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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 April 2018, Volume 61 Issue 4
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Determination of the promoter activity of diapause-associated sorbitol dehydrogenase genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHU Juan, XIE Yu-Chen, CHEN Yan-Rong, TANG Shun-Ming, YI Yong-Zhu, SHEN Xing-Jia
    2018, 61(4):  391-397.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.001
    Abstract ( 677 )   PDF (1417KB) ( 333 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the transcriptional characteristics of sorbitol dehydrogenase (BmSDH) genes (BmSDH-1, BmSDH-2a and BmSDH-2b) in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. 【Methods】 The transcription initiation sites of three BmSDH genes were determined by 5′RACE technique. The promoters of BmSDH about 1 kb in length and BmSDH-2a in different lengths were cloned by PCR. Then report plasmids with a fruit fly luciferase gene driven by BmSDH promoters in different lengths, pGL3-BmSDH-P-luc, were constructed. Using dual luciferase detection system, the promoter activity of BmSDH was detected by co-transfecting the BmN cells with pGL3-BmSDH-P-luc and pRL-CMV which contains a renin-luciferase reporter gene, and the effects of hormones on the promoter activity of BmSDH-2a was detected by adding juvenile hormone analogue (JHA), ecdysone hormone (20E) and diapause hormone (DH), respectively, to culture media in the gradient concentrations. 【Results】 The transcription initiation sites of BmSDH-1, BmSDH-2a and BmSDH-2b are located at 41, 41 and 40 bp upstream the translation initiation site, respectively. The promoter activity of BmSDH-2a was significantly higher than those of BmSDH-1 and BmSDH-2b. For the BmSDH-2a gene, the promoter activity of the 355 bp fragment was significantly higher than those of the 674 bp and 1 117 bp fragments. In BmN cells, the activity of 1 117 bp promoter of BmSDH-2a increased with the increase of DH concentration; however, when the DH concentration was higher than 100 ng/mL, the promoter activity was decreased to some degree but maintained at a high level. In JHA treated BmN cells, the promoter activity was decreased gradually as the hormone concentration increased. In 20E treated BmN cells, the promoter activity significantly increased when 0.1 ng/mL of 20E was applied, and then decreased gradually with the increase of hormone concentration. 【Conclusion】 The transcription initiation sites of the BmSDH genes were determined. The promoter activity of BmSDH-2a is significantly higher than those of BmSDH-1 and BmSDH-2b. A certain concentration of 20E can significantly enhance the promoter activity of BmSDH-2a. These results will contribute to clarifying the function of BmSDH genes in diapause process in B. mori.
    cDNA cloning, prokaryotic expression and enzymatic characteristics of the glutathione S-transferase GmolGST6 in Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    LI Shuai, SU Li, LI Bo-Liao, LI Yi-Ping, LI Guang-Wei, WU Jun-Xiang
    2018, 61(4):  398-409.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.002
    Abstract ( 707 )   PDF (3682KB) ( 238 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to clone the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene from the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta, to analyze its structure properties, and to clarify the expression profiles and enzymatic characteristics of protein coded by this gene, so as to provide a theoretical basis for fundamental function research of this gene. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome data of female antennae from G. molesta, the complete coding sequence of GST gene was cloned using RT-PCR. The expression levels of this gene in antennae, head (without antennae), thorax, abdomen, leg and wing were measured by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qPCR). The recombinant protein of GST was prokaryotically expressed, and then purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography. In addition, the stability and kinetic parameters of the recombinant GST were analyzed. 【Results】 The complete coding region sequence of GmolGST6 (GenBank accession no.: MF503496) was obtained, and its ORF is 645 bp in length, encoding 214 amino acids with the predicted molecular mass of 24.21 kD and the theoretical isoelectric point of 5.10. The phylogenetic tree and the three-dimensional structure analysis indicated that GmolGST6 belonges to Delta subfamily of GSTs. qPCR results showed that GmolGST6 was primarily expressed in the antenna of male and female adults, and its expression level in the male antenna was significantly higher than that in the female antenna. The recombinant GmolGST6 showed catalytic activity towards the general substrate CDNB, and had the highest activity at pH 7.5 and 40℃. The Michaelis constant (Km) of the recombinant GmolGST6 was 0.21±0.06 mmol/L, and the maximum reaction rate (Vmax) was 14.02±1.40 μmol/min·mg. 【Conclusion】 Based on the expression profiles of GmolGST6 and the catalytic activities of the recombinant GmolGST6 towards CDNB, we speculate that GmolGST6 may be involved in the catabolism of exogenous substances and protecting the olfactory system from toxification of exogenous substances. 
