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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2013, Volume 56 Issue 11
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Isolation of genes adapted to insectresistant rice in the salivary glands of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    CHEN Peng-Yu, LIU Shun-Zhi, WANG Xiao-Lan
    2013, 56(11):  1235-1243. 
    Abstract ( 2443 )   PDF (5312KB) ( 1793 )     
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    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is an important rice damaging pest. Secretions by salivary glands of the BPH in the process of feeding rice contain some substances that can elicit a series of physiological and biochemical reactions of rice plants. In order to obtain the genes that encode such secretions, a suppressed subtractive hybridization (SSH) library including 768 clones was constructed by SSH and mirror orientation selection (MOS) methods with the BPH fed on the insect-resistant rice B5 as the tester and that fed on the insect-susceptible rice TN1 as the driver. The SSH library contained a total of 102 ESTs with insertions of 250-1 000 bp including 35 unigenes, among which 28 were up-regulated while 7 down-regulated. Through analysis by online tool blastx in the GenBank database, we found that the amino acid sequences represented by 2/3 of ESTs showed similarities in different degrees with some known proteins, such as trehalase, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, cathepsin B, putative mucin-like protein, carboxylesterase, and cah-3 carbonic anhydrase. Most of the predicted proteins had signal peptides that might be related to secretion. This study laid a foundation for further research of elicitor proteins of this piercing-sucking insect.
    Molecular cloning and function analysis of cuticular protein gene NlICP in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    MA Yan, HAO Pei-Ying, LU Chao-Feng, YU Xiao-Ping
    2013, 56(11):  1244-1251. 
    Abstract ( 2643 )   PDF (10267KB) ( 1585 )     
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    Insect cuticular protein plays a vital role in insect development and molting sclerosis, by combining with chitin as a barrier to the external environment. To study the function of insect cuticular protein in the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, the full-length of Unigene36450 predicted to code an insect cuticular protein was amplified by RT-PCR and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends according to the RNA-seq analysis of transcriptome. Then the real-time quantitative PCR and RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the expression pattern and the function of NlICP. Bioinformatics analysis showed that Unigene36450 contains a 585 bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 194 amino acid residues, with a consensus region of R&R consensus, so we named it NlICP. The transcripts of NlICP were detected only in the nymphal stage of N. lugens, and its expression reached the highest level in the 3rd instar nymph and then decreased with the nymphal development, suggesting that the coded protein of NlICP belongs to larval cuticular protein. RNAi analysis revealed that N. lugens nymph fed with dsNlICP was disturbed, and the expression levels of NlICP decreased by 58.8% and 45.6% after the continuous feeding for 6 and 8 d, respectively, significantly lower than those in the control group (P<0.01). Some nymphs died because of incomplete molting after RNAi, and the survival rate decreased by 26.7% compared to the control group after continuous feeding for 5 d. The results suggest that NlICP is associated with N. lugens nymphal ecdysis and development, and may serve as a potential target gene for controlling N. lugens.
    Proliferation and programmed cell death in the fat body in workers of the Italian honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) during postembryonic development
    LI Zhao-Ying
    2013, 56(11):  1252-1257. 
    Abstract ( 2301 )   PDF (6320KB) ( 1335 )     
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    The fat body of insects is an important tissue of material reserves and intermediary metabolism. The proliferation and apoptosis pattern of the fat body in workers of the Italian honeybee, Apis mellifera ligustica, was comparatively studied by using micromorphological observation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) technique. The results showed that the fat body cells divided continuously in the early larval stage from the 1st instar to the 3rd instar. Extensive apoptosis in the fat body could be detected only within a narrow time window during metamorphosis in the early pupal stage from prepupa to day 2 pupa. During metamorphosis, the fat body of larva degenerated and reorganized to form the adult fat body. This study provides a theoretical basis for research on the function of fat body and the mechanisms of autophagy and apoptosis.
    Effects of imidacloprid on the distribution of nicotine acetylcholine receptors in the brain of adult honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica)
    ZHOU Ting, SONG Huai-Lei, WANG Qiang, DAI Ping-Li, WU Yan-Yan, SUN Ji-Hu
    2013, 56(11):  1258-1266. 
