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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 1993, Volume 36 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    RESPONSES FROM SENSILLA ON THE ANTENNAE OF MALEHELIOTHIS ARMIGERA TO ITS SEX PHEROMONE COMPONENTS AND ANALOGS
    WU CAI-HONG
    1993, 36(4):  385-389. 
    Abstract ( 2477 )   PDF (248KB) ( 1510 )     
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    Electrophysiological recordings of responses to its sex pheromone components from single olfactory receptor cells were carried ont in the male cotton bollworm, Heliothis armigera. The sensory cells of the longest trichiform sensilla responded specifically to the pheromone components tested. Only two types of receptor neuronswere found by inference of the measurements, each tuned to one of the female-pro-duced components. The majority of the neurons were tuned to the major component (Z)-ll-hexadecenal (Z-11-16:A1), which fired large spikes. Another group of neurons responded specifically to the stimulation with (Z)-9-he~adecenal (Z-9-16:A1),which fired small spikes. Electrophysiological recordings from these sensilla showedthat (Z)-11-hexadecenal is a major component, (Z)-9-hexadecenal is a minor com ponent.
    PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL EFFECTS OFL-CANAVANINE ON THE CORN BORER,OSTRINIA FURNACALIS GUENEE
    CHENG ZHEN-HENG WANG WEN-LU
    1993, 36(4):  390-395. 
    Abstract ( 2872 )   PDF (344KB) ( 995 )     
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    When L-canavanine was injected into the body cavity of Ostrinia furnacalitlarva at doses of 0.25-1.00mg/g body weight, it considerably depressed the amount of hemolymph proteins and significantly increased the level of hemolymph freeamino acids, among which proline and glutamic acid were most markedly affected.The whole-body acid phosphatase activity was elevated, while the whole-body arginase activity and urea concentrations decreased. There was no significant changes in uric acid. Incorporations of3H-leucine into trichloroacetic acid-insoluble substanceswere significantly reduced in the ovary or male accessory glands of adults from larvae treated with canavanine. It was suggested that the toxicity of canavanine was much dependent on the disturbance of protein and nitrogen metabonism, which in turn affects a series of changes of physiological processes.
    MECHANISM OF CHEMOSTERILIZATION BY DIFLUBENZURONIN ARMYWORM
    CHEN FEI GONG HUI-FEN WANG JIN-ZHONG DING JIAN-YUN WANG ZONG-SHUN
    1993, 36(4):  396-408. 
    Abstract ( 3475 )   PDF (5415KB) ( 1009 )     
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    Diflubenzuron inhibits reproduction of the armyworm Mythirnna separata (Walker)when the female moths were fed continuously with sucrose solution containing 50 ppm diflubenzuron. The activity of corpora allata of adults was adversely affected,but the vitellogenin synthesis of fat body, ovarian development and oogenesis couldstill proceed normally. The levels of DNA, RNA and protein in the cell nuclei of the ovaries were found to increase. However, no larvae would hatch from the eggs. It was observed that treatment of the adults or eggs with diflubenzuron did not influence the general course of embryonic development, but it had detrimental effects on the formation of integument and tracheal system of the developing embryos.The epidermal cells in the integument became flattened, smaller in size, and without nuclei. The procuticle became very thin or vanished. The tracheal trunks could not form and the respiratory function of the embryo could not perform normally. Asa result, the embryos would die within the chorion. The DNA level in the nuclei and mitochondria of the embryos was found to decrease. It seems that sterilization in the armyworm may result in part from inhibition of DNA synthesis besides the inhibition of chitin synthesis.
    DEVELOPMENT OF DIAMOND-BACK MOTH STRAINS RESISTANTTO DIMEHYPO AND CARTAP WITH REFERENCE TO THEMECHANISM OF RESISTANCE
    CHEN ZHI-HAO LIU CHUAN-XIU LI FENG-LIANG HAN ZHAO-JIU
    1993, 36(4):  409-418. 