    cDNA cloning, prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of cathepsin L in Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    CHENG Xing-An, LIN Xian-Wei, JIANG Xu-Hong, LIU Zhan-Mei, ZHONG Guo-Hua, Hu-Mei-Ying
    2018, 61(4):  410-422.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.003
    Abstract ( 693 )   PDF (5434KB) ( 198 )     
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     【Aim】 The objective of this study is to clone cathepsin L gene from Sf9 cells of Spodoptera frugiperda, to analyze its sequence features and to obtain the polyclonal antibody, so as to provide a theoretical basis for further studying the function of the gene in this insect. 【Methods】 Cathepsin L gene was cloned directly by using the specific primers which were designed based on the open reading frame (ORF) sequence of cathepsin L gene of S. exigua. The sequence characteristics of this gene were analyzed by using bioinformatics, and the deduced amino acid sequences of the gene were aligned using the ClustalX2 program. The three-dimensional structure of cathepsin L was modeled by homology modeling method. Finally, the anti-rabbit polyclonal antibody was produced by immunizing rabbit based on the prokaryotic expression of the gene. 【Results】 A cathepsin L gene named SfCatL (GenBank accession no.: HQ110065) was cloned from Sf9 cells of S. frugiperda, with the ORF of 1 035 bp in length, encoding 344 amino acids with the predicted N-terminal hydrophobic region of 16 amino acid residues displaying the characteristic features of a signal peptide. The predicted molecular weight (MW) and isoelectric point (pI) of SfCatL without signal peptide are 36.8 kD and 6.69, respectively. SfCatL has 53.7%-96.8% amino acid sequence identity with the cathepsin L proteins from other 13 species, showing the highest amino acid sequence identity (96.8%) with the cathepsin L protein from S. exigua. The three-dimensional structure of SfCatL showed that SfCatL folds into a shape of fortune cookie and contains three disulfide bonds, which are responsible for the stability of the structure. Hydrophilic amino acids are mainly coated on the surface of protein. After prokaryotic expression, the SfCatL protein was purified to produce the antiserum of SfCatL, whose titer reached 1∶40 000 by ELISA assay. Western blot assay indicated that the antiserum could specifically bind with the SfCatL protein from Sf9 cells. 【Conclusion】 The complete ORF of SfCatL was cloned, and its sequence features were analyzed. The SfCatL recombinant protein was prepared and purified, and finally the polyclonal antibody was acquired. This study provides a theoretical basis for further study of the gene function and the development of cathepsin inhibitor insecticides.
