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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2015, Volume 58 Issue 3
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Antennal lobe neurons of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their responses to plant odors and sex pheromones
    WAN Xin-Long, LI Jiang-Hui, LAO Chong, DU Yong-Jun
    2015, 58(3):  223-236. 
    Abstract ( 2482 )   PDF (5657KB) ( 1709 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the structure of the antennal lobe (AL) of the tobacco cutworm, Spodoptera litura and its neuronal activities in response to plant volatiles and sex pheromones. 【Methods】 The structure of the antennal lobe of S. litura adults was scanned and observed by using the confocal laser scanning. The neuronal activities of AL were recorded and analyzed through multi-unit recording (MR) method when the antennae were stimulated by six plant-derived volatile compounds including benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, phenylacetaldehyde (PAA), 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, and  trans-2-hexenal, and sex pheromones including (Z,E)-9,11-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E11-14:Ac) and (Z,E)-9,12-tetradecadienyl acetate (Z9E12-14:Ac), respectively. Wind tunnel was employed as the bioassay tool to test the behavioral responses of S. litura adults to the stimulants in order to confirm the neuronal activities shown in the MR experiments. 【Results】 The ALs in the brain of S. litura adults identified in the confocal laser scanning were composed of 67 and 66 glomeruli in males and females, respectively. As reported in previous studies, a macroglomerular complex (MGC) dealing with pheromone information, was only found in the AL of male adults. The total and average volumes of glomeruli in female adults were higher than those in male adults. The MR results showed three spontaneous discharge patterns of neurons, i.e. diffuse spiking (irregular frequency), moderate spiking (slower and broader distributional frequency), and fast spiking (bursting high frequency). Three types of neuron responses to odor stimulation were present in all recordings, i.e., excitatory, inhibitory, and unresponsive. The response types (excitatory, inhibitory or no response) in the AL neurons were found to be dependent on the chemical structure of stimulants and their concentrations. The AL neurons of female adults had weak response to sex pheromones and single component of the tested plant volatiles, while those of male adults showed strong excitatory responses to sex pheromones Z9E11-14:Ac and Z9E12-14:Ac, benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol, and PAA, suggesting the effect of aromatic compounds. The wind tunnel tests indicated that the majority of male adults significantly chose to stay on sex pheromones and aromatic compounds, and this was consistent with the MR results. 【Conclusion】 The relationship between the neuronal responses of female adults of S. litura and the concentrations of all stimuli is different, depending on different neurons or stimulus chemicals. The neuronal activities of male adults are positively correlated to the concentrations of sex pheromones within the tested range, but show no significant differences among the tested concentrations of the plant odors except for cis-3-hexenyl acetate.
    Effects of sex pheromone on the expression of olfactory genes abp, pbp and or in male moths of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LIN Xin-Da, LAO Chong, YAO Yun, DU Yong-Jun
    2015, 58(3):  237-243. 
    Abstract ( 2254 )   PDF (2194KB) ( 1121 )     
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    【Aim】 Insect pheromones are the chemical molecules for communication between individuals of insects. To better understand their neurological mechanisms and make better application, it is important to study the effect of sex pheromone on the expression of olfactory genes. 【Methods】 The quantitative realtime PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to study the changes in the expression levels of olfactory genes abp, pbp and or  in  Spodoptera litura male moths after exposure to synthetic sex pheromone. A newly developed pheromone-based electronic counting system was adopted to monitor the population dynamics of S. litura by sex pheromone trapping. 【Results】 The expression of abp, pbp and or  showed circadian rhythm in the antennae of male moths of S. litura. The expression levels of abp, pbp and or  and their circadian rhythm were significantly affected by the exposure to synthetic sex pheromone (Z9, Z11-14:OAc+Z9, Z12-14:OAc). The population dynamics of S. litura male moths monitored by sex pheromone trapping also showed clear circadian rhythm. 【Conclusion】 The circadian rhythm of the gene expression was correlated with that of the male mating behavior. Our results provided the first evidence to elucidate the enhancement of peripheral and central neuronal sensitivity of olfactory system of S. litura moths stimulated by sex pheromone at the gene expression level by the exposure of pheromone compounds. These results would be helpful to our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pheromone recognition, the application of insect pheromone by mating disruption and pest forecasting and control by mass trapping with sex pheromone.
