in the gut samples were detected by qRT-PCR, and the contents of proteins, lipids, glucose, and glycogen in the gut samples were determined by biochemical methods. 【Results】 After A. apis infection, the expression levels of immune-related genes LOC406144, Apid1, Def1, Def2, LOC406142, PGRP-SA, Pgrp-s2, PGRP-S3, PGRP-lc, GNBP-1, GNBP3, PPOact, LOC552247, domeless, KAT2A and bsk in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica were significantly up-regulated and that of cactus was significantly down-regulated. The expression levels of detoxification-related genes Cat, GSTS3, Cyp4g11, LOC725294, Ampka-r1, LOC411223, LOC409791, AmNOS and Sod2 in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica infected by A. apis were significantly up-regulated and those of CYP6AS14, CPR14, CYP306A1 and LOC100576555 were significantly down-regulated. The expression level of development-related gene usp in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica infected by A. apis was significantly up-regulated and those of VGMC, HEX70b and Vg were significantly down-regulated. The expression levels of pathogen genes BQCV capsid protein and Ascosphaera apis 28S rRNA in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica infected by A. apis were significantly up-regulated. The contents of proteins and lipids in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica infected by A. apis were significantly down-regulated, and those of glucose and glycogen were significantly up-regulated. 【Conclusion】 The A. apis infection influences the expression of genes related to immune, detoxification and development and genes of pathogens in the gut of A. m. ligustica larvae, affecting the immune response and energy stress response and accelerating the loss of proteins and lipids and the energy reservation of glucose and glycogen, and these may result in abnormal physiological activities of A. m. ligustica larvae.
    Variation in the olfactory response and expression levels of genes involved in sex pheromone recognition in male moths of field Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) to sex pheromone blends at different ratios
    LIU Tian-Wei, CHEN Yun-Kang, XU Chun-Mei, GUO Rong, FENG Bo, DU Yong-Jun
    2021, 64(5):  585-597.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.005
    Abstract ( 275 )   PDF (1932KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (1932KB) ( 13 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 This study aims to explore the variation among geographical populations in the olfactory response of male moths of Chilo suppressalis to sex pheromone and the related mechanisms, so as to understand the olfactory adaptation of male adults in field populations of the pest and its characteristics. 【Methods】 The male moths of C. suppressalis were trapped in rice fields in six provinces of China by using seven lures containing 3-component sex pheromone blends of Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at different ratios (540 μg∶540 μg, 864 μg∶216 μg, 945 μg∶135 μg, 980 μg∶98 μg, 1 003 μg∶77 μg, 1 016 μg∶64 μg and 1 045 μg∶35 μg) and Z13-18∶Ald with the constant content, the behavioral responses of male moths of the overwintering generation and the second generation trapped by the lures containing Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at the ratios of 864 μg∶216 μg, 980 μg∶98 μg and 1 016 μg∶64 μg in the filed to the lures at these three ratios were determined by laboratory bioassay in the wind tunnel, and the expression levels of 12 genes involved in sex pheromone recognition in the antennae of male moths trapped by the seven lures containing sex pheromone blends at different ratios were detected by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 In the field tests, all sex pheromone lures containing different Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald ratios could attract male moths of C. suppressalis, but the proportions of male moths of C. suppressalis trapped by lures containing different Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald ratios were different. The optimal ratio of Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald was different among the six provinces, and the proportion of male moths of C. suppressalis trapped by lure containing the same Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald ratio was different among the six provinces. The results showed that not only the optimal ratios of sex pheromones of lures in different geographical locations were different, the proportions of moths attracted by sex pheromone blends at different ratios in different geographical locations were also different. In the laboratory wind tunnel bioassay, the behavioral responses of male moths trapped by lures containing Z11-16 Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at the ratios of 864 μg∶216 μg and 1 016 μg∶64 μg in the field to the lures at the ratios of 864 μg∶216 μg and 1 016 μg∶64 μg, respectively, were significantly higher than those to the lures at the other two ratios. However, the male moths trapped by the lure containing Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at the ratio of 980 μg∶98 μg in the filed did not show significantly different behavioral responses to lures containing Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at the ratios of 1 016 μg∶64 μg, 980 μg∶98 μg and 864 μg∶216 μg in the wind tunnel. In the RT-qPCR assay, except GOBP1, the expression levels of the other 11 genes involved in sex pheromone recognition in the antennae of the male moths of C. suppressalis trapped by lures containing Z11-16∶Ald and Z9-16∶Ald at different ratios were significantly different. In addition, there were significant linear correlations between the ratio of sex pheromone blends and the expression levels of genes PBP3, PBP4, PR1, PR2, PR4, PR5 and PR6.【Conclusion】 This study identified the variation in sex pheromone recognition of male moths among different geographical populations of C. suppressalis in China. The results not only contribute to the control of C. suppressalis, but also help to understand the mechanisms of its geographical variation in olfaction.