    Molecular cloning and characterization of transcription factor AP-1 gene in Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    CHI Xue-Peng, WEI Wei, ZHANG Wei-Xing, WANG Hong-Fang, XU Bao-Hua
    2018, 61(4):  423-431.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.004
    Abstract ( 716 )   PDF (3561KB) ( 206 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to clone the cDNA sequence of transcription factor AP-1 gene (AccAP-1) from Apis cerana cerana and to explore its expression profiles in A. cerana cerana at different developmental stages, in different tissues and under different abiotic stress, so as to provide fundamental evidence for the future study of the physiological function of AccAP-1. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of AP-1 gene was cloned from the entire tissues of A. cerana cerana by RT-PCR. Physiochemical properties and structure characteristics of the deduced amino acid sequence were analyzed by multiple bioinformatics methods. Phylogenetic tree between AP-1 from A. cerana cerana and its homologous AP-1 proteins from other hymenopteran insects was constructed using neighbor-joining method of MEGA5.2. The expression levels of AP-1 gene in A. cerana cerana at different developmental stages (1-6 d old larva, prepupa, white-eyed pupa, pink-eyed pupa, dark-eyed pupa, 1 d-old adult worker, and 15 d-old adult worker), in different tissues (head, muscle, epidermis, midgut, rectum and venom gland) of 15 d-old adult workers, and in 15 d-old adult workers under stress of extreme temperatures (4, 16 and 44℃) and fed with sucrose solutions containing pesticide (0.01 mL/L paraquat) and heavy metal (1 mg/mL CdCl2), respectively, were detected by real-time PCR. 【Results】 We obtained the full-length open reading frame (ORF) of AccAP-1 (GenBank accession no.: MF994311) from A. cerana cerana, which is 813 bp in length, encoding 270 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 30.24 kD and a predicted theoretical isoelectric point (pI) of 8.31. Conserved domain analysis indicated that AccAP-1 contains two highly conserved structures, i.e., Jun superfamily (AA 7-137) and bZIP_Jun (AA 195-255). The results of homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that A. cerana cerana was most closely related to Apis mellifera. The results of real-time PCR indicated that the expression levels of AccAP-1 at different developmental stages were significantly different (P<0.05) and the highest in 1 d-old larva and 15 d-old adult. AccAP-1 transcripts were expressed in all tissues tested, and the expression level was higher in muscles than in other tissues (P<0.05). The expression levels of AccAP-1 under different abiotic stress indicated that the low temperature 4℃ upregulated its expression (P<0.05), while the treatment at 16℃ for 0.5-2 h upregulated its expression (P<0.05), but extended treatment time at 16℃ (over 2 h) downregulated its expression. The expression level of AccAP-1 at 44℃ for 15 min was downregulated significantly (P<0.05), while those at 44℃ for the other treatment time had no significant difference (P>0.05). The expression of AccAP-1 was downregulated when the workers were fed with the sucrose solution containing paraquat (P<0.05); the expression of AccAP-1, however, was induced by CdCl2 (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that AccAP-1 might play an important role in the response to abiotic stress in A. cerana cerana.
    Types, morphology and cellular immune functions of hemocytes in larvae of Thitarodes xiaojinensis (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae)
    NI Ruo-Yao, MENG Qian, ZHANG Huan, ZHANG Ji-Hong, QIN Qi-Lian
    2018, 61(4):  432-438.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.005
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (4086KB) ( 192 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to identify the types of hemocytes, to determine their proportions in the hemolymph of larvae of the ghost moth, Thitarodes xiaojinensis, and to examine the cellular immune functions of hemocytes. 【Methods】 The morphology of hemocytes of T. xiaojinensis larvae was observed under optical phase contrast microscopy and compared with the characteristic morphology of various hemocytes of lepidopteran insects. The cellular immune responses of hemocytes in the 7th instar larvae of T. xiaojinensis were examined after stimulating them with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Congo Red stained DEAE-Sephadex A-25. 【Results】 The hemocytes of T. xiaojinensis larvae are composed of granular hemocytes, plasmatocytes, spherule cells and oenocytoids, accounting for 62.5%, 26.6%, 10.1% and 0.8%, respectively. The typical prohemocytes were not observed. The results of stimulation with S. cerevisiae showed that the hemocytes of T. xiaojinensis larvae could react with phagocytosis and nodulation. The results of stimulation with Congo Red stained DEAE-Sephadex A-25 showed that the hemocytes in T. xiaojinensis larvae had the ability of encapsulation. 【Conclusion】 The composition and morphology of hemocytes of T. xiaojinensis larvae are the same as those of other lepidopteran insects, and the granular hemocytes have the highest proportion. Hemocytes in T. xiaojinensis larvae are sensitive to the stimulation of S. cerevisiae and Congo Red stained DEAE-Sephadex A-25. The former causes phagocytosis and nodulation, while the latter causes encapsulation. The function of cellular immunity in T. xiaojinensis is typical.
