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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2017, Volume 60 Issue 1
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) infestation on the expression of defensive genes in leaves at different parts of kidney bean plant
    ZHANG Yu-Yu, Zhi Jun-Rui, Liu Yong, Ye Mao
    2017, 60(1):  1-8.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.001
    Abstract ( 1194 )   PDF (2702KB) ( 532 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the molecular mechanisms of systemic defense of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) plants fed by the western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, which is a kind of insect with rasping-sucking mouthparts. 【Methods】 Real-time quantitative PCR was used to detect the expression levels of lipoxygenase gene (LOX), phenylalanine ammonialyase gene (PAL) and β-1, 3-glucanase gene (PR-2), which are involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signal transduction pathways, in leaves at different parts (upper, middle and lower parts) of kidney bean plant at different time (24, 48, 72 and 96 h) after feeding steadily by western flower thrips for 2 h. 【Results】 The expression levels of LOXPAL and PR-2 in the damaged middle leaves, the healthy upper and lower leaves of kidney bean plant were all significantly induced by western flower thrips, but changed more rapidly in the damaged middle leaves. The expression modes of genes changed with time. The relative expression level of LOX in the damaged middle leaves was significantly higher than that of the control (non-inoculated leaves), and increased with the time extension, which was 209.54-fold as high as that of the control at 96 h. The expression level of LOX increased first and then decreased and finally rose again in the healthy upper and lower leaves. The expression level of PAL reached the maximum in both damaged middle leaves and healthy upper leaves at 48 h after infestation of western flower thrips, which were 52.70- and 41.20-fold as high as that of the control, respectively. However, its expression level reached the peak at 72 h in the healthy lower leaves, which was 47.06-fold as high as that of the control. The expression level of PR-2 reached the maximum at 48 h after infestation of western flower thrips in the healthy upper leaves, at 96 h in both damaged middle leaves and healthy lower leaves.  PR-2 was barely expressed in the healthy lower leaves at 24 h after infestation of western flower thrips. 【Conclusion】 Western flower thrip infestation could induce the expression of defensive genes LOX PAL and PR-2 involved in jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signal transduction pathways and result in systemic resistance in leaves at different parts of kidney bean.
    Transcriptome analysis of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
    HU Jun-Jie, Meng Xiang, Zhou Jia-Bin, Yang Lu-Xing, Liu Shan-Hai, Li Run-Zhao
    2017, 60(1):  9-17.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.002
    Abstract ( 1539 )   PDF (3809KB) ( 549 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to establish the transcriptome database of the cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, and to reveal the whole expression characteristics of the data. 【Methods】 The transcriptome of female adults of P. solenopsis was sequenced using an Illumina HiSeqTM 4000 platform, and the raw data were filtered and assembled. 【Results】 A total of 58 322 258 reads containing 9.48 Gb (GenBank accession no.: SAMN06130426) valid data (57 422 032 clean reads) were obtained. A total of 94 475 unigenes with a mean length of 700 bp was obtained by further sequence splicing, and 20 949 unigenes were annotated using BLASTX searches against the databases. All unigenes against the Nr database had the highest similarity (18.69%) with those of Acyrthosiphon pisum.  Moreover, all unigenes were broadly divided into 55 branches of 3 categories (biological processes, cellular components and molecular function categories) using Gene Ontology (GO), and more unigenes were annotated to be related to metabolic process, binding activity, catalytic activity and cellular process. In addition, 20 pathways associated with lipid metabolism pathway and the sequences related to the metabolism of sex pheromone were found. Totally 15 037 coding squences (CDSs) were obtained using blast in Nr and Swiss-prot protein databases. 【Conclusion】 This study preliminarily clarified the whole expression pattern of the transcriptome of female adults of P.solenopsis, which will provide a foundation for further studying gene functions and the metabolism of sex pheromones in P.solenopsis.