    Extraction and identification of maize volatiles and cuticular volatiles of larval Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) related to hosthabitat location and host location of parasitic wasp Microplitis mediator (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    SHI Qing-Xing, LUO Qing-Huai, ZHAO Long, ZHOU Zheng-Xiang, HE Guang-Quan, WEI Wei
    2015, 58(3):  244-255. 
    Abstract ( 2065 )   PDF (1725KB) ( 1201 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to identify maize ( Zea mays L.) volatiles and cuticular volatiles of larval Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) for host-habitat location and host location of Microplitis mediator (Haliday). The tritrophic interaction among maize, H. armigera, and M. mediator was investigated in the context of chemical ecology, and the mechanisms of chemical communications in host location of M. mediator were illustrated. The work has some implications for the “pull-push” approach in integrated pest management.【Methods】 Semiochemicals from maize volatiles and cuticular volatiles of H. armigera larvae were identified by using electroantennogram (EAG), gas chromatographic-electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS), and Ytube olfactometer test equipment. Standard semiochemicals and the mimetic compounds of maize volatiles and cuticlular volatiles of H. armigera larvae were used to test behavioral responses of M. mediator with Y-tube olfactometer in the laboratory.【Results】 Tested by GC-MS and GC-EAD, totally 11 compounds of maize volatiles and 6 compounds from cuticular volatiles of H. armigera larvae were found to be electrophysiologically active, of which 4 electrophysiologically active compounds were identified from both maize volatiles and cuticular volatiles of H. armigera larvae. Behavioral response tests in the laboratory showed that compared with the control of n-hexane male and female wasps were significantly attracted to the mimetic compounds of maize volatiles (P<0.05). Female wasps were significantly attracted to the mimetic compounds of cuticular volatiles of the 1st instar (P<0.01) and the 2nd instar larvae of H. armigera (P<0.05). Male wasps were significantly attracted to the synthesized compounds of cuticular volatiles of the 1st instar larvae of H. armigera (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 These results demonstrated that 11 compounds (heptanal, 2-hexanol, 1-hexanol, 1-octen-3-ol, nonanal, decanal, benzaldehyde, E-2-nonen-1-ol, hexanoic acid, phenyethyl alcohol, and 1-dodecanol) from maize volatiles and six compounds (2-hexanol, ethyl hexanoate, 1-hexanol, nonanal, ethyl caprylate, and decanal) from cuticular volatiles of H. armigera larvae are responsible for host-habitat location and host location of M. mediator.
    Proteomic comparison between the newly emerged drones and the sexually mature drones of  Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    WU Xiao-Bo, LI Shu-Yun, YAN Wei-Yu, ZENG Zhi-Jiang
    2015, 58(3):  256-263. 
    Abstract ( 2153 )   PDF (1458KB) ( 921 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the differentially expressed proteins between the newly emerged drones and the sexually mature drones of Apis mellifera ligustica through comparing the proteome profilings of drones at these two different stages, so as to provide the basis for further studies on the drone developmental biology. 【Methods】Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to establish the proteomic map of the two kinds of drones, and part of differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis and database searching. 【Results】 The results showed that 2 490 and 2 317 proteins were detected in the newly emerged drones and the sexually mature drones of A. mellifera ligustica, respectively,of which 157 differentially expressed protein spots were found. Furthermore, 102 and 55 proteins were significantly up-expressed in the newly emerged drones and the sexually mature drones, respectively. Eighteen of the differentially expressed proteins were identified by mass spectrometry analysis. Among them, the Troponin, SEC13 protein homolog and DJ protein were up-expressed in the newly emerged drones while the paramyosin, arginine kinase and cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor homolog were up-expressed in the sexually mature drones.【Conclusion】 A large number of proteins in drones of A. mellifera ligustica show expression changes during maturing, which might be related to the development of cuticle, flight muscles and sperms.