    Identification of insect brain neuropils aided with the application of 3D printer technology
    CHEN Qiu-Yan, CHANG Ya-Jun, GUO Qian-Qian, SU Ran-Ran, WANG Bo, HE Jing, XIE Gui-Ying, ZHAO Xin-Cheng
    2018, 61(4):  439-448.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.006
    Abstract ( 839 )   PDF (4506KB) ( 255 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to identify the neuropil structure of the brain of male adult of Heliothis virescens, to reconstruct and print the three-dimensional brain models, and to use the established 3D printing protocol to print the brain models of Drosophila melanogaster, Apis mellifera and Schistocerca gregaria. 【Methods】 Immunohistochemical staining with a synaptic protein antibody was used to label the neuropil structures of H. virescens brain. The brain images were obtained by using a confocal laser scanning microscope, and the three-dimensional brain models were created by using imaging software and printed by using a 3D printer. 【Results】 The brain of male adult of H. virescens and its main neuropils including gnathal ganglion, antennal lobes, optic lobes, anterior optic tubercle, central body, and mushroom bodies were identified, and the digitalized three-dimensional brain models were created. For the first time, the three-dimensional brain models of male adult of H. virescens were printed by using a 3D printer and the digitalized models were transformed to the physical and solid models. Based on both digital and printed brain models of H.virescens and other three insects (D. melanogaster, A. mellifera and S. gregaria), the brain neuropils for the gustatory center, olfactory center, visual center, and the center for memory and learning were compared between these insect species. 【Conclusion】 The printed brain models offer a new form of brain visualization. The physical and solid insect brain models can be printed in desired size and be handled in hands for the visualization from any angles. The printed brain models facilitate the identification of neuropils and their spatial relationships, and the comparison for the equivalent structures in different insect species.
    Comparative transcriptome analysis of salivary glands of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV)-infected and uninfected adults of the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    DENG Yao, LIU Yu-Di, WANG Xiang-Ping, Hou-Mao-Lin
    2018, 61(4):  449-457.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.007
    Abstract ( 643 )   PDF (3567KB) ( 225 )     
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    【Aim】 The white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, is a main vector of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV). The salivary glands of the WBPH play an important role in feeding behaviour and virus transmission. This study aims to sequence the salivary gland transcriptomes of viruliferous (SRBSDV-infected) and nonviruliferous adults of the WBPH, to find the differentially expressed genes in salivary glands and to further infer the virus-related genes. 【Methods】 Salivary gland transcriptomes of viruliferous and nonviruliferous adults of S. furcifera were sequenced by using the Ion Proton II, PGM platform, and then were de novo assembled by SOAPdenovo software. Gene annotation was conducted by blastX, and GO term enrichment and KEGG metabolic pathway analysis were performed using Blast2go and Blastall software. The differentially expressed genes were calculated by RPKM values. 【Results】 A total of 52 062 unigenes from viruliferous salivary glands (VSGs) and 51 407 unigenes from nonviruliferous salivary glands (NVSGs) of S. furcifera with the mean length of 639 and 647 bp, respectively, were obtained, and their GenBank accession numbers are SRS851833 and SRS843978, respectively. A total of 18 431 unigenes have homologous sequences against the NR database, and the highest percentage of unigene sequences (16.23%) were matched to genes of Tribolium castaneum. All unigenes were enriched to 52 GO terms and 240 KEGG pathways. The results revealed that 89 unigenes had a significantly different expression level between VSGs and NVSGs. 【Conclusion】 Through the comparative analysis, the differentially expressed genes between viruliferous and nonviruliferous salivary glands of S. furcifera were found, and some of these genes might be involved in virus-vector interactions. The gene expression characteristics of salivary gland transcriptome provide useful information for the identification of genes involved in feeding and virus transmission and so lay the basis for investigating the interaction between SRBSDV and WBPH at the molecular level.
