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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2016, Volume 59 Issue 5
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Combination of Gal80ts and Gal4 flexibly manipulates the expression levels of UAS transgenes in Drosophila
    LI Kai-Xia, MA En-Bo, ZHANG Jian-Zhen, ZHAO Yi-Dan, ZHANG Xu-Bo
    2016, 59(5):  481-488.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.001
    Abstract ( 2852 )   PDF (12342KB) ( 569 )     
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    【Aim】 The combination of Gal80ts and Gal4 is commonly used to regulate the UAS transgene overexpression in Drosophila, and flexibly turns on or off the transgene expression in a temperature-dependent manner. Gal80ts, a temperature-sensitive protein, binds Gal4 and inhibits its transcription activity at low temperature (18℃), but relieves the inhibition of Gal4 protein and allows its binding to the UAS sites to drive the expression of UAS transgenes at high temperature (29℃). However, the switch from 18 to 29℃ could only achieve intensive overexpression of UAS transgenes, but not flexible manipulation. Thus in this study we systematically studied the flexible control of UAS transgene expression levels by this system at a series of temperatures. 【Methods】 Two Gal4 lines (dpp-Gal4 and en-Gal4 driven by decapentaplgic and engrailed promoter, respectively, in Drosophila wing disc), afterrecombination with tub-Gal80ts (driven by microtubulin gene tubulin promoter), were hybridized with UAS-wg (wingless) lines. The progeny larvae were cultured at a series of temperatures (18, 25, 27.5, 28, 28.5 and 30℃), and immunohistochemistry was used to detect wg transgene expression levels, which were further quantified and analyzed in the 3rd instar larvae. 【Results】 The wg transgene was not expressed at 18-30℃, but overexpressed significantly at 30℃. In the range of 25-30℃, with the increasing temperature, the wg transgene expression levels (fluorescent intensity) in en-Gal4 and dpp-Gal4 regions commonly exhibited a gradient uptrend. 【Conclusion】 The system of Gal4 and Gal80ts combination can flexibly manipulate UAS transgene expression levels between 25-30℃. This result has an important value in the regulation of transgene expression level.    
    A peptidoglycan recognition protein (PxPGRP-SA) regulating the expression of antimicrobial peptides in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    ZHENG Zhi-Hua, XU Xiao-Xia, YU Jing, GAO Yan-Fu, ZHANG Yu-Qing, OUYANG Li-Na , JIN Feng-Liang
    2016, 59(5):  489-499.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.002
    Abstract ( 1521 )   PDF (2041KB) ( 546 )     
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    【Aim】 Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) are one kind of important pattern recognition proteins in insect immune system. In this study, we aim to investigate the expression patterns of PGRP-SA from Plutella xylostella (designated as PxPGRP-SA) and its involvement in the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes in P. xylostella after infection by Bacillus thuringiensis. 【Methods】 The transcription pattern of PxPGRP-SA in P. xylostella larvae infected by B. thuringiensis was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), and the regulation of the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes by PxPGRP-SA in P. xylostella was investigated by RNAi technology and antiserum blocking assay. 【Results】 qRT-PCR analysis revealed that the transcripts of PxPGRP-SA increased significantly at 6 h after injection of live B. thuringiensis into the fat body and hemocytes of the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella, with the highest expression level at 24 h in fat body and 18 h in hemocytes, respectively. The transcript of PxPGRP-SA in the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella decreased due to RNAi. Blocking down the transcript of PxPGRP-SA by RNAi also reduced the transcriptional levels of four antibacterial peptide genes including cecropin, moricin-2, lysozyme and defensin in the 4th instar larvae and the mRNA levels of Dorsal and Sp?tzle genes significantly. Blocking the activity of PxPGRP-SA by injection of anti-PxPGRP-SA serum into the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella also decreased the transcription levels of antibacterial peptide genes in the fat body rapidly. Silence of the expression of PxPGRP-SA decreased the survival rate of P. xylostella larvae feeding live B. thuringiensis significantly. 【Conclusion】 PxPGRP-SA is involved in regulating the expression of downstream antibacterial peptide genes including cecropin, moricin-2, lysozyme and defensin in P. xylostella, and plays an important role in the immune defense of P. xylostella against B. thuringiensis infection.  