    Multiplex-PCR for identification of two Hishimonus species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in jujube orchards and detection of jujube witches’ broom (JWB) phytoplasma in their bodies
    HAO Shao-Dong, CHEN Yu-Qi, WANG Jin-Zhong , WANG He, TAO Wan-Qiang, ZHANG Zhi-Yong, SHI Xiao-Yu, ZHOU Sai
    2015, 58(3):  264-270. 
    Abstract ( 1971 )   PDF (1302KB) ( 959 )     
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    【Aim】 Hishimonus sellatus (Uhler) transmits jujube witches’ broom (JWB). Currently, the Hishimonus leafhoppers occurring in jujube orchards are a mixed population of H. sellatus  and H. lamellatus Cai. The latter is now suspected to be a JWB vector. As such, correct identification of Hishimonus species present in jujube orchards is essential for epidemiological surveys. However, the traditional identification of Hishimonus species by morphology is limited to the external genitalia of male adults. This study aims to develop and validate a rapid and inexpensive molecular method to discriminate betwee H. sellatus  and H. lamellatus occurring in jujube orchards and to detect JWB phytoplasma in their bodies meantime. 【Methods】 A multiplex PCR method was designed for identification of two species and detection of JWB phytoplasma in their bodies. Three sequences, i.e. 16S rDNA of JWB phytoplasma, and COI genes of both H. sellatus and H. lamellatus, were used as the amplification targets. After preliminarily testing the PCR result, we further tested the accuracy and sensitivity of this multiplex PCR method to the total DNA solutions of H. sellatus and H. lamellatus. We also tested the sensitivity of this method to 16S rDNA of JWB phytoplasma. 【Results】 The results showed that the multiplex PCR method established in this study could identify species of H. sellatus and H. lamellatus accurately, and could detect JWB phytoplasma in H. sellatus or H. lamellatus sensitively. The detection limits of the total DNA of both leafhoppers were approximately 0.12 ng, and the sensitivity of the method to the JWB phytoplasma 16S rDNA template approximately reached 900 copies. The validation results with 48 field collections of male individuals pre-checked by morphological observation showed that there was no mismatch between multiplex PCR and morphological observation in all samples, indicating the 100% accuracy of the multiplex PCR for identification of H. sellatu and H. lamellatus. 【Conclusion】 The new multiplex PCR method developed in this study is greatly helpful for monitoring the dynamics of Hishimonus species occurring in jujube orchards and the infection of JWB phytoplasma in their bodies.
    Isolation and sensitivity to fungicides of the yeast-like symbiont Pichia anomala (Hemiascomycetes: Saccharomycetaceae) from Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    CAO Wei, MA Zheng, YU Xiao-Ping
    2015, 58(3):  271-280. 
    Abstract ( 1772 )   PDF (2237KB) ( 1000 )     
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    【Aim】 With the extensive application of chemical pesticides, the small brown planthopper,  Laodelphax striatellus has increased its resistance to pesticides so that the control effect of pesticides on L. striatellus is weakened. Therefore it is crucial to explore a new method for controlling this pest. In this study, we attempt to inhibit the abundance of symbiotes inside L. striatellus by fungicides to weaken the vitality of this pest, so as to provide a theoretical foundation for controlling L. striatellus through inhibiting yeast-like symbiont (YLS). 【Methods】 The yeast-like symbiont was isolated from L. striatellus via in vitro culture and the susceptibility of the isolated YLS to different concentrations of fungicides was examined. The fungicides with apparently higher ability to inhibit the growth of YLS were applied on wheat seedlings used for feeding L. striatellus. The mortality and body weight of L. striatellus adults were measured and the variation of the amount of YLS inside L. striatellus was examined through real-time florescent quantitative PCR. 【Results】 A strain of YLS was successfully isolated and identified as  Pichia anomala based on the corresponding carbon assimilation experiment and 18S rDNA phylogenic analysis. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) result further confirmed the existence of this strain in L. striatellus. The test results of sensitivity to fungicides indicated that 70% propineb and 50% tebuconazole+25% trifloxystrobin had obvious inhibitory effects on the growth of P. anomala while fluopicolide+ propamocarb hydrochloride(687.5 g a.i./L) and 40% pyrimethanil had relatively less inhibitory effects on the growth of P. anomala.When two fungicides (70% propineb and 50% tebuconazole +25% trifloxystrobin with obvious inhibitory effect were applied on wheat seedlings at the concentration of 800 mg/L, the mortality of L. striatellus adults feeding the treated wheat seedlings reached 46.7% and 63.3%, respectively, which was apparently higher than that of the control group, and the body weight of L. striatellus adults in the treatment group was also less than that of the control group. Real-time florescent quantitative-PCR results indicated that the amount of YLS of three strains (Hypomyces chrysospermus, Pichia guilliermondii, and P. anomala) inside L. striatellus dropped sharply after different fungicides were applied. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the fungicides applied in vitro on  L. striatellus  have inhibitory effects on their YLS, thus impacting the survival of L. striatellus, and this validates the feasibility of “reduction in use of pesticides through use of fungicides” strategy in controlling L. striatellus.