    Feeding behaviour of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Trypetidae) on male inflorescence of Castanea mollissima (Fagales: Fagaceae)
    HE Zhang-Zhang, HUA Deng-Ke, DU Tian-Hua, WANG Fu-Lian, GUI Lian-You
    2018, 61(4):  458-467.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.008
    Abstract ( 838 )   PDF (2619KB) ( 267 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to confirm and elucidate the feeding behaviour of adult Bactrocera minax on male inflorescence of Castanea mollissima in the wild, so as to provide references for prevention and control of this insect using non-chemical control methods in China. 【Methods】 The feeding behavior of adult B. minax on male inflorescence of C. mollissima was tracked with video technology and analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that the feeding behaviour of adult B. minax was characterized by four phases, i. e., walking, feeding, grooming and inactivity, and the sequence of these four phases was not fixed. Except being unable to go from the inactivity phase to the feeding phase, adult B. minax could optionally transit from one phase to another among the four phases. The proportion of frequency of each behavior of adult B. minax in the order from high to low was as follows: walking>feeding>grooming>inactivity. The average time of the inactivity phase was significantly longer than that of the feeding, grooming and walking phase, and the difference in the average time was not obvious among the feeding, grooming and walking phases. There was no significant difference in the proportion of frequency and average time of each phase between females and males. 【Conclusion】 These results confirm the presence of feeding behavior of adult B. minax on male inflorescence of C. mollissima.
    Effects of regional agricultural landscape pattern on the community of ladybeetles in wheat fields
    ZHANG Yong-Sheng, OUYANG Fang , MEN Xing-Yuan, GE Feng, YUAN Zhe-Ming
    2018, 61(4):  468-476.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.009
    Abstract ( 734 )   PDF (1109KB) ( 277 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the effects of agricultural landscape pattern on ladybeetle community in wheat fields, so as to provide theoretical proofs for ecological regulation and management of insect pests. 【Methods】 Based on the remote sensing data, land cover classification and the survey data of ladybeetle abundance in wheat fields in 22 counties and cities in Shandong, the planting region of wheat was taken as a typical example, the landscape pattern metrics were calculated, and the effects of landscape pattern of farmland, non-crop habitat and regional agricultural landscape on ladybeetle abundance were analyzed using negative binomial generalized linear model. 【Results】 The ladybeetle abundance was positively correlated with mean patch area (AREA_MN) and area-weighted mean patch fractal dimension (FRAC_AM) of grassland and patch richness density (PRD) of regional landscape, and was negatively correlated with area-weighted mean Euclidean nearest neighbor distance (ENN_AM) of non-crop habitat. Grassland, clustered non-crop habitats and diverse regional landscapes benefited ladybeetle abundance. AREA_MN of grassland and ENN_AM of non-crop habitat could best predict ladybeetle occurrence. 【Conclusion】 Grassland, spatial distribution of non-crop habitats and regional landscape diversity are important landscape factors affecting the occurrence of ladybeetles in wheat fields.