    Effects of different levels of leucine on the colony population and worker development of Apis mellifera ligustica in breeding season
    DAI Rong-Guo, CAO Lan, WANG Rui-Sheng, CHENG Shang, GAO Li-Jiao, LUO Wen-Hua, REN Qin, JI Cong-Hui, XIE Hua, LIU Jia-Lin
    2016, 59(5):  500-508.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.003
    Abstract ( 1714 )   PDF (1038KB) ( 420 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to assess the effects of different leucine levels on the colony and worker development of Apis mellifera ligustica in breeding season. 【Methods】 Twenty-one colonies of A. mellifera ligustica in breeding season were obtained from Rongchang, Chongqing, and ranolomly divided into seven groups and fed with diets containing 0, 15.30, 17.50, 26.25, 35.00, 43.75 and 52.5 g/kg leucine, respectively. During the experiment, the colony population, amount of sealed brood, feeding amount, and queen cell building were recorded every 12 days. The foraging activity, weight of newly emerged adults, protein content and longevity of workers were detected after 24 days. 【Results】 The colony population, amount of sealed brood, feeding amount and foraging activity of the groups fed with diets containing 43.75 and 52.50 g/kg leucine were significantly higher than those of other groups (P<0.05). The protein contents in 6-day-old larvae and newly emerged workers of the control group were lower than those in the groups feeding diets containing leucine (P<0.05). The weight of newly emerged workers of the control group was significantly lower than that of the groups feeding diets containing leucine (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in the worker longevity among all groups. Building of queen cells was found in the groups fed with diets containing 26.25, 35.00 and 43.75 g/kg leucine, respectively, in 0-24 d. 【Conclusion】 Adding 43.75 and 52.50 g/kg leucine to the diet can significantly promote the development of A. mellifera ligustica colony in breeding season, and 43.75 g/kg leucine in the diet also stimulates colonies to build queen cells.  
    Effects of starvation stress on the physiological characteristics of Melanotus caudex (Coleoptera: Elateridae)
    LIU Dan-Dan, CHEN Ai-Duan, LI Ke-Bin, YIN Jiao, ZHANG Shuai, CAO Ya-Zhong
    2016, 59(5):  509-515.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.004
    Abstract ( 1288 )   PDF (1079KB) ( 488 )     
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    【Aim】 The wireworm Melanotus caudex occurred more and more severely in recent years. To reveal the physiological and ecological adaptations of M. caudex larvae under starvation stress, their physiological changes under starvation stress were assayed. 【Methods】 Using 2-3 instar larvae as the initial test objects, we determined the survival, mobility, molting times, body weight, water content and respiration rate of M. caudex larvae bred on soil and vermiculite as culture substrates under starvation stress compared with those fed on wheat seedlings (Zhonghan 101 strain) on both substrates as the controls. 【Results】 There was no significant difference in the survival rate and molting times of M. caudex larvae between the starvation stress groups and the control groups. When M. caudex larvae were starved for 120 d, their survival rate was still over 90% and molted about 10 times. Both the wet and dry weight of M. caudex larvae under starvation in soil and vermiculite significantly decreased as compared with the controls, while the water content of the larvae under starvation in the soil and vermiculite environment(72.52% and 72.22%, respectively) increased significantly as compared with the corresponding controls (49.01% and 51.37%, respectively). The CO2 release rates of the starvation stress groups decreased dramatically in the soil and vermiculite environment as compared with the controls, reducing by 62.11% and 60.46%, respectively. 【Conclusion】 M. caudex is an insect highly tolerant to starvation. The larvae can sustain their development (e.g., normal molting) by reducing respiratory metabolism during lack of food supply.    