    Abstract ( 2850 )   PDF (513KB) ( 934 )     
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    Diamond-back moth (Plutella xylostella) larvae in fourth instar were topically applied with dimehypo and cartap in successive generations in the laboratory to develop resistant strains of the moth. After 35 generations, the resistance of the moth to dimehypo and cartap increased by 51 and 25 folds, respectively. The time course of resistance development appeared to be in S shape. The sensitivities of the dimehypo-resistam and cartap-resistant strains to 11 insecticides were tested. The results showed that the resistant strains had marked positive cross-resistance to dimehypo, cartap and thiocydam and slight positive cross-resistance to DDVP, malathion and feni trothion, but showed negative cross-resistance to deltamethrin, cypermethrin, permethrin, me thomyl and thiofonox. PAGE demonstrated that the resistance to insecticides was related to the activity of special types of esterase. Activities of Care and Ache were measured by colori merry and acidity analysis. The results indicated that in the resistant strains the Ache activity decreased, but he Care showed on difference in activity. Topical application of the synergist Pb or Sv1 to the fourth instar larvae would increase their sensitivity to the insecticides, thesynergism in dimehypo-resistant strain was 6.28 times for Pb and 1.45 for Svt, and in the cartap-resistant stain 4.85 and 1.39 times, respectively. It seems that MFO is an important factor for the moth to resist dimehyp and cartap.
    ORIGIN AND FUNCTION OF THE CENTRIOLE ADJUNCTIN SPERMATIDS OF INSECTS
    WANG ZONG-SHUN ZHONG XIANG-CHEN
    1993, 36(4):  419-422. 
    Abstract ( 3190 )   PDF (4060KB) ( 1049 )     
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    The formation and function of centriole adjunct (CA) in spermatids of Locu sta migratoria and Coccinella septemgunctata are studied by electron microscopy with ultra-thin section and water spreading techniques. It is found that the CA is an electron dense body and the proacrosomal granule appear in the region between the nucleus and the nebenkern. Later, the pre-centriole adjunct which mainly consists of 300A granules is attached to the nuclear membrane, of which the inner and outer components then become thickened. As the nebenkern differentiates into two mi tochondrial derivatives or a bit earlier, the proximal centriole migrates to the CA and is finally surrounded by the CA. As a basal body it is anchored on the nuclear envelope and the axoneme originates from it. Following the spermatid elonga tion, the shape of CA is progressively transformed and extended. The 250-300A chromatin fibers along the longitudinal axis of the spermatid are attached to the base of CA structure. As spermatid nucleus elongates, the chromatin fibers are unwound and join together to form ribbon structure. It is assumed that the CA is a transient organelle and its role is to organize the rearragement of chromatin in the spermatid and to direct the migration of the centriole to the nuclear region from thc place where the flagellum extends.
    THE MULTIPLICATION OF HELIOTHIS ASSULTA NPV ANDHOST HEMOLYMPH CHANGES AFTERNPV INFECTION
    DENG TA TSAI XIU-YU
    1993, 36(4):  423-429. 
    Abstract ( 2726 )   PDF (5442KB) ( 1162 )     
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    The pathological changes of Heliothis assulta were examined after infection with nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV). The concentration of hemolymph protein in infected larvae was found to be higher than that in the control at 24 hr and decreased sharply 72 hr after infection. For healthy larvae, the concentration of hemolymph protein peaked at 72 hr and 120 hr. The PAGE pattern revealed that there were 22, 3, and 3 bands of general protein, lipoprotein and glycoprotein respectively isolated from hemolymph samples from both infected larvae and the control. There was close relationship among the three types of protein. The concentrations of some of the main proteins from the controlbecame higher at 48 hr and 120 hr while these of corresponding bands from infected larvae remained unchanged, suggesteng that the syntheses of these proteins were inhibited by NPV infection. Various cytological changes of mid-gut ceils and tracheal matrix were detected by electron microscopy. No virus was found entered columnar cell from microvilli.The mid-gut cells were infected slightly and at later stage. No polyhedron was formed The trachael matrix was sensitive to the infection of NPV and subsequently played an important role in repeated infection.
    HOST PREFERENCE AND SUITABILITY OFANAGR US NILAPARVATAE
    ZHU ZENG-RONG CHENG JIA-AN CHEN XIU
    1993, 36(4):  430-437. 