    Abstract ( 2403 )   PDF (24913KB) ( 1360 )     
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    Honeybees are the main pollinators in the nature. Currently neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used in the control of field pests in China due to its ability of binding to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and inducing pest death. Imidacloprid, a type of neonicotinoid insecticides, was used in this study to observe the distribution of nAChR-α7 in mushroom body and optic lobes in the brain of adult honeybee (Apis mellifera ligustica) with the immunohistochemical staining method. The results showed that nAChR-α7 was detected in the mushroom bodies and optic lobes of normal adult honeybees, with a stronger labeling in optic lobes. The feeding of sublethal doses of imidacloprid induced down-regulation of nAChR-α7 in the optic lobes but not in the mushroom bodies. The results indicate that in addition to the wellknown inhibition of nAChR, the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid can also suppress the expression of nAChR-α7. This finding might present a novel toxic mechanism of neonicotinoid insecticides in killing pests.
    Ecological significance of wing spot dimorphism in Drosophila biarmipes (Diptera: Drosophilidae) (In English)
    Ravi PARKASH, Chanderkala LAMBHOD, Divya SINGH
    2013, 56(11):  1267-1274. 
    Abstract ( 2794 )   PDF (2657KB) ( 1467 )     
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    Female preference for male ornament is favored by sexual selection. It is not clear whether the preference is limited to male ornament only or actually for genes that affect fitness of the progeny. In Drosophila biarmipes, females prefer to mate with males that are able to provide greater physiological tolerance to climatic stresses, i. e., males provide direct benefit of fitness to the females or their offsprings. Laboratory studies in D. biarmipes have evidenced the role of wing spot during courtship but its ecological significance remains unclear. We tested the hypothesis whether spotted and spotless males and progeny from sexually preferred males of D. biarmipes vary in their levels of environmental stress tolerances. Our results showed that the male flies with spotted wings performed significantly better in their mating success under desiccation or cold stress than the males with spotless wings. In contrast, spotless males mated more frequently under highly humid conditions. We also found significantly higher fecundity of females mated with the males with spotted wings under drier condition and higher egg-to-adult viability of the resulting progeny. Our results are consistent with good gene sexual selection hypothesis, suggesting that mate choice could provide indirect benefits to females. This is the first report on the ecological significance of wing color dimorphism in a tropical species-D. biarmipes.
    Impacts of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps japonica rice on the population dynamics of its non-target herbivores, rice leafhoppers, under field conditions
    LU Zeng-Bin, HAN Nai-Shun, XU Gang, LIU Yu-E, HU Cui, PENG Yu-Fa, GUO Yu-Yuan, YE Gong-Yin
    2013, 56(11):  1275-1285. 
    Abstract ( 2987 )   PDF (7656KB) ( 1353 )     
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    One of the risks posed by transgenic crops is their potential effects on non-target organisms, especially non-target herbivores. In this study, experiments were conducted at two sites in Changxing, Zhejiang, eastern China in three years to assess the effects of transgenic cry1Ab/vip3H+epsps japonica rice (G6H1) and its non-transgenic rice (Xiushui 110, XS110) on rice leafhoppers using the vacuum-suction machine method under field conditions. The results showed that rice leafhopper species included Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Cicadula fascifrons (Stål) and Deltocephalus dorsalis Motschulsky, of which N. cincticeps was the dominant species. Population densities of these three leafhopper species varied depending on tested years and tested sites. However, the tested transgenic rice line did not significantly influence the population densities of these leafhopper species. Population dynamics of N. cincticeps adults and nymphs as well as their total density were similar between transgenic and non-transgenic rice plots in most tested years, although some significant differences were observed in a few tested years. In addition, population dynamics of C. fascifrons and R. dorsalis were also not significantly affected by transgenic rice. In general, the tested transgenic rice line G6H1 has no markedly negative impact on the population of these three rice leafhopper species in the field.
    Life table of the parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), under different environmental variables (In English)
    OMKAR, Shruti RASTOGI, Ahmad PERVEZ
    2013, 56(11):  1286-1293. 