    Eukaryotic expression and function analysis of Bombyx mori inhibitor of apoptosis protein (BmIAP) gene
    YI Hua-Shan, Ma Xian-Ping, Pan Min-Hui, Lu Cheng
    2017, 60(1):  18-23.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.003
    Abstract ( 1315 )   PDF (2692KB) ( 368 )     
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    【Aim】 Bombyx mori inhibitor of apoptosis protein (BmIAP) has been found in the silkworm, B.mori, and characterized as a protein of the IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein) family. This study aims to verify its function as a suppressor of apoptosis in B.mori cells, so as to further study the roles of BmIAP in cell apoptosis. 【Methods】 The transient expression vector named PIZ/V5-BmIAP-dsRed was transfected in the BmN-SWU1 cells of B.mori by liposome, and the mRNA and protein expression levels of BmIAP gene were evaluated by real-time quantitative PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The BmN-SWU1 cells were induced by 150 ng/mL actinomycin D for 12, 18 and 24 h, and the relationship between BmIAP protein and cell apoptosis was assayed by immunofluorescence and real-time quantitative PCR methods. 【Results】 The PIZ/V5-BmIAP-dsRed vector effectively expressed BmIAP fusion protein of about 60 kD, and the mRNA expression level of BmIAP was up-regulated 45-fold in BmN-SWU1 cells of B.mori. After BmIAP was transiently expressed for 72 h using PIZ/V5-BmIAP-dsRed vector in the BmN-SWU1 cells, BmIAP significantly inhibited the apoptosis in the BmN-SWU1 cells at 12 h after induction by actinomycin D. 【Conclusion】 BmIAP can inhibit apoptosis in B.mori cells and is one of the inhibitor of apoptosis proteins in B.mori.
    Ultrastructures of antennal sensilla of adult females of Porphyrophora sophorae (Coccoidea: Margarodidae)(In English
    WANG Xu, Xie Ying-Ping, Zhang Yan-Feng, Liu Wei-Min, Wang Quan-Liang
    2017, 60(1):  24-33.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.004
    Abstract ( 1241 )   PDF (3837KB) ( 398 )     
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    【Aim】 Porphyrophora sophorae Arch. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Margarodidae) is a species of soil-inhabiting scale insects. This study aims to relate the structure and adaptability of the antennae to the soil-inhabiting behaviors of P.sophorae. 【Methods】 The antennae and antennal sensilla of adult females of P. sophorae were observed under light microscopy (LM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). 【Results】 The results show that the antennae of adult females of P. sophorae are composed of nine segments. All of the antennal segments are short and wide, and the intersegments are compactly connected, which makes the antennae sturdy. A total of 29-48 sensilla in four types, e.g., 2-5 Böhm’s bristle (Bb), 5-12 aporous sensilla trichodea (ASt), 10-15 coeloconic sensilla (Co) and 11-22 multiporous pegs (Mp) are observed on the antennae. According to their structures, the sensilla Bb, ASt, Co and Mp are speculated to function as a proprioreceptor, tactile sensilla, thermo-/hygrosensory and olfactory sensilla, respectively. These sensilla are mainly located on three segments as follows: 2-4 Bb on the scape; 6-10 Co on the flagellomere F3; and the largest number of sensilla, including 3-8 Co, 4-11 ASt and 11-22 Mp on the flagellomere F7 (top segment). The other segments have almost no sensillum. 【Conclusion】 The antennae of the adult females of P.sophorae have many characteristics different from other scale insects, and these characteristics are adaptive to their soil-inhabiting behaviors.
    De novo assembly of a reference transcriptome and development of SSR markers for Ascosphaera apis#br#
    ZHANG Zhao-Nan, Xiong Cui-Ling, Xu Xi-Jian, Huang Zhi-Jian, Zheng Yan-Zhen, Luo-Qun, Liu-Min,
    2017, 60(1):  34-44.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.005
    Abstract ( 1391 )   PDF (5010KB) ( 509 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to deeply sequence the purified spores of Ascosphaera apis and honeybee larval gut infected with A. apis using RNA seq technology, to de novo assemble a reference transcriptome of A. apis, to further conduct functional and metabolic pathway annotation, and finally to develop SSR markers for A. apis. 【Methods】 A. apis spores purified after differential centrifugation were fed to the 4-, 5- and 6-dayold larvae of Apis mellifera ligustica and A. cerana cerana at a concentration of 1×107 spore/mL. The purified spores of A. apis and the infected honeybee larval guts were sequenced at Illumina HiSeqTM 2500 platform. After filtration of raw reads, unigenes were de novo assembled with Trinity software and annotated through BLASTX against the NCBI Nr, Swiss-Prot, KOG and KEGG databases. The MISA software was used to search SSRs in all unigenes, and Primer Premier 5 software was used to design specific primers for SSR loci. PCR was carried out to amplify SSR loci in A. apis from different regions in China. 【Results】 In this study, a total of 146 135 308 high-quality reads were produced from RNA seq, and 42 609 unigenes were de novo assembled. BLASTX results indicated that 29 316 unigenes have function or metabolic pathway annotations in the aforementioned public databases. And the most unigenes (6 050) were annotated to Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous. The results of KEGG pathway annotation revealed that all unigenes were annotated to 117 metabolic pathways, among which ribosome (529 unigenes) was the most enriched one. In total, 7 968 SSRs were predicted from all unigenes, and five SSR markers were developed by PCR amplification. 【Conclusion】 In this study, a reference transcriptome of A. apis was successfully de novo assembled and annotated, providing significant information for further studying A.apis at the molecular level. Five SSRs developed in this study can facilitate the research on A. apis including strain identification, gene map construction and gene localization.