    Abstract ( 3469 )   PDF (450KB) ( 953 )     
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    Host age preference and effect of host age on development and reproduction of Anagrut nilaparvatae Pang & Wang, a mymarid egg parasltoid of planthoppers, were studied in the laboratory with constant temperature 23℃. This parasitoid showed no distinct Oviposition preference to eggs of different ages of the white-backed planchopper (WBPH)Sogatella furcifera(Horvath) as judged with the method of Manly (1972). However, as the age of host egg increased, its developmental period lengthened and the body size and fecundity of the issuing wasp decreased. The sex ratio and emergence rate of the offsprings were not affected by host age.For the adult the larger the body size, the higher the fecundity. This parasitoid obviously preferred eggs of brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugenc(Stal) to that of WBPH when both were present. Body size and fecundity were greater in the issuing females from BPH eggs than in those from WBPH eggs. They developed slower in BPH eggs. The effect of different combinations of its original host and host eggs offered for nviposition were compared, and it was found that the female wasps which were raised fromWBPH eggs and offered with WBPH eggs (I.e. WBPH→WBPH) produced fewer progtny than other combinations (I.e. WBPH→BPH, BPH→WBPH and BPH→BPH). The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) of this parasitoid with WBPH→WBPH was only 75% of that with other combinations. Assessment of host suitability for parasitoids by using suitability index (SI) is discussed.
    PREDATION OF LEIS AXYRIDIS ON CHAITOPHORUS POPULIALBAE
    LI ZHAO-HUI ZHENG FANG-QIANC, YIE BAO-HUA QI DENG-ZHU LI AI-MIN
    1993, 36(4):  438-443. 
    Abstract ( 2894 )   PDF (312KB) ( 1153 )     
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    Laboratory studies show that the functional responses of 1-4 instar larvae andadult of Leis axyrtdis to wingless adult aphids Chaitophorus populialbae belong to Holling II type. The relationship between searching efficiency (E) and the adult ladybird density (P) is described by Hassell & Varley's model E=Qp-m and Bed-dington's model E=aT/[1+btw(P-1)] as E=0.4286P-0.6555 and E=0.4108/(0.6288+0.3712P), respectively. Both models demonstrate that the searching efficiency declines with increase of the ladybird density, but Beddington's model can describe the relationship better than Hassell & Varley's model. The relationship between searching efficiency (E) and the prey density (N) and the adult ladybird density (P) is described by Beddington's model E=aT/[1+atkN+btw(p-1)]as E=0.4108/(0.6288+0.002846N+0.3712P), I.e. the searching efficiency declineswhen the adult ladybird and the prey densities increase.
    STUDIES ON ANASTOECHUS CHINENSIS PARAMONOV A NATURAL ENEMY OF LOCUSTA MIGRATORIA MANILENSIS (MEYEN)
    DU SHU-CUO LI SHU-ZENG LIU DE-PING WANG CHUN-SHAN CHANG ZHANG-ZHI
    1993, 36(4):  444-450. 
    Abstract ( 3969 )   PDF (381KB) ( 1059 )     
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    Anastoechus chinensis Paramonov is an important natural enemy of the Oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manibensis (Meyen). It belongs to Bombyliiuae, Bombyliidae, Brachycera, Diptera. It is discovered and studied for the first time in the littoral locust areas in Shantong, Hebei and Tianjin. Its association with the locust egg masses amounted to about 50% ii: general and may reach over 75%.It breeds one generation per year in North China and its eggs overwinter in the locust egg masses or in the nearby soil. In the next April or May the eggs hatches into larvae which suck the egg contents to kill the eggs. It was found that this spec;.es can effectively suppress the poFulation of the first generation of the Oriental migratory locust and thus serve as a useful means in locust control. From 1982 to1987 studies were carried out on its morphology, behaviour and application in locust control. It was confirmed that it can be effectively used in the control of the Oriental migratory locust by providing sufficient food resource for the adults which consists essentially the nector from Limonium bicolor (Bunge) Kuntze and Heteropappus altaicus (Willd) Novopokr of the local flora.
    INFLUENCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS ON THEDIAPAUSE OF FOXTAIL MILLET WEBWORM
    PAN XUE-XIAN CHENG KAI-LU JIANG YUAN-HONG HUANG FU
    1993, 36(4):  451-458. 
    Abstract ( 3101 )   PDF (452KB) ( 914 )     
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    Foxtail millet webworm (Manpava bipunctella Ragonot) is an insect with facultative diapause, it has two generations per year in southern Sichuan. Photoperiod is the main factor in inducing diapause. The percentage of its population entering diapause is decided by photoperiod in early larval stage at medium temperature. The critical phoroperiod is 14 hours and 38 minutes at 25℃ constant temperature, the first and second larval instars being the sensitive stage.The influence of temperature and food on diapause depends largely on long light period.Low temperatures would inhibit the diapausing effect of long light period. High temperatures,however, had no significant effect. More larvae entered diapause feeding on corn than on sorgh,lm. Light period between 14 and 15 hot, rs was the main factor for diapausing larvae ,orevive. The influence of diapause on the population dynamics of tile pest and the significance in pest forecast are discussed.
    EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON OVIPOSITION AND LONGEVITY OF ADULT MEADOW MOTH (LOXOSTEGE STICTICALIS L.)
    LUO LI-ZHI LI GUANG-BO
    1993, 36(4):  459-464. 
    Abstract ( 2566 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1063 )     
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    Adults of the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis L., transferred directly after emergence to the constant temperature of 16℃-34℃ were monitored for preovipo sition period, oviposition rate and period, fecundity and longevity. The relationship between temperature and preoviposition period fell into a logistic curve. All femalesobserved at 22℃ oviposited, but the number of ovipositing females decreased above this temperature. Oviposition period and fecundity at 22℃ were the longest and highest and significantly differed from those in other treatments except those at 19℃ and 25℃ According to the results obtained, 22℃ was considered as the optimum temperature for oviposition, and 16℃ and 34℃ as the lower and upper limits,respectively. Longevity of the adults was also affected by temperature. The longest longevity was at 16℃ (36.3 days) and shortest at 34℃(8.6 days). The relationship between temperature and adult longevity was significantly and negatively correlated, regardless of males or females. However, males were more sensitive than females to thechange of temperature by checking the correlation coefficients (for males r=-0.91,P < 0.01 and females r=-0.76, P < 0.05). In addition, males lived longer than females at 16℃-28℃ and significantly differed at 16℃-22℃(P < 0.05), but shorter than females at 31℃-34℃ and significantly differed at 34℃. Based on aboveresults, patterns of population dynamics of the meadow moth in the major damageareas of China and principles of its forecast are discussed.
    THE TAXONOMICAL FEATURES OF HEPIALUS OBLIFURCUSLARVA (LEPIDOPTERA:HEPIALIDAE)
    YU HLNG GAO ZU-XUN CHEN JIAN ZHANG ZHI-YU
    1993, 36(4):  465-468. 
    Abstract ( 3094 )   PDF (228KB) ( 1137 )     
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    Taxonomical features including color and chaetotaxy of the head, thorax and abdomen of Hepialus oblifurcus larva are described. This larva is the main hOSt of the fungus Cordeceios sinensis; they form the insect-herb which has been used as materia medica for a long history in China. Head capsule is nearly circular and light yellow-brown or yellow-brown in color. Postoccipital su[cus is black These are six ocelli arranged in two rows on each side of the head. Clypeus is triangular and light yellow-brown in color. Clypeal membrane is long and narrow and milky white. Labrum is lobe-like and yellowbrown. Mandible is dark brown and there are five teeth at its end. Fusulus is long and thin On the head there are two pairs of vertical setae, three pairs anterior setae, two pairs posterior setae, a pair lateral setae, two pairs genal setae, three pairs ocellar setae, three pairs subocellar setae, two pairs frontal setae, three pairs clypeal setae and five pairs labral setae. The thorax and abdomen are milky white during the first and second instars.After the third instar, it is divided into two parts whose boundary is located at the middle of the first abdominal segment. The anterior part is light yellow-white and the posterior part is jade yellow. Prothoracic shield is large, half moon-shaped and light yellow. There are nine pairs of elliptical spiracles. Pleopod crotchets of the first instar larva are in form of uniserial circle and those of larva from second to eight instar are in form of multiserial circle. Crotchets of the anal foot are in form of multiserial penellipse. On the prothorax, there are two pairs of anterodorsal setae, two pairs dorsal setae, two pairs subdorsal setae three pairs lateral setae, two pairs subventral setae and a pair of ventral setae. There are no anterodorsal setae and only a pair of subventral setae on mesothorax and metathorax. Chaetotaxy of abdominal segments can be divided into three types which vary in the number of subvenral and ventral setae.