    Abstract ( 2206 )   PDF (6675KB) ( 5022 )     
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    The present study was aimed to understand the patterns in the development, survival and mortality of the immature stages of parthenium beetle, Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister along with the behavioural patterns associated with them under different environmental variables. This may aid in the improved mass multiplication of this weed biocontrol agent. For the purpose, life table of Z. bicolorata, a defoliator and biocontrol agent of a parthenium weed, Parthenium hysterophorus L., was studied in the laboratory under environmental variables, like food, temperature, photoperiod and different wavelengths of light. Kappa value, as mortality indicator, was lowest when beetles at various life stages were fed on inflorescence of weed, followed by leaves and stem, while the generation survival was highest on inflorescence. Temperature significantly affected the mortality and survival rate of key life stages of the beetle. Kappa value was lowest when beetles at immature stages were reared at 27℃, followed by 30, 25, 20 and 35℃. The generation survival and survival rate followed the same pattern. Mortality was significantly influenced by different photoperiods and it was least with best generation survival at 14L∶10D (long day) followed by 12L∶12D (equinox), 10L∶14D (short day), 24L∶0D (continuous light) and 0L∶24D (continuous dark). In response to different wavelengths of light, Kappa value was lowest with highest generation survival under white light (broad spectrum), followed by yellow (λ=ca. 570 nm), blue (λ=ca. 475 nm) and red (λ=ca. 650 nm). Egg experienced highest mortality. The life stages of the beetle can be best reared under long day white light at 27℃ feeding on inflorescence of parthenium. Mortality trend was rigidly and significantly stage-specific, showing an innate survival effect which was independent from the factors studied. 
    Life table of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), based on special time survey data
    LU Ji-Fang, WANG Zhi-Yong, YANG Zhong-Qi, WEI Ke, YANG Yuan-Liang, WANG Jian, SITU Chun-Nan, FU Fu-Yong
    2013, 56(11):  1294-1305. 
    Abstract ( 2036 )   PDF (5379KB) ( 1418 )     
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    To ascertain the key factors influencing the natural population dynamics of the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the natural population life tables of EAB populations in Tianjin, Beijing and Liaoning were constructed by specific time (autumn in 2000 and  spring in 2011) sampling method. The results indicated that population density would increase in the three areas in the following years. The host plant of Beijing and Tianjin populations was Fraxinus velutina, but that of the Liaoning population was F. mandshurica. The population density of EAB had the fastest growth rate (index of population trend, I=12.9997 and I=12.4388, respectively) in Beijing and Tianjin, but had the slowest growth rate in Liaoning (I=3.6394).  The main lethal factors for EAB were Spathius agrili Yang (the exclusion index of population control, EIPC=1.5382) and woodpecker (EIPC=1.4515) in Tianjin and Beijing, respectively, but was Oobius agrili Zhang et Huang in Liaoning (EIPC=1.4701). It is concluded that the difference of host plants is the major factor influencing natural population density of EAB, and the parasitoid S. agrili Yang also plays an important role in its population density. Therefore, breeding resistant host species and artificially rearing dominant natural enemies will be effective methods to control the pest in practical application.
    An adaptive method for catching pest insects based on LED
    YANG Hui, LI Peng, JIN Ji-Yu, ZHAO Xin, WANG Zhi-Sen
    2013, 56(11):  1306-1313. 
    Abstract ( 2173 )   PDF (2447KB) ( 1850 )     
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    The sensitive wavelength of pest insects is affected by such factors as pest species, seasonal variation and so on. However, traditional insect trap lamps have fewer band types of emission wavelength, and the lamps are working independently without communication each other, which will cause low effectiveness of insect-trapping and waste of energy. In order to solve the problems of single emission wavelength of insect trap lamp and lamps working independently, an adaptive method of the multi-wavelength of signal light and multi-light coordination methods were developed based on theoretical analysis and the corresponding systematic design, and the maximum expected quantity of insects trapped was calculated. Multi-wavelength of single-light was proposed based on the multi-wavelength and low power consumption of LED. Coordination communication is made between the center trap light and other light traps, which can finally make the wavelength of most lights in the network be the most optimal and the wavelength of a few lights be non-optimal. Using this method, we can not only capture insects efficiently, but also can real-timely detect the change of the pest species in the environment to achieve the optimal catch result. Feasibility and efficiency were confirmed by field trapping test using simulated self-adaption method. So the trap lights can be conveniently used in the wild, and the coordination between multiple lamps can adapt emission wavelength of light traps by themselves to realize the extreme efficiency of the method.