    Chlorantraniliprole induces up-regulated expression of cytochrome P450 genes in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Xue-Gui, YU Hui-Ling , LIANG Pei, SHI Xue-Yan, SONG Dun-Lun, GAO Xi-Wu
    2015, 58(3):  281-287. 
    Abstract ( 2324 )   PDF (1578KB) ( 954 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the induction of chlorantranilprole, a novel diamide insecticide, on the expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the midgut of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) larvae. 【Methods】 The 4th instar larvae of S. exigua were fed on artificial diets containing 0.01 and 0.02 mg/kg of chlorantraniliprole, respectively, until their molting, and the activities of O-deethylase of P450 and the mRNA expression levels of four P450 genes (CYP9A9, CYP4G37,CYP4S11 and CYP6B) and one NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase gene (HQ852049) in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae in 6 to 36 h post treatment were detected by assaying O-deethylation of ethoxyresorufin and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively. 【Results】 The cytochrome P450 ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase activity in the 0.02 mg/kg treatment group increased to 1.90-2.92-fold as high as the untreated control, while that in 0.01 mg/kg treatment group was only 1.11-1.62fold as high as that of the control. The relative expression levels of CYP9A9, CYP4G37and CYP6B  induced by 0.02 mg/kg chlorantraniliprole were 1.97-3.95, 2.46-4.29 and 1.53-4.48-fold as high as the control, respectively, and 0.02 mg/kg chlorantraniliprole also induced the expression of HQ852049, with the relative expression level of 1.85-4.08-fold as high as the control. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the up-regulated expression of three P450 genes and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase gene  HQ852049 induced by chlorantraniliprole can enhance the activities of P450s in the midgut of S. exigua larvae.
    Fipronil-resistance mediated by carboxylesterases in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    REN Na-Na, XIE Miao, YOU Yan-Chun,LI Jian-Yu, CHEN Wei-Jun , CHENG Xue-Min, YOU Min-Sheng
    2015, 58(3):  288-296. 