    Response of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) duration in Calliptamus italicus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) to high temperature stress
    WANG Dong-Mei, LI Shuang, ZHANG Yong-Jun, Roman JASHENKO, JI Rong
    2016, 59(5):  516-522.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.005
    Abstract ( 1451 )   PDF (1094KB) ( 411 )     
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    【Aim】 Based on our previous studies of the effects of high temperature stress on the respiratorymetabolism of Calliptamus italicus, this study aims to determine the response of the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) duration in C. italicus to high temperature stress. 【Methods】 We examined the interburst duration, burst duration and DGC duration of C. italicus adults by using Sable Systems in the temperature range from 21 to 42℃ at 3℃ intervals. 【Results】 The interburst and burst durations decreased as the temperature went up. The interburst duration did not significantly change at temperatures lower than 33℃ (P>0.05), whereas it rapidly shortened at temperatures over 33℃ and was significantly shorter at 39℃ than at other temperatures (P<0.05). The burst duration was the longest at 21℃ and the shortest at 39℃ for females, whereas it was the longest at 24℃ and the shortest at 39℃ for males. The DGC duration decreased and the DGC frequency increased as the temperature went up. The interburst durations from 21 to 33℃ were not significantly different (P>0.05) between females and males, decreasing by 0.174 and 0.121 min per 3℃, respectively. The DGC frequency changes for females and males were similar at temperatures lower than 33℃, increasing by 0.0022 Hz per 3℃.Interburst durations significantly decreased at temperatures over 33℃ for females and males by 2.197 and 2.189 min per 3℃, respectively, but the DGC frequency increased by 0.0120 and 0.0085 Hz per 3℃, respectively. The interburst duration was close to zero at 39℃, and the DGC breathing pattern completely disappeared at 42℃. 【Conclusion】 With temperature rising, both the O2 uptake rate and CO2 release rate increase in C. italicus, which is realized by decreasing the DGC duration and increasing the DGC frequency.  
    Morphology and ultrastructure of the spermatheca of Pararcyptera microptera meridionalis (Orthoptera: Arcypterinae) (In English
    LI Ke, YANG Yu-Jing, MAO Lei, ZHANG Jin-Hui
    2016, 59(5):  523-529.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.006
    Abstract ( 1599 )   PDF (11663KB) ( 464 )     
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     【Aim】 To ascertain the morphology, organization structure and ultrastructure of the spermatheca in females of Pararcyptera microptera meridionalis (Orthoptera: Arcypterinae) for providing a better understanding of the functions of insect spermatheca. 【Methods】 The morphology, organization structure and ultrastructure of spermatheca of mated female adults of P. m. meridionalis were examined by means of the light and transmission electron microscopy. 【Results】 The spermatheca is composed of a seminal receptacle, mainly serving for storage of spermatozoa, and a long spermathecal duct. Histologically, both parts have an outer muscle coat followed by a basal lamina, epithelium, and cuticular intima. The epithelium is made up of three cell types, i.e., epithelial cells, gland cells and duct cells. Each gland cell has a reservoir lined with microvilli. The secretions of gland cell are released into the reservoir through which it reaches the spermathecal lumen via the secretory duct formed by the duct cell. 【Conclusion】 Regional differences in the ultrastructure of the cuticular intima and the reservoir in gland cell imply that the seminal receptacle and the spermathecal duct carry out different functions. The ultrastructural features revealed that epithelial cells are involved in the function of support, secretion and absorption.
    Clostridium perfringens promotes the growth and development of Drosophila melanogaster  
    LIU Wei, LI Yu-Juan, LIU Xiao-Liang, ZHUO Ping, YAO Hong
    2016, 59(5):  530-537.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.007
    Abstract ( 1667 )   PDF (5264KB) ( 603 )     
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    【Aim】 To isolate and investigate the microbiota from Drosophila melanogaster gut harboring substantial numbers of commensal microorganisms, and to further reveal the diversity and functions of microbial communities. 【Methods】 Anaerobic bacteria from the gut of D. melanogaster adults were isolated with Hungate roll tube technique. The symbiotic bacteria were assayed with colonization testing. The effects of the bacteria on developmental time and growth rate of D. melanogaster were detected. 【Results】 We first isolated one strain of the anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium perfringens) from D. melanogaster gut. C. perfringens is able to colonize the fly gut and could be maintained in fly breeding medium, suggesting that it is a commensal bacterium of Drosophila. Furthermore, C. perfringens stimulated the development of germ-free D. melanogaster by shortening its developmental time: shortening pupal formation from 20 d to 8.1 d and adult eclosion from 30 d to 12.7 d, respectively. C. perfringens also accelerated the growth rate. 【Conclusion】 The study revealed that C. perfringens is the commensal bacteria of D. melanogaster, and has the promoting effect on the growth and development of D. melanogaster via promoting its growth rate.  