    Species diversity, community structure difference and indicator species of leaf-litter ants in rubber plantations and secondary natural forests in Yunnan, southwestern China
    ZHANG Nian-Nian, CHEN You-Qing, LU Zhi-Xing, ZHANG Wei, LI Ke-Li
    2013, 56(11):  1314-1323. 
    Abstract ( 2693 )   PDF (3054KB) ( 1192 )     
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    Rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) are important economic forest trees in Yunnan province, China. But there are still different viewpoints on ecosystem services of rubber plantations. In order to reveal the differences of leaf-litter ant assemblages between rubber plantations and secondary natural forests, the species diversity, community structure differences and indicator species of ant communities in leaf litter were investigated by Winkler litter extraction in October 2012 and April 2013 in forests of the two types. The results showed that the abundance (transformed), species richness and ACE index of leaf-litter ants in rubber plantations were significantly lower than those in secondary natural forests without disturbance (P<0.05); ant abundance (transformed) in rubber plantations was significantly lower than that in disturbed secondary natural forests (P<0.05), however, the species richness and ACE index had no significant difference between them. There was no significant similarity of ant community composition between rubber plantations and secondary natural forests (F=3.93, df=3, P<0.01). The number of Pheidole species in rubber plantations increased by 100% compared with that in secondary natural forests. There were 3 indicator species (Strumigenys lewisi, Pachycondyla luteipes and Recurvidris nuwa) in leaf litter of secondary natural forests, but only one (Pheidole nodus) in leaf litter of rubber plantations. The ant species diversity in leaf litter had a significant positive correlation with the thickness of leaf litter, but only ant abundance (transformed) had a significant positive correlation with the coverage of leaf litter. The results suggest that after long time management, the rubber plantation ecosystem has the trend to be stabilized, and can protect ant community to some extent, while the ant community composition is very different from that in secondary natural forests.
    Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of mtDNA-COI and rDNA-ITS1 genes in populations of Aleurodicus dispersus (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Hainan, southern China
    YU Wei-Wei, YANG Wen-Yan, DU Yu-Zhou, LI Wei-Dong
    2013, 56(11):  1324-1334. 
    Abstract ( 2431 )   PDF (25999KB) ( 1330 )     
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    The spiraling whitefly (SWF), Aleurodicus dispersus Russell, is an important agricultural and forest pest in Hainan province, southern China. In this study, we sequenced and analyzed the gene sequences of mtDNA-COI and rDNA-ITS1 genes within A. dispersus populations from 16 districts in Hainan. The results showed that mtDNA-COI gene sequences of the spiraling whitefly populations from different regions of Hainan were identical, except Wenchang sample coming from Psidium guajava carrying one variable position (C-T) at position 476 bp in mtDNA-COI gene. Analyses of the rDNA-ITS1 gene showed that the ITS1 sequences of all the A. dispersus populations were consistent. The phylogeny trees of A. dispersus populations based on mtDNA-COI gene showed that fairly low genetic variation existed among the different populations sampled in various locations. Taiwan population and Hainan population had a fairly closed relationship according to the phylogenetic trees, suggesting that the invaded A. dispersus in Hainan likely originated from Taiwan. Aleyrodidae could be divided into two subfamilies, i. e., Aleurodicinae and Aleyrodinae, according to the phylogenetic trees of different whitefly species based on mtDNA-COI and rDNA-ITS1 gene sequences, which is consistent with the results of former studies.
    Using sparse coding and SCG BPNN to recognize images of lepidopteran insects
    ZHU Le-Qing, ZHANG Zhen
    2013, 56(11):  1335-1341. 