    Effects of oviposition intensity on the reproductive phenotype of parthenogenetic Trichogramma dendrolimi (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) induced by Wolbachia
    HUO Liang-Xiao, LI Yuan-Yuan, ZHANG Dan, YU Qian, NING Su-Fang, ZHAO Xu, ZHOU Jin-Cheng, DONG Hui
    2021, 64(5):  597-604.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.006
    Abstract ( 205 )   PDF (1694KB) ( 41 )   PDF(mobile) (1694KB) ( 5 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Trichogramma dendrolimi is an important egg parasitoid applied in the biological control of lepidopteran pests. This study aims to investigate the effects of oviposition intensity on the titer of Wolbachia in parthenogenetic T. dendrolimi and its parthenogenetic reproductive phenotype induced by Wolbachia. 【Methods】 The effects of different oviposition intensities of females of T. dendrolimi in three treatment groups (supplied with host eggs for only 1 h per day, supplied with host eggs for 24 h every other day and supplied with host eggs all the time) on its biological parameters including the daily proportion of offspring males, daily fecundity, cumulative proportion of offspring males, and cumulative fecundity within 7 d were investigated in the laboratory. Besides, the Wolbachia titers (the copy numbers of wsp) in T. dendrolimi females without oviposition experience (the control), supplied with host eggs for only 1 h per day and supplied with host eggs all the time were detected by fluorescence quantitative real-time PCR. 【Results】 The cumulative proportion of offspring males of T. dendrolimi females supplied with host eggs all the time was significantly higher than that of females supplied with host eggs for only 1 h per day, but was not significantly different from that of females supplied with host eggs for 24 h every other day. The daily proportions of offspring males in the three treatment groups significantly increased with wasp age, and the increase rate was the highest in the treatment group of females supplied with host eggs all the time. The cumulative fecundity of T. dendrolimi females supplied with host eggs all the time was significantly higher than those of females supplied with host eggs for only 1 h per day and females supplied with host eggs for 24 h every other day. The daily fecundity in the three treatment groups significantly decreased with wasp age, but the decrease rate was the highest in the treatment group of females supplied with host eggs all the time. The Wolbachia titer in T. dendrolimi females without oviposition experience was significantly higher than that in T. dendrolimi females supplied with host eggs all the time, but showed no significant difference from that in T. dendrolimi females supplied with host eggs for only 1 h per day. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that both Wolbachia titer and parthenogenetic phenotype of T. dendrolimi decline when its females can deposit their eggs without limitation. Limiting time for oviposition will be helpful to maintain Wolbachia titer and parthenogenetic phenotype. The results provide references for understanding the interaction between Wolbachia and host Trichogramma and the application of thelytokous parthenogenetic T. dendrolimi for controlling pest insects.
     Biological characteristics of Hylaeus perforata (Hymenoptera: Colletidae) and its natural enemy Gasteruption corniculigerum (Hymenoptera: Gasteruptiidae) and their correlation with environmental variables
    GUO Peng-Fei, WANG Ming-Qiang, LI Yi, CHEN Jing-Ting, GUO Shi-Kun, CHEN Guo-Hua, ZHU Chao-Dong
    2021, 64(5):  605-610.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.007
    Abstract ( 271 )   PDF (1165KB) ( 48 )   PDF(mobile) (1165KB) ( 8 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 The study aims to record the biological characteristics of solitary Hymenoptera in the subtropical areas and to clarify the effects of tree species diversity on Hylaeus perforata and its natural enemy Gasteruption corniculigerum. 【Methods】 From August 2015 to September 2018, H. perforata and G. corniculigerum were collected in an artificial forest at Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functions Experimental Sites in Xingangshan Town, Dexing City, Jiangxi Province, eastern China by using standardized trap nests, and their biological characteristics were observed. The correlation between the abundance of H. perforata and G. corniculigerum and the parasitism rate of G. corniculigerum and five environmental variables, tree species richness, elevation, slope, northness and eastness, was analyzed. 【Results】 H. perforata occurs more than one generation a year. It builds nests using resin from May to September, and its adults emerge from April to August every year. An average of 3.75±2.24 nests were constructed per time, and the average nest diameter is 4.73±1.31 mm. It overwinters in the form of late instar larva and the sex ratio of offspring is significantly female-biased. G. corniculigerum is cleptoparasitic and parasitizes H. perforata in July, and its adults emerge in September every year, with the emergence time much later than that of its host H. perforata. Its offsprings consume all the stored food in host nest. The abundance of H. perforata and G. corniculigerum was positively correlated with tree species richness, but the other four environmental variables did not significantly affect the abundance of both species. 【Conclusions】 H. perforata is a typical solitary bee, produces multiple offsprings during the nesting period, and moves around in spring, summer and early fall. G. corniculigerum parasitizes H. perforata in summer, with adults emerging in fall, and takes much longer time to develop than their host. Other cleptoparasitic groups generally parasitize a single host cell, while G. corniculigerum destroys all host cells and consumes all host stored food. Environment with higher diversity of tree species may be more beneficial to the survival of species at higher trophic levels.