    Biological effectiveness of extracts from Vitex negundo against Aphis gossypii (Homoptera: Aphididae)
    JIANG En-Shun, ZHU Yi, WANG Jiang-Yong
    2016, 59(5):  538-545.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.008
    Abstract ( 1415 )   PDF (1018KB) ( 461 )     
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    【Aim】 To determine the biological effectiveness of extracts from Vitex negundo on the development and honeydew production of Aphis gossypii and their active compounds, so as to lay a theoretical basis for its application in agricultural production. 【Methods】 Three extraction methods including organic solvent extraction, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and steam distillation were used to extract the active components in seeds and leaves from V. negundo. The toxicity of the extracts to apterous adults of A. gossypii was detected by dipping method. Furthermore, total alkaloids were extracted to study its effect on development and honeydew production of A. gossypii by using topical application method. 【Results】 The dichloromethane and methanol extracts from the seeds and the steam distillation extract from the leaves of V. negundo had the highest toxicity to apterous adults of A. gossypii, whose corrected mortalities were 86.98%, 65.01% and 85.27%, respectively, after treatment with 1 200 mg/L essential oil for 24 h. Alkaloids had a definite antifeedant activity towards apterous adults of A. gossypii, with the antifeedant rate of 50% after treatment with 20-40 mg/mL alkaloids for 12 h, and the toxicity of total alkaloids was slightly lower than that of the dichloromethane extracts to apterous adults of A. gossypii. Alkaloids also reduced the survival rate, fecundity and honeydew production of apterous adults of A. gossypii at the concentration of LD30 and A. gossypii adults were all dead at 10 d after treatment, while the survival rate of adults in the control was still as high as 70%. The average total reproduction of each female was reduced by 57.66% as compared with the control, while the honeydew production frequency, honeydew production and weight of each drop of honeydew were reduced by 13.18%, 20.00% and 8.79%, respectively, as compared with the control. 【Conclusion】 The dichloromethane extracts have a higher toxicity to A. gossypii adults, of which alkaloids are the main active components in Vitex negundo and have certain inhibitory effects on the development and honeydew production of A. gossypii.    
    Effects of LED lights at different wavelengths on the reproductive behaviors of Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)
    LI Na, FAN Fan, HAN Hui, PEI Xiao-Ya, LIU Shun, WEI Guo-Shu
    2016, 59(5):  546-551.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.009
    Abstract ( 1635 )   PDF (1027KB) ( 441 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of LED lights at different wavelengths on the reproductive behaviors such as courtship, mating and reproduction of Bradysia odoriphaga. 【Methods】 The behaviors of courtship and mating, the number of eggs laid per female, the egg hatching rate and the number of effective offspring of B. odoriphaga under six different LED lights (red, 625-630 nm; orange, 600-605 nm; yellow, 590-595 nm; green, 525-530 nm; blue, 455-460 nm; and white, 6 000-6 500 k) were observed and recorded. 【Results】 The precalling period of B.odoriphaga was the longest under orange light (28.48 min). The calling rate was the highest under blue light (86%), while was the lowest under orange light (48%). The mating period was the longest under blue light (4.59 min), and was lower under orange light (4.23 min). The number of eggs laid per female had no significant difference between the control group and any experimental group. The egg hatching rate was the lowest under blue light (43.41%). The number of effective offspring was the lowest under blue light (27.00) and was lower under orange light (43.40). 【Conclusion】 The wavelength of LED lights may influence the reproductive behaviors of B. odoriphaga. The orange LED light (600-605 nm) is detrimental to its courtship, mating behaviors and reproduction. Blue LED light (455-460 nm) is beneficial to its courtship and mating behaviors, but significantly restrains its reproduction.  