    Abstract ( 2198 )   PDF (10917KB) ( 1177 )     
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    【Aim】 In order to find a convenient way to recognize insect species for those worked in agriculture, forestry, plant quarantine etc., we developed a novel method to recognize images of lepidopteran insects. 【Methods】 Firstly, the background of captured specimen image is removed and then the wings are cut out and calibrated in the preprocessing period. Then the calibrated wing is segmented into a number of super pixels, and mean values of l, a and b in color space and x and y in Cartesian coordinate system are kept as feature data. Following that, the sparse coding (SC) algorithm is used to train the codebook, generate the sparse codes that are pooled into a feature vector to train the SCG (Scaled Conjugate Gradient) Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Finally the resulting BPNN is used to classify and recognize unknown insects. 【Results】 The proposed method was tested in a database with 576 images with the best recognition rate over 99%, and the system also demonstrated ideal time performance, good robusticity and stability. 【Conclusion】 The experimental results proved the efficiency of the proposed method in recognizing images of lepidopteran insects.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances in insect dopamine and its receptors
    WU Shun-Fan, XU Gang, QI Yi-Xiang, XIA Ren-Ying, HUANG Jia, YE Gong-Yin
    2013, 56(11):  1342-1358. 
    Abstract ( 2934 )   PDF (6543KB) ( 2417 )     
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    Dopamine (DA) is an important biogenic amine in invertebrates and vertebrates. It is involved in the regulation of a variety of physiological responses and behavior of insects, such as learning and memory, cognition, sexual orientation, locomotion, phase change, etc. DA exerts its effects by binding to specific dopamine receptors belonging to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors. In this review, we summarized the current knowledge on the modulation of DA, its distribution in nervous and non-nervous tissues, and its physiological functions in insects, such as its involvement in modulating insect mating, development, olfaction and locomotion. Especially, the recent progress about signal transduction, physiological roles and pharmacological properties of insect dopamine receptors was reviewed in detail. There are two families of insect dopamine receptors, D1-like and D2-like. D1-like DARs have two subtypes, DOP1 and DOP2. DOP1 upregulates intracellular cAMP in the presence of dopamine. The second group of invertebrate dopamine receptors, DOP2, not only upregulates cAMP levels but also increases Ca2+ levels. The D2-like DARs only have one subtype, DOP3, which downregulates intracellular cAMP in the presence of dopamine. DA-mediated generation of second messengers is associated with changes in cellular response, affecting insect behaviors. Pharmacological characterization of insect dopamine receptors may help us develop new specific insecticides for pest management.
    Occurrence, damage and control of the wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), in China
    DUAN Yun, JIANG Yue-Li, MIAO Jin, GONG Zhong-Jun, LI Tong, WU Yu-Qing, LUO Li-Zhi
    2013, 56(11):  1359-1366. 
    Abstract ( 2333 )   PDF (1539KB) ( 1015 )     
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    The wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, is one of the most important pests in China. The larvae of this pest feed on the developing wheat kernel and can cause serious yield losses in wheat, even no harvest. This pest has the characteristics of small body, long diapause duration and concealed damage. In recent years, the wheat midge has been affected by global climate change, change of cropping system, wheat cultivars and human activities, which cause a great change in the occurrence of this pest, with an expansion tendency to Northeast China. This midge is mainly distributed in the wheat production areas in the northern China. Its occurrence is hidden, intermittent, local and abrupt, and is affected by various factors, such as the base number of its population, ecological factors, measurements of agricultural productivity and human activities. Since the 21st century, the occurrence of this midge has changed a lot, and it was mainly distributed in the winter wheat production areas (latitude 27°-43°N). Polymorphisms in the diapause, the resistance mechanism of wheat to this midge, breeding of the resistant wheat varieties and exploitation of natural enemies are the main directions of future researches, and such studies as the molecular mechanisms of diapause, the law of occurrence and damage, forecasting, integrated control and the plant-midge-natural enemy relationship should be strengthened in the future. This review provides references for further understanding of the laws of occurrence and damage, forecasting and the integrated control of S. mosellana in China.