    Abstract ( 2303 )   PDF (2116KB) ( 1004 )     
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    【Aim】 Carboxylesterases (CarEs) are one of the most important detoxification enzymes in insects, and are implicated in the metabolic resistance of many different classes of insecticides. The present study aims to investigate the mediated functions of carboxylesterases in fipronil resistance of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), and thus to reveal the physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of carboxylesterases in metabolic detoxification of insects. 【Methods】 Topical application was used to test the toxicity of fipronil to the susceptible population (SP) and the fipronil-resistant population (FRP) and the synergistic effect of triphenyl phosphate (TPP), a carboxylesterase inhibitor, on fipronil. The LC30and LC50 concentrations of fipronil were used to treat FRP, and the effect on the carboxylesterase activity after treatment was determined. Stage-and tissue-specific expression patterns of Pxae22 and Pxae31 were profiled by qRT-PCR. Expression levels of Pxae22 and Pxae31 and the insecticide susceptibility of the 3rd instar larvae were also examined after RNA interference (RNAi). 【Results】 The results showed that TPP decreased the resistance of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella to fipronil by about six times. After treatment with the lower doses (LC30 and LC50) of fipronil, the carboxylesterase activity in the treated 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella was significantly higher than that of the control, suggesting that the carboxylesterase activity in P. xylostella could be induced by fipronil. Developmental expression profiling of genes exhibited that Pxae22 and  Pxae31 had the highest expression levels in the 4th instar larvae. Tissue expression profiling of genes showed that Pxae22 and Pxae31 were highly expressed in the midgut of the 4th instar larvae, while lowly expressed in the head, cuticle and fat body. The expression levels of the two genes in the fipronil-resistant population were significantly higher than those in the susceptible population, respectively. The qRT-PCR analysis showed that after RNAi of Pxae22 and Pxae31, the expression of the two genes was significantly suppressed, and the sensitivity of the 3rd instar larvae of P .xylostella  to fipronil increased by 1.63 times and 1.73 times, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Carboxylesterases play important roles in metabolic detoxification of fipronil in P.xylostella. Two CarE genes, Pxae22and Pxae31,are involved in insecticide resistance, and the variation of their expression levels can directly influence the susceptibility of P. xylostella to fipronil.
    Temperature and photoperiod influence prey consumption and utilization by two sympatric Coccinella species (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) in conspecific and heterospecific combinations(In English)
    Bhupendra KUMAR, OMKAR
    2015, 58(3):  297-307. 
    Abstract ( 1672 )   PDF (2462KB) ( 746 )     
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    【Aim】 Indian subcontinent is amongst the vulnerable geographical landscapes of the world. A slight fluctuation in its climatic conditions may adversely influence its seasonal cycles and may cause a tremendous outbreak of aphids in its agroecosystems. Coccinella septempunctata L. and C. transversalis Fab. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are the two sympatric aphidophagous ladybirds that abundantly inhabit the subcontinent. 【Methods】 The present ex-situ study has therefore been designed to explore how the two ladybirds would respond to increasing temperature (15, 20, 25, 30 and 35℃) and photoperiod (8L:16D, 12L:12D and 16L:8D) when allowed to feed together on a common prey resource (pea aphid) in conspecific and/or heterospecific combinations. 【Results】 The results revealed that 2-predator conspecific/heterospecific combinations of both the ladybirds exhibited antagonistic effects at five different temperatures and three different photoperiodic conditions. Despite of antagonistic effects, predators in conspecific/heterospecific combinations consumed, converted and utilized the prey biomass maximally at 25℃ and under long (16L:8D) photoperiodic conditions. However, their consumption rates, conversion efficiencies and growth rates were highest in heterospecific combinations. The 4th instar larvae utilized the prey biomass more efficiently to their own biomass at five different temperatures, while the adult females did the same at three different photoperiodic conditions. 【Conclusion】 It may therefore be inferred that increasing temperature and photoperiodic conditions might not stop the ladybirds from interacting antagonistically in conspecific and heterospecific combinations, but at 25℃ and under long (16L:8D) photoperiodic conditions the prey consumption and utilization efficiency of the interacting ladybirds would be optimum.
    Source areas and landing mechanisms of the immigration populations of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) in eastern Sichuan, southwestern China
    XIANG Wei-Wei, ZENG Wei, CHEN Xing-Liao, JIANG Chun-Xian, FENG Chuan-Hong, MA Li, LI Qing, YANG Qun-Fang, WANG Hai-Jian
    2015, 58(3):  308-318. 