    Predatory capability of Tetrigus lewisi (Coleoptera: Elateridae) to the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) and the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) under laboratory conditions
    XIN Yu-Cui, ZHANG Long-Wa, FANG Zhu, LIU Zhu-Dong
    2016, 59(5):  552-559.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.010
    Abstract ( 1471 )   PDF (9223KB) ( 426 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to evaluate the predatory capability of Tetrigus lewisi larvae to final instar larvae and pupae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor and the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus by feeding experiment in the laboratory, so to find an effective bio-control agent for the management of the pine sawyer. 【Methods】 To confirm the occurrence of M. alternatus and T. lewisi, field survey was carried out in November 2014 at a forest of Mt. Maanshan, Changdong, Fuyang County of Zhejiang Province by cutting down the infested trees by M. alternatus larvae and counting the number of each species by dissecting galleries made by beetle larvae. T. lewisi larvae were brought back indoor, and fed with final instar larvae and pupae of T. molitor and M. alternatus, respectively, to estimate the predatory capability of T. lewisi larvae. 【Results】 In the field survey, we found both T. lewisi larvae and residual body of the Japanese pine sawyer in the galleries made by M. alternatus larvae. Totally, 36 T. lewisi final instar larvae and 1 096 M. alternatus larvae were collected in the infested dead pine trees, with the population density of the former being about 3% of the latter. Indoor predatory experiment showed that one T. lewisi larva preyed on 0.6 and 1.6 larvae of T. molitor and M. alternatus per day, respectively. The total average number of T. molitor larvae preyed in five consecutive days was 3.2 individuals, which was significantly lower than that of M. alternatus larvae preyed (8.0 individuals) (P<0.0001). Moreover, T. lewisi larva could prey on both pupa of T. molitor and M. alternatus. The average preyed number of T. molitor and M. alternatus pupae was 1.4 and 2.0 individuals per day, respectively. The total average number of T. molitor pupae preyed in four consecutive days was 5.6 individuals, which was significantly lower than that of M. alternatus pupae preyed (7.8 individuals) (P=0.028). Furthermore, regression analysis showed that the predation amount of T. lewisi was not correlated with its body size. 【Conclusions】 Field survey confirmed that T. lewisi is widely distributed in the galleries of M. alternatus larvae, showing that T. lewisi is a natural enemy of the Monochamus beetle. T. lewisi larvae prefer to prey on larvae and pupae of M. alternatus rather than on those of T. molitor, showing promising prospect of using the natural enemy T. lewisi for management of Monochamus beetles.  
    Intraguild predation and cannibalism in the phytoseiid mites Euseius utilis and Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae)
    GUO Jian-Han, MENG Rui-Xia, ZHANG Dong-Xu, YIN Yun-Fei, JIA Yong-Hong, LIU Wen-Ming
    2016, 59(5):  560-567.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.011
    Abstract ( 1525 )   PDF (1261KB) ( 600 )     
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    【Aim】 Euseius utilis is a generalist and widely distributed in northern areas of China, while Neoseiulus barkeri is widely used in biocontrol of agricultural pests. The study aims to assess the risk of N. barkeri to local species and establish a reasonable combination of different natural enemies in biological control. 【Methods】 In a series of experiments under laboratory conditions, the rates of intra- and interspecific predation on immature mites, survival time, and oviposition for the adult females of N. barkeri bred in the laboratory and E. utilis collected from the campus of Inner Mongolia Agricultural University were compared in order to study the aggressiveness and con- and heterospecific interactions between the two species of phytoseiid mites. 【Results】 The females of the two species had difficulties in piercing phytoseiid eggs, and both phytoseiid mites consumed more con- and heterospecific larvae than protonymphs. E. ulitis was more aggressive than N. barkeri in intraguild predation in absence of shared food (Breslow-Day test: χ2=13.84, df=1, P<0.001). The average daily predation number of E. ulitis on conspecific larvae (9.10±1.65) was higher than that on heterospecific larvae (5.31±1.43) (T test: t=5.487, P<0.001), whereas the average daily predation number of N. barkeri on heterospecific larvae (7.48±0.75) was higher than that on conspecific larvae (4.75±0.58) (T test: t=9.110, P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 E. ulitis is preferentially engaged in cannibalism by consuming the conspecific larvae, whereas N. barkeri is preferentially engaged in intraguild predation by consuming the heterospecific larvae.    