    Analysis of the mitochondrial genome of Attagenus unicolor japonicus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae) and a phylogenetic analysis of Dermestidae
    LIN Ai-Li, LI Xin-Xin, ZHAO Xin-Cheng, SONG Nan
    2018, 61(4):  477-487.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.010
    Abstract ( 648 )   PDF (5152KB) ( 423 )     
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    【Aim】 To analyze the mitochondrial genome of Attagenus unicolor japonicas and the phylogeny of Dermestidae. 【Methods】 The nearly complete mitochondrial genome of A. unicolor japonicus was sequenced by next-generation sequencing (NGS) method, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum likelihood method and Bayesian inference based on cox1 gene sequences of 39 insect species. 【Results】 The mitochondrial genome of A. unicolor japonicus contains 37 genes (2 ribosomal RNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 13 protein-coding genes) and a partial control region, with the length of 14 793 bp (GenBank accession no.: MG017450). No gene rearrangement occurs in the genome organization of this insect, like most Coleoptera mitogenomes published. All protein-coding genes have typical start codon ATN except for nad1 and nad2, which start with the putative start codon TTG. cox2, nad5 and nad6 genes adjacent to the tRNAs terminate with T, while the other protein-coding genes stop with the typical stop codon TAA/TAG. The secondary structures of all tRNAs are of typical cloverleaf structure, except that of trnS1, in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) can not form a stable stem-loop structure but forms a simple loop. In addition, the anticodon for trnS1 is UCU rather than the usual GCU. The secondary structure of 16S rRNA contains five domains (domain Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ) but lacks domain Ⅲ, with 44 helixes in total. The secondary structure of 12S rRNA consists of four domains and 27 helixes. The helix H47 is a highly variable region, which composes of a long stem and a big loop. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that the relationship of Dermestidae subfamilies is ((Megatominae+Attageninae) +Dermestinae). 【Conclusion】 Dermestinae, Dermestes and Anthrenus are all monophyletic, while Trogoderma is polyphyletic. Dermestes is a sister group to the rest of Dermestidae.
    Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of 44 species of fleas in Qinghai Province, western China based on mtDNA COI gene sequence
    MA Ying, Li-Hai-Long, HE Jian, ZHAO Yan-Mei, YANG Han-Qing, LU Liang, LIU Qi-Yong
    2018, 61(4):  488-497.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.011
    Abstract ( 855 )   PDF (4228KB) ( 266 )     
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    【Aim】 DNA barcoding method was used to identify flea samples from Qinghai Province, western China in order to make up the deficiency of the traditional morphological classification method in this study. 【Methods】 The partial fragments (about 600 bp) of the mtDNA COI gene of 182 flea individuals that belong to 3 superfamilies, 6 families, 22 genera and 44 species were amplified by PCR, sequenced and aligned. The intra-and inter-species genetic distances were calculated with K2P model, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed with the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. 【Results】 Totally 182 COI gene sequences (GenBank accession no.: MG138154-MG138335) were sequenced successfully. The inter-species genetic distance (4%-12%) was significantly greater than the intra-species genetic distance (0.01%-2.90%). The NJ tree obtained showed that samples of the same species formed monophyletic groups with high support value, and inter-species branches were clear. 【Conclusion】 The results confirm that COI gene can be used in molecular identification of fleas.
    Morphology and ultrastructure of female and male adults of Culicoides arakawai (Arakawa) (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae)
    JIANG Xiao-Hong, CHANG Qiong-Qiong, HOU Xiao-Hui
    2018, 61(4):  498-504.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.012
    Abstract ( 702 )   PDF (3845KB) ( 231 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to get more ultrastructure details of female and male adults of Culicoides arakawai (Arakawa) for accurate identification of biting midges. 【Methods】 The ultrastructure of female and male adults of C. arakawai was observed by scanning electronic microscope. 【Results】 A total of 31 electron micrographs of female and male adults of C. arakawai, including the features of compound eyes, antennae, mouthparts, wings, scutellum and postscutellum, legs and genitalia were obtained successfully. More accurate data of some features were obtained. For example, the length ratios of various segments of antennal flagella and palpi of female adults are 4.80:3.22∶3.56:3.54:3.44:3.56:3.56:3.86:7.32:6.96:7.02:7.40:9.78 and 2.90:7.47:8.07:2.58:3.92, respectively; the sizes of wings of female and male adults are 1.34-1.36 mm×0.56-0.66 mm and 1.22-1.32 mm×0.40-0.48 mm, respectively, and the size of spermatheca is 71.87 μm×48.07 μm. The poorly known features were observed, including female with 19 teeth of maxil arranged in 2 lines, male with 12-13 slender teeth of maxil, female trapeziform scutellum with 4 thick bristles and 6-8 thin bristles, female spur with hairs arranged fan-shaped on the surface, the terminal branch of claw, empodium of female with 4 pairs of hairy branches, spermatheca with punctations on surface, the width ratio of datum hole to spermatheca about 1/9, and hypopygium of male with microtrichia and macrochaeta and special structure in the inner surface. The ungual digitule was newly discovered. The sexual dimorphism was notable in antennal characteristics, type of sensilla, pattern, teeth, number and shape of mandible, and shape of tongue and wing between female and male adults. 【Conclusion】 The results provide useful information for the accurate identification of C. arakawai and for studying the taxonomy and phylogeny of Ceratopogouidae, and have significant economic and medical value.