    Abstract ( 1923 )   PDF (5920KB) ( 900 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the source areas and the landing mechanisms of the immigration populations of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth), in Dazhou, Sichuan Province, so as to provide a basis for the warning and effective control of this pest in eastern Sichuan, southwestern China. 【Methods】 Based on the data of the daily light-trap catches of S. furcifera in Dazhou from 1991 to 2013, the trajectory simulation and the meteorological background of immigration peaks of S. furcifera were analyzed by HYSPLIT 4.8 (Hybrid Single-Partical Langrangian Integrated Trajectory) and GRADS (Grid Analysis and Display System). 【Results】 The main immigration period of S. furcifera in Dazhou was from June to July, with a peak season in July. The mass immigration of S. furcifera into Dazhou in June was from the northwest and the central of Guangxi. In July, the major source areas were the central, west and north of Guizhou, and the secondary source areas were the northwest of Guangxi and the northeast of Yunnan. 【Conclusion】 The source areas of the immigration of S. furcifera in Dazhou of Sichuan province are located mainly in Guizhou, and partly in the northeast of Yunnan and the northwest of Guangxi. Due to the climate conditions and terrain stress precipitation, vertical airflow and wind shear are the main causes of large-scale landing of S. furcifera.
    Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Chitoria ulupi (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)
    WANG Ju-Ping,XUAN Shan-Bin, ZHANG Yu-Ping, YANG Jing, CAO Tian-Wen1,MA En-Bo
    2015, 58(3):  319-328. 
    Abstract ( 2114 )   PDF (3427KB) ( 989 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the intergeneric and interspecific molecular and evolutionary relationships of Apaturinae. 【Methods】The complete mitochondrial genome of  Chitoria ulupi was determined and analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction amplification and prime walking.Based on nucleotide sequences of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), the phylogenetic tree of 38 lepidopteran species was constructed using maximum parsimony (MP) method. 【Results】 The results indicated that the complete mitochondrial genome of C. ulupi is a circular molecule of 15 279 nucleotides, including 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, 2 rRNA genes and a 391 bp A+T-rich region. The arrangement of genes in C. ulupi  is consistent with the sequence of other closely related species. The mitochondrial genome of C. ulupi is biased toward a high A+T content (79.9%). All protein coding genes start with a typical ATN initiation codon, except that the COI starts with the CGA codon and the COII begins with the TTG codon. Majority of the 13 PCGs in C. ulupi have a complete termination codon (TAA or TAG), except for the COII and ND4 genes which have incomplete stop codons (T). All tRNAs show the classic clover-leaf structure, except that the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm of tRNASer(AGN) forms a simple loop. The C. ulupi A+T-rich region contains some conserved structures including a structure combing the motif ATAGAA, 21 bp poly(T) stretch and a microsatellite (AT)n element, which is similar to those found in the mitogenomes of other related species. The results of phylogenetic tree showed that the phylogenetic relationship at the superfamily level is Tortricoidea+(Papilionoidea+(Pyraloidea+(Noctuoidea+Bombycoidea+Geometroidea))), and within the Nymphalidae group,  C. ulupi is closely related with Timelaea maculate.【Conclusion】 The phylogenetic relationship of lepidopteran species based on molecular markers is basically consistent with the results of the traditional morphological classification.
    A review of the genus Parasinophasma Chen et He (Phasmida: Diapheromeridae: Necrosciinae), with descriptions of three new species
    HO Wai-Chun George
    2015, 58(3):  329-334. 
    Abstract ( 1844 )   PDF (3805KB) ( 1488 )   PDF(mobile) (3805KB) ( 4 )     
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    This paper deals with the genus Parasinophasma Chen et He, 2006.  Three new species, i.e., Parasinophasma maculatum sp. nov., P. tianmushanense sp. nov. and P. unicolor sp. nov., are described. The type specimens of new species are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, Shanghai Entomological Museum, Shanghai, Shanghai Normal University, Shanghai and Hong Kong Entomological Society, Hong Kong, China, respectively.
    Three new species of the genus  Niitakacris  Tinkham, 1936 (Orthoptera, Acridoidea, Catantopidae, Podisminae) with a key to five species of the genus from Taiwan, China (In English)
    YIN Xiang-Chu, YE Bao-Hua, DANG Yan
    2015, 58(3):  335-340. 