    F3Net based salient object detection for automatic foreground-background segmentation of butterfly images
    HUANG Shi-Guo, HONG Ming-Lin, ZHANG Fei-Ping, HE Hai-Yang, CHEN Yi-Qiang, LI Xiao-Lin
    2021, 64(5):  611-617.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.008
    Abstract ( 233 )   PDF (3181KB) ( 40 )   PDF(mobile) (3181KB) ( 6 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 It is difficult to segment the foreground-background of butterfly images with complex backgrounds. This study aims to explore an automatic foreground-background segmentation method using deep learning based salient object detection method. 【Methods】 The F3Net salient object detection algorithm was trained by using the DUTS-TR dataset to obtain the foreground-background prediction model. Then the model was applied to the dataset of butterfly images with complex background to implement automatic foreground-background segmentation of images. To further improve the accuracy of automatic segmentation, transfer learning was utilized by keeping ResNet backbone unchanged and retraining network through cross feature module, cascade decoders and pixel sensitive loss module to optimize model parameters, and then the better automatic segmentation model was obtained. Meanwhile, other five salient object detection algorithms based on deep learning were also applied to automatic segmentation and compared with F3Net on performance. 【Results】 With all the algorithms good butterfly foreground-background segmentation results were obtained. Among these algorithms, F3Net was the better algorithm, and the algorithm got the values of 0.940, 0.945, 0.938, 0.024, 0.929, 0.978 and 0.909 for the seven indexes S-measure, E-measure, F-measure, mean absolute error (MAE), precision, recall and average IoU, respectively. Transfer learning further improved the values of the above indexes of F3Net, which were 0.961, 0.964, 0.963, 0.013, 0.965, 0.967 and 0.938, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The experimental results showed that F3Net with transfer learning is the best segmentation algorithm. The method developed in this study can be applied to automatic segmentation of insect images taken in field investigations and extends the application range of salient object detection methods.
    Morphological and molecular identification and life history observation of three important lepidopteran pests on Elaeagnus mollis (Elaeagnaceae) in Shanxi Province, North China
    ZHAN Jin-Yu, HU Xiao-Qing, ZHENG Yue-Xi, ZHANG Fang-Yuan, YANG Zhao-Fu
    2021, 64(5):  618-626.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.009
    Abstract ( 318 )   PDF (13073KB) ( 63 )   PDF(mobile) (13073KB) ( 20 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 The study aims to determine the morphological characteristics and life history of three lepidopteran pest species damaging Elaeagnus mollis in Shanxi Province, North China, and to provide rapid and accurate identification of the three species based on DNA barcodes of mtDNA COI gene. 【Methods】 The external morphology of three lepidopteran pest species on E. mollis in Shanxi was observed, and the internal structures of female and male genitalia were illustrated. The DNA barcode sequences of COI gene were obtained through PCR amplification and compared against reference sequences in GenBank database and used to generate neighbor-joining (NJ) tree. Based on the DNA barcode sequences of COI gene in combination with morphological identification results, the three lepidopteran pests were identified. 【Results】 The results of morphological identification showed that the three lepidopteran pests damaging E. mollis are Synanthedon ulmicola, Synanthedon sp., and Apotomis sp.. The external morphology and female and male genitalia were described and illustrated. DNA barcode analysis showed that the COI gene sequences of S. ulmicola and Synanthedon sequoia in GenBank database show 90.7% nucleotide sequence identity, those of Synanthedon sp. and Synanthedon spheciformis in GenBank database show 90.0% nucleotide sequence identity, and those of Apotomis sp. and Apotomis capreana in GenBank database show 92.7% nucleotide sequence identity. NJ tree analysis showed that the three species formed distinct monophyletic branches, consistent with the results of morphological identification. 【Conclusion】 In this study, three species of lepidopteran pests of E. mollis, S. ulmicola, Synanthedon sp. and Apotomis sp., were determined by using a combined morphological and DNA barcoding approach for species identification. Morphological characteristics and life history of the three species were provided. Our findings will be helpful for pest management of the important economic tree species E. mollis.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Progress in the functional research of odorant receptors of agricultural insects
    YOU Yin-Wei, ZHANG Long
    2021, 64(5):  627-644.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.010
