Acta Entomologica Sinica ›› 2016, Vol. 59 ›› Issue (12): 1386-1394.doi: 10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.12.012

• RESEARCH PAPERS • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Morphological and genetic diversity of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in Chongqing, southwestern China

GU Ying1, BIN Xian-Li1, LIU Lu1, ZHOU Jun1, MA Zhen-Gang1, TAN Hong-Wei2, ZHOU Ze-Yang1, XU Jin-Shan1,*   

  1.  (1. College of Life Sciences, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing 401331, China; 2. Chongqing General Station of Animal Husbandry Technology Extension, Chongqing 401121, China)
  • Online:2016-12-20 Published:2016-12-20

Abstract: 【Aim】 Chongqing of southwestern China features hills and low mountains in which floral resource plants are abundant. As a consequence, there exists a rich resource of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana in different geographical regions of Chongqing. Our study comprehensively surveyed the morphological and haplotype diversity of A. cerana cerana populations collected from different habitats in different regions of Chongqing, which will contribute to the resource conservation of A. cerana cerana. 【Methods】 Samples of one hundred and thirty-nine A. cerana cerana populations from different mountainous regions of Chongqing and surrounding areas were collected, and six morphological characteristics of these samples were measured. The fragments of mtDNA tRNAleu-COⅡ non-coding region were amplified by PCR and then sequenced to evaluate their genetic diversity. 【Results】 Morphological cluster analysis showed that honeybee populations from Wuling and Ta-lou mountains with subtropical monsoon climate could be distinguished from the honeybee populations from Ta-pa mountains with subtropical mountain climate, and the northern and western regions of Chongqing. The analysis of genetic structure of mtDNA non-coding region showed that gene flow occurred among the honeybee populations from different mountainous habitats. Three new haplotypes of A. cerana cerana were identified, i.e., CqH4 from Ta-pa Mountains, CqH7 from Ta-lou Mountains and CqH13 from western hills. 【Conclusion】 The morphological characteristics of different geographical populations of A. cerana cerana in Chongqing show a degree of diversification and are consistent with the geographical distribution. The common haplotypes are usually shared between the A. cerana cerana populations from different mountains and regions of Chongqing, suggesting that gene flow occurs and thereby increases the genetic complexity of the Chinese honeybee.

Key words: Apis cerana cerana, geographical population, morphology, genetic diversity, haplotype, Chongqing