    Interaction between Nosema bombycis and proteins BmECH1 and BmGAPDH in Bombyx mori
    AN Huan-Ying, Wang Qin, Li Zhi, Dang Xiao-Qun, Zhou Ze-Yang, Wang Lin-Ling
    2017, 60(1):  45-52.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.006
    Abstract ( 1249 )   PDF (2512KB) ( 368 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to study the interaction between Nosema bombycis and proteins in the silkworm, Bombyx mori at the molecular level, and to explore the reason that N.bombycis is close to the energy center in B.mori cells. 【Methods】 Far-western blot analysis was used to search the silkworm midgut proteins that can interact with microsporidia, and the proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. PCR was used to amplify the candidate genes, which were then ligated into pET30a vector and transferred into Escherichia coli DH5α competent cells.The correct recombinant plasmids were selected and transformed into E.coli BL21 competent cells to induce the expression of the candidate proteins.The candidate proteins were purified by affinity chromatography to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The protein interaction was tested and verified by co-precipitation and indirect immunofluorescence techniques. 【Results】 Far-western blot result showed that when anti-SWP9 and anti-SWP5 were incubated with N.bombycis infected silkworm midgut proteins, specific bands of 26 kD and 34 kD appeared, respectively, indicating the interaction between N. bombycis and silkworm midgut proteins (26 kD and 34 kD). Enoyl-CoA hydratase precursor 1 (ECH1), glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-1 (GAPDH) and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HCDH), which could interact with N.bombycis, were identified by mass spectrometry analysis on molecular weight, peptide number and function. By using the obtained antibodies anti-ECH1, anti-GAPDH and anti-HCDH, specifically for proteins ECH1, GAPDH and HCDH, respectively, co-immunoprecipitation analysis showed that N.bombycis had interactions with BmECH and BmGAPDH, which could be combined together to precipitate. Indirect immunofluorescence results further showed that BmGAPDH1 could specifically bind to N. bombycis. 【Conclusion】  BmECH1 and BmGAPDH can combine with N. bombycis. ECH1 is the key enzyme of fatty acid beta oxidation, which is localized on the mitochondrial membrane. GAPDH is a key enzyme in the pathway of glycolysis. Through the interaction between N.bombycis and proteins BmECH1 and BmGAPDH, it is speculated that N.bombycis is close to the host cell mitochondria and glycolysis, and the approach lets intermediate products and ATP uptake become more convenient. The intermediate products and ATP can meet the matter and energy demands of N. bombycis.
    Negative influence of Beauveria bassiana infection on female adults of a cryptoparasitoid Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
    YANG Qing-Peng, Li Li
    2017, 60(1):  53-59.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.007
    Abstract ( 1505 )   PDF (2373KB) ( 385 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the negative influence of Beauveria bassiana on female adults of a cryptoparasitoid Scleroderma guani, so as to more effectively prevent and control the pine longicorm beetle, Monochamus alternatus. 【Methods】 The pathogenicity of B. bassiana to S. guani was tested with different concentrations of spore suspension (1.0×104-1.0×108 conidia/mL) and spore powder (1.0×107 conidia/female) with sterile water as the control. 【Results】 The female adults of S. guani were infected by both spore suspension and spore powder of B. bassiana. After inoculation with different concentrations of spore suspension, both the infection rate and mortality rate of female adults of S. guani showed a positive correlation with spore concentration. At 2 and 4 d after inoculation, only the highest concentration of spore suspension caused the death and infection in female adults of S. guani. At 5 d after inoculation, the infection rates of female adults of S. guani by 1.0×108, 1.0×106 and 1.0×104 conidia/mL spore suspension were 56.0%, 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively, and the mortality rates were 88.0%, 44.0% and 16.0%, respectively. At 6 d after inoculation, the mortality rate of female adults of S. guani caused by 1.0×108 conidia/mL spore suspension reached 100%. The spore suspension had stronger capability causing death of female adults of S. guani than the spore powder. At 7 d after inoculation, the mortality rate of female adults of S. guani inoculated with 1.0×107 conidia/mL spore suspension was 100%. This was likely to be related to the behavior of female adults of S. guani.【Conclusion】 Spore suspension of B. bassiana should preferably be applied in the comprehensive prevention and control of stem borers using pathogeninfected S. guani. And the release time of S. guani parasitoids after pathogen infection should be controlled so as to facilitate to spread the fungal conidia and to infect larvae and pupae of stem borers within its latent period (4-5 d) infected by B. bassiana.