    Abstract ( 311 )   PDF (1967KB) ( 120 )   PDF(mobile) (1967KB) ( 17 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     Insects mainly rely on the olfactory system to seek foods, find mates, control mating, select oviposition sites and avoid natural enemies. Olfactory system is crucial for insect reproduction and survival. Odorant receptor (OR) is one of the key components of the olfactory system in insects. ORs can be activated by semiochemicals and then trigger special behaviors. With the development of sequencing technique, genomes and transcriptomes of plenty of agricultural insects have been sequenced, and OR gene families are analyzed and acquired from the sequencing data. Heterologous expression system and CRISPR/Cas9 system are frequently used in the research of OR functions nowadays. Heterologous expression system combined with recording system can be used to express target ORs and screen ligands. CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used to knock out target OR genes from insect chromosome, and then their functions are studied by electrophysiological techniques and behavioral experiments. In this article we systematically summaried the odorantresponse spectra and functions of the ORs of 30 agricultural insect species in six orders, Lepidoptera, Orthoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Hymenoptera and Coleoptera, particularly in Lepidoptera. Sex pheromones of agricultural insects are usually produced by females and consist of blends of two or more components at certain ratios, including behavioral antagonists involved in interspecific reproductive isolation. So several sex pheromone receptors in one species will be used to sense these pheromonal messages and then regulate intra- and inter-specific sexual behaviors. Some ORs are mainly tuned to plant volatiles including floral scent compounds, which play roles in host plant selection and oviposition site selection. Aggregation pheromone receptors can be activated by aggregation pheromones triggering aggregation behavior. Alarm pheromone receptors can be activated by alarm pheromones eliciting repellent behavior. Studies of odorant-response spectra and functions of ORs of agricultural insects will lay solid foundations for developing sex attractants, food attractants, antifeedants and aggregation pheromones used in pest control. At last we suggested the main research directions in the future for the agricultural insect ORs, including: (1) developing new heterologous expression systems for ORs; (2) investigating the functions of sex pheromone receptors in females specifically tuned to male-emitted sex pheromone components; and (3) exploring the molecular mechanisms of OR-odorant specific interactions.
     Biology and management of the litchi stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae): Progress and prospects (In English)
    YAO Qiong, QUAN Lin-Fa, XU Shu, DONG Yi-Zhi, LI Wen-Jing, CHEN Bing-Xu
    2021, 64(5):  645-654.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.05.011
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (9232KB) ( 79 )   PDF(mobile) (9106KB) ( 13 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics

     Litchi stink bug, Tessaratoma papillosa (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is one of the most widespread and destructive pest species on litchi (Litchi chinensis) and longan (Euphoria longan) in South China and Southeast Asia. T. papillosa feeds on the buds, tender branchlets, flowers, and fruits of host plants. Furthermore, the nymph over the 3rd instar and adult of T. papillosa are the vectors of witches’ broom pathogen on longan tree. In this article, we provide a detailed review on T. papillosa based on the research over the past 60 years in China, in order to provide references for the further study and development of green control technology of this pest species. T. papillosa is a hemimetabola insect which occurs one generation a year. Its nymphal duration and adult longevity are about 80 d and 203-371 d, respectively. Moreover, averagely one female adult of T. papillosa can deposit 190 eggs in its lifetime. Regarding the life habits, T. papillosa has the aggregation behavior, possesses phototaxis and chromatics tropism, and prefers tender branchlets. By the classification and distribution observation of antennal sensilla, RNA-seq analysis of antennae, dissection and observation of scent gland and comparative analysis of secretary components from scent gland, the two organs of antennae and scent gland of T. papillosa have been more deeply studied and understood. To date, the occurrence of T. papillosa is mainly forecasted through its ovarian development of female adults. Together with the pest forecasting technology, management of T. papillosa mainly depends on chemical control, supplemented by cultural, physical and biological control measures so far. The biological control technology has been reported the most, with aspects of the protection and utilization of natural enemies and the utilization of botanic pesticide. Owing to the seasonal restriction of experimental insect source and geographical limitation of infestation, the research progress of T. papillosa is relatively slow, the in-depth studies are limited and the research fields are relatively narrow. In future study, we can explore the selection mechanism of host plants, the interaction among host plants, natural enemies and symbiotic bacteria, and pesticide resistance from the perspectives of omics, molecular biology, cell biology and other aspects, to provide new clues for green pest control technology of T. papillosa.

    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 64 Issue 5
    2021, 64(5):  655-655. 
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (479KB) ( 7 )   PDF(mobile) (479KB) ( 3 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics