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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 April 2021, Volume 64 Issue 4
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Response of miRNAs related to wing differentiation and their predicted target genes to ecdysone and the confirmation of target gene of miR-92a-1-p5 in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphidae)
    MA Tian-Tian, YANG Zong-Lin, CHANG Mei-Ling, HUO Chun-Yue, KAN Yun-Chao, LI Dan-Dan
    2021, 64(4):  419-427.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.001
    Abstract ( 531 )   PDF (1511KB) ( 193 )   PDF(mobile) (1511KB) ( 44 )     
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     Abstract: 【Aim】 Ecdysone plays important roles in wing dimorphism of the parthenogenetic aphid. In the previous study we found that five microRNAs (miRNAs) also play pivotal roles in the wing dimorphism of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, but whether ecdysone and miRNAs have interaction in wing differentiation of aphids is unclear. This study aims to explore the effect of ecdysone on the expression of miRNAs and their predicted target genes, and to reveal the interaction of ecdysone and miRNAs in wing differentiation of aphids. 【Methods】 The five miRNAs (Let-7, miR-92a, miR-92b, miR-92a-1-p5 and miR-277) related to the wing dimorphism of A. pisum were selected. The 2nd instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum were exposed to 0.1 mol/L ecdysone analog 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) for 10 min and 30 min, respectively, and sampled at 48 h after treatment. The expression levels of the five miRNAs and their predicted target genes after 20E treatment were detected by qPCR. The predicted target gene of miR-92a-1-p5, flightin, was verified by dual luciferase activity assay. Finally, the expression of miR-92a-1-p5 in the 4th instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum was knocked down with nanocarrier/detergent to verify the interaction between miR-92a-1-p5 and its predicted target gene flightin. 【Results】 The expression of the five miRNAs in the 2nd instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum could be extremely significantly induced by the treatment of 0.1 mol/L 20E for 30 min. But when the 2nd instar nymphs were exposed to 0.1 mol/L 20E for 10 min, the expression levels of miR-92a-1-p5 and miR-92b extremely significantly decreased, while those of Let-7 and miR-277 increased extremely significantly compared with the control. The expression trends of Let-7 and its predicted target gene abrupt were opposite in the 2nd instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum after 20E treatment. The expression levels of wingless and Uba1, which are the predicted target genes of miR-92a and miR-277, respectively, decreased extremely significantly in the 2nd instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum exposed to 0.1 mol/L 20E for 10 min, showing the opposite trend with those of the corresponding two miRNAs. The expression level of flightin, the predicted target gene of miR92a-1-p5, decreased extremely significantly in the 2nd instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum exposed to 0.1 mol/L 20E for 30 min, exhibiting an opposite expression trend to that of miR-92a-1-p5. Dual luciferase activity assay results showed that after co-transfection of the mimics of miR-92a-1-p5 and the flightin CDS overexpression vector pmirGlO [flightin] the luciferase activity was extremely significantly decreased by 40% compared to the control transfected with NC mimics. Knocking down the expression of miR-92a-1-p5 in the 4th instar nymphs of parthenogenetic A. pisum extremely significantly decreased its expression by 83%, while extremely significantly enhanced the expression of its predicted target gene flightin by 48%, confirming that flightin is the target gene of miR-92a-1-p5. 【Conclusion】 Ecdysone can induce the expression of miRNAs in A. pisum. miR-92a1-p5 may be involved in wing differentiation of parthenogenetic aphids by regulating flightin gene. Nanocarrier/detergent can achieve effective miRNA interference in aphids. This study lays a foundation for further exploring the interaction of ecdysone and miRNAs in wing differentiation of parthenogenetic aphids.
    Effects of silencing insulin like peptide (Ilp) genes on the wing and ovarian development and trehalose metabolism in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    YU Wei-Dong, LIU Yong-Kang, LUO Yu-Jia, HUANG Zhen, ZHOU Tai, YE Lin, TANG Bin, WANG Shi-Gui
    2021, 64(4):  428-438.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.002
    Abstract ( 406 )   PDF (4911KB) ( 140 )   PDF(mobile) (4911KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 Insulin-like peptide (Ilp) is located in the upstream of insulin signaling pathway and plays a key role in regulating sugar metabolism. This study aims to explore the function of Ilp in regulating the trehalose metabolism balance in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens. 【Methods】 The expression of Ilp genes in the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens was inhibited by RNAi technology, and the phenotype and ovarian development of the female adults of N. lugens were observed after RANi.The changes in the contents of trehalose, glycogen and glucose and the trehalase activity were determined by biochemical methods, and the changes in the expression levels of trehalase genes (TRE1-1, TRE1-2 and TRE2) and trehalose synthase genes (TPS1 and TPS2) in the 5th instar nymphs of N. lugens at 48 h and 72 h after RNAi were tested by qPCR. 【Results】 The dsRNA effectively inhibited the expression of Ilp genes and resulted in abnormal wing in N. lugens, and the injection of dsIlp3 and dsIlp1+dsIlp2+dsIlp3+dsIlp4 caused underdeveloped ovaries in the 2-day-old female adults of N. lugens. The glucose levels were significantly increased at 48 h after injection of dsIlp1-4 and dsIlp1+dsIlp2+dsIlp3+dsIlp4, respectively, and the glycogen levels were also significantly increased at 48 h after injection of dsIlp2, dsIlp3 and dsIlp4, respectively. The trehalose content was significantly increased at 48 h after injection of dsIlp3 and dsIlp4, respectively, while the trehalose content decreased significantly at 72 h after inhibition of Ilp2 and Ilp4, respectively, and increased significantly both at 48 h and 72 h after injection of dsIlp1+dsIlp2+dsIlp3+dsIlp4. In addition, the soluble trehalase activity increased significantly at 72 h after injection of dsIlp1+dsIlp2+dsIlp3+dsIlp4, while the membrane-bound trehalase activity decreased significantly at 72 h after injection of dsIlp3, dsIlp4 and dsIlp1+dsIlp2+dsIlp3+dsIlp4, respectively. The expression levels of TRE1-1, TRE1-2, TRE2, TPS1 and TPS2 were significantly decreased after injection of dsIlp1, dsIlp2 and dsIlp4, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Silencing of Ilp genes has an inhibitory effect on the development and reproduction of N. lugens, and can increase the contents of glucose and glycogen, downregulate the expression of genes of trehalase and trehalose synthase, and increase the soluble trehalase activity, thus regulating the trehalose metabolism in N. lugens.
    Selection of reference genes for real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR of miRNAs in Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    YANG Chao-Xia, YAN Yi, ZHANG Fang-Mei, ZHU Xun, ZHANG Yun-Hui, LI Xiang-Rui
    2021, 64(4):  439-448.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.003
    Abstract ( 365 )   PDF (1337KB) ( 89 )   PDF(mobile) (1337KB) ( 31 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to select the stably expressed reference genes for expression analysis of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the cereal aphid, Sitobion avenae, under specific conditions. 【Methods】 According to the Illumina sequencing results of S. avenae miRNAs, 10 candidate reference genes including miR-10-3p, miR-993, miR-276, miR-275, miR-252a, miR-1, miR-375, pc-15, pc-73 and one normal reference gene U6 were screened, and their relative expression levels in winged and wingless aphids of S. avenae at different developmental stages, in various tissues of winged and wingless aphids and in wingless aphids of S. avenae exposed to four insecticides (95.1% imidacloprid technical material, 97.8% thiacloprid technical material, 95% avermectins technical material and 40% omethoate emulsifiable concentrate) were detected by using qRT-PCR. The expression stability of the 10 candidate reference genes was evaluated by GeNorm, NormFinder, ΔCt method, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. 【Results】 The qRT-PCR results showed that the highly expressed reference genes in winged and wingless aphids of S. avenae at different developmental stages, in various tissues of winged and wingless aphids, and in wingless aphids of S. avenae exposed to four insecticides were miR-276, miR-276, miR-10-3p, and miR-10-3p, respectively. Integrating the analysis results of five approaches, more stably expressed reference genes under the above four conditions were miR-252a, miR-993, miR-275, and miR-993, respectively. The optimal number of reference genes was two under different conditions by GeNorm. Based on the comprehensive ranking of RefFinder, the optimal combinations of stably expressed reference genes in winged and wingless aphids of S. avenae at different developmental stages, in various tissues of winged and wingless aphids, and in wingless aphids of S. avenae exposed to four insecticides were miR-252a and miR-276, miR-993 and miR-276, miR-275 and miR-10-3p, miR-993 and miR-10-3p, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The optimal combinations of reference genes in winged and wingless aphids of S. avenae at different developmental stages, in various tissues of winged and wingless aphids, and in wingless aphids of S. avenae exposed to different insecticides are miR-252a and miR-276, miR-993 and miR-276, miR-275 and miR-10-3p, miR-993 and miR-10-3p, respectively. The results provide a basis of reference gene selection for quantitative expression analysis of miRNA genes in S. avenae.
    Heterogeneity and bamboo lignocellulose degradation ability of microbiota in different sections of the alimentary canal of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    TANG Hao, WANG Ming-Jun, YANG Xiao-Wen, WU Min, LUO Wen, LUO Chao-Bing
    2021, 64(4):  449-459.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.004
    Abstract ( 420 )   PDF (9843KB) ( 54 )   PDF(mobile) (9843KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 Symbiotic microbiota in the alimentary canal of Cyrtotrachelus buqueti participate in the degradation of bamboo lignocellulose. This study aims to reveal the heterogeneity and lignocellulose degradation ability of symbiotic microbiota in different sections of the alimentary canal of larval C. buqueti. 【Methods】 The composition analysis and functional prediction of microbiota in different sections of the alimentary canal including mouthpart (YB), foregut (YFG), midgut (YMG) and hindgut (YHG) of larval C. buqueti were carried out using 16S rRNA sequencing. The carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZy) genes in the genomes of bacteria belonging to core genera in each alimentary canal section were analyzed to predict the lignocellulose degradation ability. The liquid suspensions of mouthpart mixed bacteria (MPJ), foregut mixed bacteria (FJ), midgut mixed bacteria (MJ) and hindgut mixed bacteria (HJ) of C. buqueti larva were used to degrade bamboo shoot particles in vitro and to verify their lignocellulose degradation ability. 【Results】 The diversity analysis of microbiota in the alimentary canal of larval C. buqueti showed that the diversity of microbiota from YFG, YMG and YHG were higher than that from YB, and the species diversity of microbiota from YFG was the highest, while that of YB was the lowest. In YFG, YMG and YHG samples, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria showed the highest relative abundance, while Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria were the most abundant in YB. The analysis of CAZy genes in the genomes of bacteria belonging to core genera showed that most microbial genomes in the alimentary canal of larval C. buqueti contain abundant CAZy genes, especially in that of the genus Bacteroides, indicating their relationship with lignocellulose degradation. The experiment results of in vitro bamboo shoot particle degradation by MPJ, FJ, MJ and HJ of C. buqueti larva showed that their cellulose degradation efficiencies were 21.7%, 39.9%, 44.2% and 21.0%, respectively, their hemicellulose degradation efficiencies were 72.7%, 52.3%, 65.7% and 61.5%, respectively, and their lignin degradation efficiencies were 20.5%, 41.3%, 39.9% and 37.9%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The heterogeneity of microbiota in the alimentary canal of larval C. buqueti can affect the lignocellulose degradation ability, so the microbiota can be used as one of the important sources for the separation of high.efficiency lignocellulose.degrading bacteria. This study provides some reference information for the industrial transformation and utilization of bamboo biomass.
    Effects of three microbes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter malorum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the behavior and development of Drosophila melanogaster
    WANG Lu, WEI Bo-Fan, LI Miao-Miao, LI Xiao-Zhe, WANG Bo, KAN Yun-Chao, QIAO Hui-Li
    2021, 64(4):  460-470.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.005
    Abstract ( 464 )   PDF (2834KB) ( 89 )   PDF(mobile) (2834KB) ( 41 )     
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    【Aim】 Gut microbes play very important roles in various life processes of host. This study aims to further clarify the mechanism of interaction between gut microbes and host by exploring the effects of three microbes, Lactobacillus plantarum, Acetobacter malorum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, on the foraging, oviposition and development of Drosophila melanogaster. 【Methods】 Attraction assays were performed to detect the attractiveness of L. plantarum, A. malorum or S. cerevisiae in the culture to the unmated and mated adults of D. melanogaster, and the attractiveness of the single microbe or the mixture of the two or three microbes to the non-virgin D. melanogaster. Oviposition assays were performed to detect the oviposition preference of non-virgin D. melanogaster to the single microbe or the mixture of the two or three microbes. The eggs of D. melanogaster were transferred to the media inoculated with L. plantarum, A. malorum and S. cerevisiae, respectively, and the normal medium (control), and the larval body weight was measured; meanwhile, the eggs of D. melanogaster were transferred to the media inoculated with live and inactivated single microbe of the three microbes, respectively, and the normal medium, and the number of pupae was counted to ascertain the effects of different microbes on the development of larvae of D. melanogaster. The relative expression levels of InR, a key gene of insulin signaling pathway, in D. melanogaster larvae raised in the media containing L. plantarum, A. malorum and S. cerevisiae, respectively, and the normal medium for 72 h were detected by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 A. malorum mainly affected the oviposition of D. melanogaster, while L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae could affect both its foraging and oviposition. Compared with single microbe, the mixture of the two or three microbes had stronger attractiveness to non-virgin D. melanogaster. The oviposition preference assays showed that L. plantarum, A. malorum, S. cerevisiae and the mixture of the two or three microbes had significant attractiveness to D. melanogaster for oviposition in the order of mixture>A. malorum>S. cerevisiae>L. plantarum. In addition, L. plantarum, A. malorum and S. cerevisiae could promote the development of D. melanogaster larvae. The live microbes accelerated the development of D. melanogaster from larvae to pupae in the early stage of inoculation, but the promotion effect of the inactivated microbes lagged behind. The expression level of InR in the larvae of D. melanogaster cultured on the medium inoculated with A. malorum decreased significantly as compared to that in the control, while those in the larvae cultured on the media inoculated with L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae, respectively, significantly increased. 【Conclusion】 A. malorum can induce D. melanogaster to lay eggs, and L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae are attractive to D. melanogaster for foraging and oviposition. Meanwhile, microbial diversity can increase the foraging and oviposition preference of D. melanogaster. L. plantarum, A. malorum and S. cerevisiae may affect the growth and development of D. melanogaster larvae via different regulatory mechanisms.
    Effect of horticultural mineral oils on the penetration behavior of adult Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)
    HUANG Zhen-Dong, PU Zhan-Xu, HU Xiu-Rong, CHEN Guo-Qing, LÜ Jia, ZHU Li
    2021, 64(4):  471-478.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.006
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF (1341KB) ( 67 )   PDF(mobile) (1341KB) ( 12 )     
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    【Aim】 The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri, is the vector of huanglongbing (Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus) which is the most destructive disease of citrus. Spraying the horticultural mineral oil (HMO) on the citrus canopies can reduce the feeding behavior and oviposition of D. citri efficiently. This study aims to explore how HMO within plant tissues influences the feeding behavior of adult D. citri. 【Methods】 The aqueous emulsions of an nC24 HMO were diluted into different concentrations (0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 2%, v/v), and sprayed to the immature pomelo (Citrus grandis) leaves. The leaves sprayed with clear water were served as the control. The probing and feeding behaviors of D. citri adults on the citrus leaves were recorded for 12 h and transformed to the waveform signal by a Giga-8 DC-EPG, and then the waveform parameters of every treatment were analyzed and compared. 【Results】 The percentages of duration of C waveform (pathway waveforms) of D. citri adults on the citrus leaves sprayed with different concentrations of HMO were significantly higher than that of the control. Spraying different concentrations of HMO reduced the percentage of duration of E2 waveform (phloem sap ingestion), while had no significant influence on the percentages of duration of D (first contact with phloem tissue), E1 (saliva secretion into phloem) and G (xylem sap ingestion) waveforms as compared to the control. The waveform duration per adult (WDI) of the C waveform in HMO treatment groups was significantly longer than that of the control, but showed no significant difference among different treatment concentrations. The WDI of D waveform in HMO treatment groups was significantly shorter than that of the control. The WDI of the E1, E2, and G waveforms decreased significantly with the increasing of the HMO concentration. Spraying 2% HMO significantly reduced the WDI of E1, E2 and G waveforms as compared to the other treatment concentrations. In the HMO treatment groups, the number of probes per adult and the number of various waveform events per adult were significantly decreased, and were the lowest in the 1% and 2% HMO treatment groups. The waveform duration per event per adult (WDE) of np (non-probing waveform), D and E2 waveforms in the HMO treatment groups was significantly shorter than that of the control. The WDE of D, E1 and E2 waveforms in the 2% HMO treatment group was significantly lower than that in the other treatment concentrations and the control. The 2% HMO treatment delayed the time from mouthpart contact with leaf to the first probe and the time to the first E1 of D. citri adults. 【Conclusion】 The results revealed that applying 2% HMO to citrus leaves not only decreased the feeding duration and frequency of D. citri adults, but also significantly reduced the time of salivation in phloem and ingestion of sap. Therefore, HMO is worthy of application in the integrated pest management of citrus huanglongbing disease and D. citri. We preliminarily speculated that HMO likely inhibits or covers the volatile substances on the leaf surface of citrus by entering into plant stomata and preventing the release of plant volatile substances, thus reducing the feeding of D. citri on the host.
    Differences in the evolution of mitochondrial genome between pollinating and non-pollinating fig wasps (In English)
    WANG Jian-Xia, ZHOU Yi, XIN Zhao-Zhe, ZHAO Dan, XIAO Jin-Hua, HUANG Da-Wei
    2021, 64(4):  479-489.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.007
    Abstract ( 376 )   PDF (2047KB) ( 65 )   PDF(mobile) (2047KB) ( 26 )     
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    【Aim】 At present, there are few reports on the mitochondrial genomes of fig wasps. The purpose of this study is to explore whether there are some differences in the evolution of mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) between pollinating fig wasps (PFWs) and non-pollinating fig wasps (NPFWs). 【Methods】 Based on the mitogenomes from 15 fig wasp species, of which the mitogenomes of 11 species were newly determined, we used the comparative mitochondrial genomic method to analyze the sequence and evolutionary characteristics of the mitogenomes of fig wasps. 【Results】 The length of the mitogenomes of 11 fig wasps newly determined ranges from 12 768 to 17 060 bp, and the AT content in the 11 mitogenomes is more than 80%. The AT-skew is negative and the GC-skew is positive in most species except for the non-pollinating fig wasp Philotrypesis tridentata. Frequent mitochondrial gene rearrangement occurs in fig wasps, which may be valuable for phylogenetic analysis of the species. Further analysis of selection pressure indicates that the ω ratios of protein-coding genes (PCGs) in mitogenomes of fig wasps are far less than 1, suggesting that these genes have experienced purifying selection. However, most of the genes in PFWs may have accumulated more nonsynonymous mutations than those in NPFWs. Furthermore, compared with the NPFWs, the mitogenomes of PFWs have more gene rearrangements, and higher nucleotide diversity and amino acid substitution rate. 【Conclusion】 The mitogenome evolution of PFWs is faster than that of NPFWs, which may be related to the significantly different lifestyles or evolutionary histories of the two groups.

    Distribution and structure of wax glands in various body forms of the horned gall aphid, Schlechtendalia chinensis (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    WEI Hong-Yuan, FENG Guo-Rui, XU Xin, SHAO Shu-Xia, CHEN Xiao-Ming, YANG Zi-Xiang
    2021, 64(4):  490-497.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.008
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (6961KB) ( 60 )   PDF(mobile) (6961KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 The horned gall aphid, Schlechtendalia chinensis, is the major productive species of Chinese gallnuts. S. chinensis exhibits complex life cycles, including alteration of sexual and asexual reproduction via host switch between Chinese sumac (Rhus chinensis) and mosses. There are six body forms, i.e., fundatrix, fundatrigeniae, fundatrispuriae, apterae, sexuaparae, and sexual forms, alternating inside and outside a gall to finish its whole life cycle. 【Methods】 Specimens of various body forms of S. chinensis were obtained from S. chinensis reared in the laboratory based on the original population of S. chinensis collected from the fields in Yanjin, Yunnan, southwestern China. The distribution, morphology, and structure of wax glands in S. chinensis were investigated using light microscope, electron microscope, and technique of ultrathin section. 【Results】 All body forms of S. chinensis except the 1st instar fundatrix possess wax glands on the dorsum, including 2 columns and 2 rows on the head, 4 columns and 1 row on the thorax, 6 columns and 8 rows on the abdomen, with a total of 56 wax glands. No wax glands appear on the dorsum of the 1st instar fundatrix (living outside a gall), but there are 2 columns and 8 rows of wax glands (in total 16 wax glands) on the dorsum of the 2nd instar fundatrix (living inside a gall). Each wax gland is composed of 2-22 polygonal depressions, and the number and morphology of depressions are obviously different among various body forms. The wax glands of fundatrigeniae, sexuaparae, and fundatrispuriae are the most complicated, and followed by apterae. Furthermore, the structure of wax glands in different parts of the sexual forms is significantly different: the wax gland structure of the dorsal plate and dorsolateral plate near the midline is simple, while that near the lateral line is complex. The wax gland structure of the 2nd instar fundatrix is simple as well. Corresponding to the distribution of wax glands, waxes appear on the body surface of all body forms except the 1st instar fundatrix. Fundatrigeniae, sexuaparae, and fundatrispuriae secrete a large amount of wax, followed by apterae. There is a small amount of wax on the body surface of the sexual forms and the 2nd instar fundatrix, whereas no wax exists on the body surface of the 1st instar fundatrix. 【Conclusion】 The number, arrangement, and development of wax glands on various body forms of S. chinensis are different. These differences are closely related to the microenvironments in which they live and the biological characteristics of each stage, being probably the long-term adaptation of the horned gall aphid to environmental conditions.
    Morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    LIU Yu-Yan, WANG Liang, ZHANG Xiang-Qin, CHEN Yi-Xin, TIAN Hou-Jun, LIN Shuo, LI Heng, YU Yun, LIN Ling-Hong, ZHANG Jie, CHEN Yong, WEI Hui
    2021, 64(4):  498-509.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.009
    Abstract ( 449 )   PDF (17457KB) ( 138 )   PDF(mobile) (17457KB) ( 23 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to determine the type, morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of Thrips hawaiiensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) at various developmental stages. 【Methods】 The antennal morphology and structure and the type, morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of female and male adults, nymphs, pre-pupae and pupae of T. hawaiiensis were observed by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 【Results】 The antenna of adult T. hawaiiensis is composed of scape, pedicel and a long flagellum with five flagellomeres (I-V). The mean length of antennae of female and male adults is 263.70±5.78 and 225.79±8.92 μm, respectively. The length of antennae increases with the growth of T. hawaiiensis. There are seven types of sensilla, i.e., Bhm bristles (BB), sensilla campaniformia (SCa), sensilla chaetica (SChI, SChII), sensilla trichodea (ST), sensilla basiconica (SBI, SBII, SBIII), sensilla coeloconica (SCo) and sensilla cavity (SCav), and two cuticular structures, i.e., microtrichia (mt) and cuticular denticles (cd), on the antenna of adults. The antenna of prepupae is conical, has no distinct segmentation and can move freely, with the mean length of 138.81±6.29 μm. The pupal antenna is cylindricalshaped pressing against the cephalo-thoracic back and immobile, and has no obvious segmentation, with a mean length of 213.07±6.30 μm. The antenna of the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs is composed of scape, pedicel and a flagellum with four flagellomeres (I-IV), with the mean length of 122.48±1.72 and 134.58±3.75 μm, respectively. There are eight types of sensilla [BB, SCa, SCh (SChI, SChII), SB (SBI, SBII), SCo, SCav, ST, and unusual sensillum (US)] and two cuticular structures [cd and ligulate structure (LS)] on the antenna of the 1st instar nymphs. There are seven types of sensilla [BB, SCa, SCh (SChI, SChII), ST, SB (SBI, SBII), SCo, and SCav] and one cuticular structure (cd) on the antenna of the 2nd instar nymphs. 【Conclusion】 In this study, the antenna and the morphology and distribution of antennal sensilla of T. hawaiiensis at various developmental stages were observed and comprehensively described, and the functions of antennal sensilla were inferred. The results lay a theoretical foundation for further research on the physiological functions of antennal sensilla of thrips.

    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances and perspectives of epigenetic regulation of insect diapause
    AN Hao-Min, LIU Wen, WANG Xiao-Ping
    2021, 64(4):  510-522.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.010
    Abstract ( 439 )   PDF (1746KB) ( 172 )   PDF(mobile) (1746KB) ( 32 )     
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     Diapause is a strategy for insect to avoid harsh environment, and has a great significance for continuation of insect population. In particular, facultative diapause can be affected by periodic seasonal changes, in which epigenetics may play critical roles. Epigenetics refers to heritable variations independent of DNA sequence, including various modifications at DNA, RNA, protein and chromatin levels, and may be involved in development plasticity. The research of epigenetic regulation of insect diapause mainly focuses on two aspects: one is how epigenetic regulation respond to environmental signals, and the other is how environmental signal induces epigenetic regulation in insect diapause. Although it has been reported that DNA methylation can respond to photoperiodic signal and histone acetylation can be coupled with endocrine systems, the detail mechanisms of epigenetic regulations of insect diapause, however, are not completely revealed. Regulations of diapause induced by epigenetics have been reported in multiple types of insect diapause. For the same diapause process, there may be co-regulation between different epigenetic mechanisms. However, how this synergy responds to environmental signals and how it precisely regulates insect diapause are still unknown. In conclusion, the previous research only indicated the possibility of epigenetic regulation in insect diapause, but the molecular mechanisms are scarcely known and need further study. Especially the following aspects might be critical in the future research: the molecular mechanism of epigenetics responding to diapause-induced environmental signals, the molecular mechanism of epigenetics coupled with endocrine regulation, the cell signal transduction of epigenetic regulation, and the synergetic regulation of epigenetics in insect diapause.
    Research progress of olfactory binding proteins in insects 
    WU Fan, ZHANG Li, QIU Yi-Lei, LI Hong-Liang
    2021, 64(4):  523-535.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.011
    Abstract ( 647 )   PDF (2399KB) ( 270 )   PDF(mobile) (2399KB) ( 74 )     
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     As the first participant in the olfactory system, olfactory binding proteins are mainly expressed in the hemolymph of peripheral olfactory system and play roles in recognizing, binding and transporting odors or pheromones to odor receptors. In recent years, with the application of novel modern biological technology, more olfactory binding proteins have been identified, and their diverse functions have been revealed. In this article, we summarized the research progress in the molecular characteristics, structure, functions and application of olfactory binding proteins in recent years. Generally, olfactory binding proteins are classified into three families, odorantbinding proteins (OBPs), chemosensory proteins (CSPs) and Niemann-Pick type C2 proteins (NPC2). Based on the α-helix and β-sheet, olfactory binding proteins form stable globular structure, which is beneficial for them to adapt to a variety of environments and tasks. And diverse functions of olfactory binding proteins are particularly important for insect physiology and behavior. Nowadays, olfactory binding proteins are used in biological control, variety selection and breeding, biosensor making, and so on. This review provides references and some new ideas for further research on olfactory binding proteins in insects.
    Influences of gall-inducing insects on the physiology and metabolism of host plants
    YANG Meng-Ke, LIU Sai, QIAO Hai-Li, GUO Kun, XU Rong, XU Chang-Qing, CHEN Jun
    2021, 64(4):  536-548.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.04.012
    Abstract ( 433 )   PDF (1797KB) ( 131 )   PDF(mobile) (1797KB) ( 31 )     
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    Plant galls, the abnormal outgrowths of plant tissues induced by gallinducing insects, are ideal materials to investigate the co-evolution between plants and insects. Gall-inducing insects are also important pests in agriculture and forestry. Investigations into the effects of gall-inducing insects on their host plants are useful to reveal the relationships between gall-inducing insects and plants, and can also help reveal the growth process of host plants. Besides, investigations into the responses of galled plants to gall-inducing insects are helpful to screen out the resistance indexes, resistance genes and sensitive genes of plants, providing a theoretical basis for resistance breeding. This review focuses mainly on the effects of gall-inducing insects on the photosynthesis, physiology and metabolism of their host plants. Gall-inducing insects generally reduce the photosynthetic pigments and photosynthetic rate of host plants, raise the contents of primary metabolites such as sugars and amino acids in inner tissues of galls, raise the contents of secondary metabolites such as non-volatile phenols and flavonoids and volatile terpenoids in outer tissues of galls, raise the activities of protective enzymes such as POD and SOD, and raise the contents of phytohormones such as IAA, SA and JA in host plants. The current research data indicate that investigations into the influences of gallinducing insects on the physiology and metabolism of host plants are even in their infancy, and the influencing mechanisms still need to be further explore.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 64 Issue 4
    2021, 64(4):  549-549. 
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (331KB) ( 26 )   PDF(mobile) (331KB) ( 2 )     
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