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    Identification and pathogenicity test of a new soil-derived fungus strain of Lecanicillium to Ephestia elutella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    ZHOU Ye-Ming, ZHI Jun-Rui, ZHANG Xin, ZOU Xiao, YANG Kai
    2018, 61(4):  505-510.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.013
    Abstract ( 575 )   PDF (1577KB) ( 225 )     
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    【Aim】 Lecanicillium is one group of important fungal pathogens. In this study, a strain separated from the rhizosphere soil in the forest was identified and its pathogenicity to Ephestia elutella was compared with those of some other fungal pathogens so as to acquire more Lecanicillium strains as pest control fungal resources. 【Methods】 The fungal colonies isolated from the soil under pine forests in Guiding, Guizhou were identified by comparison of morphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. The pathogenecity of the test strains to the 3rd instar larvae of E. elutella was determined by the method of immersing insects into the spore suspension. 【Results】 According to the morphological characterization and phylogenetic tree, the fungi was identified as Lecanicillium aphanocladii. Among the test strains, Isaria cateinannulata, Beauveria bassiana and L. aphanocladii were lethal to E. elutella, with the corrected mortality rates of 79.22%, 64.92% and 77.92%, respectively, against the 3rd instar larvae at 7 d after treatment. 【Conclusion】 L. aphanocladii, a known species in China, shows high lethal effect to E. elutella larvae, and can be used for biological control of E. elutella larvae in the warehouse.
    Effects of photoperiod on the population parameters of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    WU De-Gong, ZHAN Qiu-Wen, HUANG Bao-Hong, WANG Zeng-Xia, HUANG Wei-Dong, BI Ya-Ling, LIU Chang-Zhong, DU Jun-Li
    2018, 61(4):  511-518.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.04.014
    Abstract ( 694 )   PDF (1467KB) ( 204 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the effects of photoperiod on the growth and development of the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari, and to construct its life table under different photoperiods. 【Methods】 M.sacchari aphids were reared with leaves in petri dishes under different photoperiods (2L:22D, 6L:18D, 8L:16D, 12L:12D, 14L:10D, 18L:6D and 20L:4D), and their body weight and life table parameters were measured. 【Results】 The body weight difference of M. sacchari within 12 h from birth to maturity under the 12L:12D photoperiod and the body weight of its offspring (F1 generation) were the highest (0.485 and 0.043 mg, respectively), while those under the 18L:6D photoperiod were the least (0.242 and 0.018 mg, respectively). The nymphal survival rates and adult fertility under photoperiods of 14L:10D, 12L:12D, 8L:16D and 6L:18D were significantly higher than those under photoperiods of 18L:6D and 2L:22D. The net reproductive rate (R0) under different photoperiods ranged from 25.90 to 88.14 offsprings per female, with the maximum value under the 12L:12D photoperiod and the minimum value under the 2L:22D photoperiod. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) under different photoperiods ranged from 0.325 to 0.407. The optimal photophase duration calculated with the fitting equation of life table parameters and photoperiod was 9-11 h. 【Conclusion】 Photoperiod has a significant influence on the population parameters of M. sacchari. The photoperiod of 9-11L:13-15D is optimal for its growth and reproduction, while other longer or shorter photophase periods will affect the population growth of this species.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 61 Issue 4
    2018, 61(4):  519-519. 
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