    Abstract ( 1831 )   PDF (4952KB) ( 691 )     
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    Three new species of the genus Niitakacris Tinkham, 1936 from Taiwan, China are described in the present paper, including N. arishanensis sp. nov., N. xiai sp. nov. and N. taiwanensis sp. nov. N. arishanensis sp. nov. differs from all known species of the genus by the hind femur not red on inner side and maximum width of basal part 4 times width of apical part in cercus of male. N. xiai sp. nov. is similar to N. rosaceanum (Shiraki, 1910) and Niitakacris taiwanensis  sp. nov., but differs from the two species by the length of interspace of mesosternum longer than minimum width and tegmina not reaching the hind margin of first abdominal tergite. N. taiwanensis sp. nov. is similar to N. rosaceanum (Shiraki, 1910), but differs from the latter by eye smaller, vertical diameter 1.4 times subocular furrow; furculae separated; longitudinal groove at base of epiproct shorter, not reaching to the middle, apex rounded. A key to all five species of the genus from Taiwan is given. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, China and the Institute of  Entomology, Taiwan University, Taibei, Taiwan, China respectively.
    Determination of larval instars of horn flies Haematobia irritans and H. titillans (Diptera: Muscidae), the vectors of camel parabronemosis
    DENG Qiao, YANG Lian-Ru , YANG Xiao-Ye, WANG Rui, SHI Hong-Lei, ZHENG Wen-Qing, LI Jun-Yan, YANG Bo
    2015, 58(3):  341-350. 
    Abstract ( 1978 )   PDF (7576KB) ( 840 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the criteria for dividing the larval instars of horn flies Haematobia irritans and H. titillans, which will be fundamental for the determination of larval instars of the two horn flies, the development of nematode Parabronema skrjabini in its vectors, and the development of efficient control measures of camel parabronemosis. 【Methods】 The larvae of the two horn flies at different developmental stages were obtained by laboratory artificial rearing. Three morphological variables, i.e., the body length, and the length and width of pharyngeal sclerite of the larvae, were measured, and the data were analyzed by SPSS Statistics19.0. Combined with the Crosby growth rule, the difference in the three morphological variables between the larvae of the two horn flies was compared, and the best criteria of instar division were determined. 【Results】 The results indicate that the larvae of the two horn flies can be divided into three instars. Pharyngeal sclerite is the characteristic structure of the larvae of the two horn flies, and the variables of the larvae of the two species in different ages show the same growth pattern with the increase of larval instars. The length of pharyngeal sclerite is the best morphological variable for separating the larvae of the two horn flies, while the width of pharyngeal sclerite can be used as an assistant variable for the division of the larval instars. However, there is an overlap in the variation range of body length between the adjacent larval instars of the two horn flies, so body length can not be used to separate the instars accurately. 【Conclusion】 Our study indicates that the morphological characteristics of larval pharyngeal sclerite can be used to identify the larval instars of  H. irritans  and H. titillans  conveniently, rapidly and correctly.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Geographical variation in body size and sexual size dimorphism in insects
    KUANG Xian-Ju, GE Feng, XUE Fang-Sen
    2015, 58(3):  351-360. 
    Abstract ( 2665 )   PDF (783KB) ( 1591 )     
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    Body size, a fundamental morphological trait in insects, affects virtually all physiological and life-history traits of an insect. Body size always shows a significant gradient change among different geographic populations of the same insect species. Many environmental factors including temperature, humidity, photoperiod, host plant, and population density contribute to this gradient change and also affect insect body size within a population. Males and females differ in their body size, a phenomenon called sexual size dimorphism (SSD). There is also geographical variation in SSD. The ways those differences formed have been comprehensively analyzed, and the formation mechanisms of these variations caused the formulation of many hypotheses, which had been proved in many insect species. In this article, we summarized the ways insect body size varies among different geographic populations, the environmental factors affecting insect body size among different geographic populations and within one population, the phenomenon of sexual size dimorphism and the geographic variation of sexual size dimorphism, the ways sexual size dimorphism forms, the ultimate cause of sexual size dimorphism, the environmental factors of geographic variation of sexual size dimorphism from the three levels of interpopulation, intrapopulation and individuals of different sex. Suggestions for future related research were also given.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 58 Issue 3
    2015, 58(3):  360. 
    Abstract ( 1302 )   PDF (657KB) ( 741 )     
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