    A NEW SPECIES OF PHOBAETICUS FROM CHINA(PHASMATODEA: PHASMATIDAE)
    CAI BAO-LING LIU SHENG-LI
    1993, 36(4):  469-471. 
    Abstract ( 2468 )   PDF (163KB) ( 851 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS MACELLINA UVAROVFROM GUANGXI (PHASMIDA:HETERONEMIIDAE)
    CHEN SHU-CHUN WANG JI-JIAN
    1993, 36(4):  472-474. 
    Abstract ( 2647 )   PDF (113KB) ( 975 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CHRYSACRIS ZHENGFROM CHINA (ORTHOPTERA:ACRIDOIDAE)
    REN BING-ZHONG ZHANG FENG-LING ZHENG YI-PING
    1993, 36(4):  475-476. 
    Abstract ( 2556 )   PDF (89KB) ( 844 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF TETRIGOIDEA FROM ANHUI, CHINA(ORTHOPTERA)
    WANG YU-WEN ZHENG ZHE-MIN
    1993, 36(4):  477-478. 
    Abstract ( 2470 )   PDF (102KB) ( 857 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS CONFUCIUS(HOMOPTERA:CICADELLO 1DEA, LEDRIDAE)
    KUOH CHUNG-LIN CAI PING
    1993, 36(4):  479-481. 
    Abstract ( 2211 )   PDF (136KB) ( 780 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF EULECANIUM COCKERELL(HOMOPTERA: COCCIDAE)
    ZHANG ZHAN-YUAN
    1993, 36(4):  482-485. 
    Abstract ( 2313 )   PDF (205KB) ( 944 )     
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    THREE NEW SPECIES OF GENUS MELANESTHES LACORD.FROM CHINA (COLEOPTERA:TENEBRIONIDAE)
    REN GUO-DOGN
    1993, 36(4):  486-489. 
    Abstract ( 2447 )   PDF (240KB) ( 1037 )     
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    TWO NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS ERICHSONIUS FAUVEL FROM CHINA (COLEOPTERA:STAPHYLINIDAE, STAPHYLININAE)
    ZHENG FA-KE
    1993, 36(4):  490-492. 
    Abstract ( 2050 )   PDF (153KB) ( 1043 )     
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    A NEW SPECIE OF PSEUDOSCYMNUS(COLEOPTERA:COCCI NELLIDAE)
    PANG HONG
    1993, 36(4):  493-494. 
    Abstract ( 1871 )   PDF (92KB) ( 813 )     
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    A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS HEPIALUS FROM YUNNAN,CHINA (LEPIDOPTERA:HEPIALI DAE)
    Ll CHAO-DA YANG DA-RONG SHEN FA-RONG
    1993, 36(4):  495-496. 
    Abstract ( 2150 )   PDF (103KB) ( 1026 )     
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    INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON POLYMORPHISM OF THEOVERWINTERING GENERATION OF CHINESE HORNED GALLAPHID, SCHLECHTENDALIA CHINEN. SIS (BELL)
    ZHANG CHUAN-XI XU HOU-LIAN TANG JUE
    1993, 36(4):  497-499. 
    Abstract ( 2073 )   PDF (145KB) ( 949 )     
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    SEPARATION OF MAIN TYPES OF HEMOCYTES IN MYTHIMNASEPARATA AND OSTRINIA FURNACALIS LARVAE BYPERCOLL GRADIENTS
    ZNU CHENG-ZHI ZHAO GANG CHENG ZHEN-HENG
    1993, 36(4):  500-502. 
    Abstract ( 1778 )   PDF (149KB) ( 1002 )     
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