    Geographical variation of life-history traits in the cabbage beetle,Colaphellus bowringi (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    ZOU Chao, Xiao Liang, He Hai-Min, Zeng Yi, Xue Fang-Sen
    2017, 60(1):  60-66.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.008
    Abstract ( 1313 )   PDF (2293KB) ( 366 )     
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    【Aim】 Comparison of life-history traits among different geographical populations is one of the most effective methods for revealing how insects have evolved to adapt to their local environments. This study aims to understand how life history traits of the cabbagem beetle, Colaphellus bowringi vary with latitude. 【Methods】 The developmental time from egg hatching to pupation and from pupation to adult eclosion, and pupal and adult weight of six geographical populations of C. bowringi from different latitudes in China under constant temperature 19℃ and a photoperiod of 16L∶8D were examined in the laboratory. 【Results】 The larval duration increased gradually with increasing latitude, and the growth rate was negatively correlated with latitude, showing co-gradient variation in the two traits. However, the pupal duration was not significantly different among different geographical populations. Body weight decreased gradually with increasing latitude, showing a converse Bergmann cline. The sizes of female pupae and adults were significantly larger than those of males in all populations, showing female biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD). The SSD index varied with the latitude, with the highest value at middle latitude. Furthermore, male pupae lost significantly more weight at metamorphosis compared with females, so the SSD index was higher in the adult stage than in the pupal stage. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that the larval duration, growth rate and body weight of C. bowringi vary significantly with latitude.
    Effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the structural characteristics and seasonal dynamics of insect functional groups in Jiuduansha wetland of the Yangtze River Estuary, East China
    PAN Hui, Chen Xiu-Zhi, Wu Jie, Zhang Jing
    2017, 60(1):  67-83.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.009
    Abstract ( 1294 )   PDF (2255KB) ( 354 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of Spartina alterniflora invasion on the structural characteristics and seasonal dynamics of insect functional groups in salt marshes. 【Methods】 In 2015, insects were seasonally collected by a sweeping net along a 10 m long transect line in different sample plots of S.alterniflora Phragmites australis and Scirpus triqueter communities in Jiuduansha wetland of the Yangtze River Estuary, East China.  The nonparametric test method was adopted to compare the variations in the species richness, individual abundance and seasonal dynamics of different functional feeding groups of insects between different plant communities. The effects of plant habitats on the assemblage compositions of different insect functional groups were assessed by the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) ordination analysis. The habitat preferences of insect species were analysed by the indicator species analysis (ISA). 【Results】 A total of 10 338 individuals belonging to 188 species in 72 insect families were collected. Species richness and individual abundance of insects were significantly lower in S.alterniflora than in P.australis. The species richness of insects in Sc.triqueter was not significantly different from that in S.alterniflora.However, the individual number of insects in Sc.triqueter was significantly higher than that in S.alterniflora. As far as different insect functional groups were concerned, Sc.triqueter had the lowest species number but the highest individual number of insect herbivores. Both species and individual numbers of insect herbivores were not significantly different between S. alterniflora and P. australis. The species richness and abundance of predator/parasitoid insects were significantly higher in P.australis than in S.alterniflora and Sc.triqueter. The species and individual numbers of insect detritivores were not significantly different among plants. In addition, it was shown that the richness and abundance of all insect functional groups in S.alterniflora reached their peak values in spring. However, in P.australis and Sc.triqueter, different functional groups reached their species richness and abundance peaks in different seasons. According to the results of NMS ordination analysis, S.alterniflora invasion significantly changed the insect community composition,even when each functional group was individually concerned. According to the results of ISA, the number of insect species preferring S.alterniflora was the lowest. Of these species, most were generalist herbivores. The number of species preferring P.australis was the highest. Among these species, most were predator/parasitoid and specialist herbivore species. Herbivore species preferring Sc.triqueter were all generalists, but with relatively high indicator values. 【Conclusion】 S.alterniflora invasion reduces the insect biodiversity and significantly changes the structural characteristics and seasonal dynamics of insect functional groups in Jiuduansha wetland. In comparison with insect herbivores, natural enemy insects are more sensitive to the effects of S. alterniflora invasion. Some generalist herbivores may have developed adaptation mechanisms to S. alterniflora. Enough attention should be paid to the potential ecological and evolutionary consequences behind these phenomena.
    Sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the complete mitogenome of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)(In English
    YANG Hong, Wang Jia-Jia, DAI Ren-Huai, Yu Hui-Ping, Yang Mao-Fa
    2017, 60(1):  84-94.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.010
    Abstract ( 1355 )   PDF (4340KB) ( 489 )     
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    【Aim】 Aphididae insects are extremely polyphagous agricultural pests. The present study aims to better understand the phylogenetic relationship within Aphididae by mitogenome analysis. 【Methods】 The complete mitogenome of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and PCR amplification, and sequence analysis in comparison with other Aphididae insects was made. The Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic analyses based on the 13 PCG sequences were performed. 【Results】 The mitogenome of M. persicae (GenBank accession no. KU_236024) is 17 832 bp in size and harbors an A+T content of 84.1%, an AT-skew of 0.094 and a GC-skew of -0.296. It contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs) (cox1-3, nad1-6, nad4L, atp6, atp8 and cytb), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (rrnL and rrnS) and two long non-coding regions. The gene order and orientation of the mitogenome of M.persicae are similar to those of other aphids. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) start with an ATN initiation codon and terminate with a TAA stop codon, except for nad4, which terminates with a single T nucleotide as an incomplete stop codon. In the mitogenome of M.persicae, there is a non-coding region (307 bp) between tRNAGlu and tRNAPhe, which includes variable numbers of tandem repeats in a lineage-specific manner. The mitogenome of M.persicae has the control region of 2 531 bp which is the longest in all the sequenced aphid mitogenomes. In the mitogenome of M. persicae, six domains with 44 helices are present in the secondary structure of rrnL and three domains with 24 helices are present in the secondary structure of rrnS. Phylogenetic analysis based on 13 PCGs from M. persicae and 20 other insect species showed that every superfamily in the tree forms a monophyletic clade. 【Conclusion】 Within the Aphidinae subfamily, the monophyly of Aphidini and Macrosiphini had statistically high values. M.p ersicae was clustered with D. noxia, and C.s alicicola was positioned most basally within the clade of Macrosiphini. The results of this study provide some valuable molecular data for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationship in Aphididae.
    Morphological characteristics of Cnaphalocrocis exigua in comparison with C. medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    FENG Bo, Yin Yong, Feng Chuan-Hong, Peng Xiao-Ming, Jiang Hai-Ping, GuoRong, Du Yong-Jun
    2017, 60(1):  95-103.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.011
    Abstract ( 1869 )   PDF (7801KB) ( 670 )     
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    【Aim】 Rice leaffolders are among the most important pests of rice crops, and mainly include Cnaphalocrocis exigua and C. medinalis in China. Because only a few studies have been done on C. exigua and the two species have similar morphology and habits, they are generally confused. The study aims to reveal the morphological characteristics distinguishing C. exigua from C. medinalis.【Methods】 The morphological characteristics of larvae, pupae and adults of C. exigua and C. medinalis larvae were described, the reproductive systems of male and female adults of C. exigua were dissected, and the morphological differences between C. exigua and C. medinalis were compared. 【Results】 For C. exigua, the sclerite numbers of prothorax, mesothorax and metathorax, and abdomen in larva are 2, 12 and 5, respectively, which are arranged into 1, 3 and 2 rows, respectively. There is a finger-shape process at the terminal end of pupal abdomen, which bears 8 setae. Forewing is yellowish, with brown bands.  The band in the costal margin is wide, while the longitudinal band in the outer margin is C-shaped. Transverse anterior line and transverse posterior line are parallel with each other and the median line reaches the posterior margin of forewing. Male testis is golden yellow, and accessory glands and ejaculatory ducts are long but deferent ducts and seminal vesicles are short. The weakly sclerotized male valva is densely covered with long hair. There are two sclerotized thorns in the vesica of aedeagus. The female ovary is short, the length of the lateral oviducts and the common oviduct are similar, and bursa copulatrix is long. The color of sclerites in thorax and the arrangement of sclerites in mesothorax and metathorax can be used to identify the larvae of C. exigua from C. medinalis. The color of forewing, the shape and the length of bands in forewing, the arrangement of transverse anterior line and transverse posterior line, the sclerotization of valva and the sclerotized zone in the vesica can be used to identify the adults of C. exigua from C. medinalis. 【Conclusion】 The results can be used for the accurate identification of larvae and adults of C. exigua and C. medinalis, providing a basis for the accurate forecast of C. medinalis.