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    Chlorogenic acid enhances the virulence of Lymantria dispar necleopolyhydrovirus (LdNPV)
    LIU Hai-Jing, DUAN Li-Qing, LI Hai-Ping, FENG Shu-Jun, ZHANG Bo-Bo
    2016, 59(5):  568-572.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.012
    Abstract ( 1439 )   PDF (944KB) ( 485 )     
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    【Aim】 To identify the effects of chlorogenic acid (CA) on the virulence of Lymantria dispar necleopolyhydrovirus (LdNPV) so as to provide information for the prevention and control of the gypsy moth, L. dispar. 【Methods】 CA+LdNPV and LdNPV were bioassayed using diet plus method, to determine the dose and time response of the 2nd instar larvae of L. dispar. 【Results】 CA+LdNPV and LdNPV differed significantly in dose and time response when they were tested against the L. dispar larvae. The median lethal concentration (LC50) value of CA+LdNPV to the 2nd instar larvae was 161.8 OBs/μL (the 95% confidence limit was 105.6-235.3 OBs/μL), and that of LdNPV was 264.4 OBs/μL (the 95% confidence limit was 178.6-384.0 OBs/μL). CA+LdNPV was more virulent than LdNPV against L. dispar larvae. The median lethal time (LT50) value of CA+LdNPV was shorter than that of LdNPV. The LT50 values of CA+LdNPV and LdNPV were 9.9 and 12.3 days, respectively, at the concentration of 590 OBs/μL of LdNPV, and 6.9 and 8.0 days, respectively, at the concentration of 5 900 OBs/μL. The CA lowered the LC50 value and shortened the LT50 value of LdNPV against the 2nd instar larvae of L. dispar. 【Conclusion】 Chlorogenic acid enhances the virulence of LdNPV against the 2nd instar larvae of L. dispar, and its action mechanism needs further study.  
    Morphological and biological observations of the black pine borer Phaenops yin (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a potential severe pest of Pinus tabuliformis in Beijing
    CAO Liang-Ming, WANG Xiao-Yi, ZHANG Yong-An
    2016, 59(5):  573-580.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.05.013
    Abstract ( 1591 )   PDF (17965KB) ( 569 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate the status of Pinus tabuliformis infested by a buprestid beetle, Phaenops yin Kubáň & Bíly (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), and to understand the biology of this pest. The causes and dynamics of the accidental outbreak of this pest would be analyzed to explore its integrated management measures. 【Methods】 The occurrence of P. yin was investigated, including infestation of pines, damage symptom, and natural enemies. The main causes inducing the outbreaks of the buprestid beetle were analyzed based on literatures and the meteorological data of Beijing City in recent 20 years. 【Results】 The mortality of pine trees was about 30%, and their infestation rate by P. yin was about 60%. Two parasitic natural enemies, Atanycolus initiator (Fabricius) and Iphiaulax impostor (Scopoli), were discovered in the larval galleries of P. yin. 【Conclusion】 The outbreaks of this pest might be related with the persistent drought and decrease of rainfall, which causes pine trees under stress. These findings suggest that a timely forecast on the outbreaks of this pest based on the climate change would be practicable, and the population dynamics of this pest can be regulated by using integrated management measures such as watering for cooling, cleaning infested branches, protecting natural enemies, as well as rational application of selective pesticides.  
    Contents of Vol. 59 Issue 5
    2016, 59(5):  581. 
    Abstract ( 887 )   PDF (438KB) ( 301 )     
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