    DNA barcoding and its application in the identification of diets of insect herbivores
    ZHANG Xiao-Man, Zhang Ai-Bing
    2017, 60(1):  104-119.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.012
    Abstract ( 1415 )   PDF (1245KB) ( 755 )     
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    DNA barcoding has been widely used and received much attention in recent years, pushing the development of multidisciplinary researches including taxonomy, and promoting the studies of evolutionary biology and ecology. DNA barcoding is not only used in initially proposed simple species identification, but also in studies of animal diets, food chain, and food web by using short DNA fragments extracted from in feces and intestinal contents of animals. In this article, we systematically reviewed the recent advances in DNA barcoding and its application in the identification of diets of insect herbivores, and elaborated the selection of DNA barcodes in the identification of herbivore diets and the contribution in the diet composition analysis. Finally, the related research of diets of Lepidoptera larvae was reviewed. Since the herbivorous Lepidoptera larvae cause serious damages and losses to forestry and agriculture,  the study of their trophic relationship has great significance for pest control and management.
    Changes in the cold hardiness and contents of the related biochemical substances in female adults of Ceroplastes japonicus (Hemiptera:Coccoidea) before and after overwintering
    LIU Zhao-Liang, Yuan Zhong-Lin, Luo Lan
    2017, 60(1):  120-126.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.01.013
    Abstract ( 1150 )   PDF (1233KB) ( 415 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the cold tolerance and cold hardiness strategies of Ceroplastes japonicus Green in different overwintering stages (before, during and after overwintering). 【Methods】 The supercooling point (SCP) and freezing point (FP) of C. japonicus before overwintering (October), during overwintering (January) and after overwintering (April) were measured with thermocouple method, and the contents of body water, fat, glycerol, total sugar, glycogen and trehalose were examined with physiological and biochemical methods. 【Results】 The SCP and FP of C. japonicus during overwintering were the lowest (-13.74℃ and -10.13℃, respectively), significantly different from those after overwintering (-11.88℃ and -7.12℃, respectively), but with no difference from those before overwintering (-13.30℃ and -9.95℃, respectively). The body water contents of C. japonicus before, during and after overwintering were 28.84%, 11.28% and 29.60%, respectively. The body water contents before and after overwintering had no difference, but were significantly different from that during overwintering. The fat contents before overwintering (86.38%) and during overwintering (85.77%) had no difference, but were significantly different from that after overwintering (77.63%). The glycerol content had no significant difference in the three stages. The total sugar contents before overwintering and during overwintering were significantly higher than that after overwintering. The glycogen contents before, during and after overwintering were 4.03, 5.45 and 1.76 μg/mg, respectively, with significant difference among the three stages, and the glycogen content decreased significantly after overwintering. The trehalose content before overwintering was the highest (14.72 μg/mg), significantly different from those during overwintering (6.85 μg/mg) and after overwintering (7.92 μg/mg), but with no significant difference between during overwintering and after overwintering. 【Conclusion】 The results revealed the cold hardiness of C. japonicus in different overwintering stages, as well as the changes in contents of cold hardinessrelated substances,  and would provide the basis for evaluating the low temperature adaptation, geographical distribution and population dynamics of C. japonicus.
    Contents of Vol. 60 Issue 1
    2017, 60(1):  127-127. 
    Abstract ( 809 )   PDF (433KB) ( 296 )     
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