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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2019, Volume 62 Issue 1
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    Sli-miR-34-5p positively regulates the expression of the glutathione S-transferase gene SlGSTe1 in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in response to secondary plant substances
    MA Kang, ZOU Xiao-Peng, CEN Yong-Jie, ZHENG Si-Chun
    2019, 62(1):  1-8.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.001
    Abstract ( 275 )   PDF (1591KB) ( 131 )     
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     【Aim】 Insect detoxification enzymes play important roles in insect adaptation to secondary plant substances. Studying the miRNAs, which regulate the expression of detoxification enzyme genes, will help to identify the target for pest control. This study aims to investigate the regulation of Sli-miR-34-5p on the detoxification enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene involved in the adaptation to secondary plant substances in Spodoptera litura. 【Methods】 The expression level of Sli-miR-34-5p in the midgut of the day-1 5th instar larvae of S. litura fed with Brassica juncea was determined by qPCR. After the overexpression of Sli-miR-34-5p mimic or inhibitor, the expression of the known or presumable target gene of Sli-miR-34-5p at the mRNA and protein levels in S. litura larvae was determined by qPCR and Western blot, respectively. The regulation of Sli-miR-34-5p on its target gene was verified by dual luciferase reporter system. The possible action mechanism of Sli-miR-34-5p on target genes was investigated by predicting the target genes of Sli-miR-34-5p with bioinformatics method.【Results】 The results showed that the expression of Sli-miR-34-5p was up-regulated in the midgut of the day-1 5th instar larvae of S. litura fed with B. juncea for 24 and 48 h. The injection of Sli-miR-34-5p mimic into the hemolymph of the day-1 5th instar larvae of S. litura resulted in the up-regulation of the mRNA level of SlGSTe1 in the midgut of B. juncea-fed larvae. Injection of Sli-miR-34-5p inhibitor into the hemolymph significantly downregulated the protein level of SlGSTE1. In the S. litura Spli-221 cell line treated with indole-3-carbinol, a secondary substance of B. juncea, the expression levels of both Sli-miR-34-5p pression of SlGSTe1 enhanced after Sli-miR-34-5p mimic was added to the cell line. However, the assay of dual luciferase activity showed that Sli-miR-34-5p did not directly bind to SlGSTe1Sli-miR-34-5p nformatics analysis showed that SlGSTe1 may be not the direct target gene of Sli-miR-34-5p. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that Sli-miR-34-5p may be involved in the response of S. litura to secondary substances of host plants by enhancing the expression of the glutathione S-transferase gene SlGSTe1.
    Evolutionary pattern of the transcription factor ZnF-706 in Lepidoptera and its function in Bombyx mori
    CUI Yong, ZHU Ya-Nan, HUANG Yue-Ying, TAN Li-Zhuang, FENG Qi-Li, WANG Wen, XIANG Hui
    2019, 62(1):  9-20.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.002
    Abstract ( 573 )   PDF (5529KB) ( 139 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to explore the molecular evolution pattern of the putative domestication gene, the transcription factor ZnF-706 in different lepidopteran groups and in the domestication process of the silkworm Bombyx mori, and to explore its function in the silkworm by knockout of ZnF-706 via the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing system.【Methods】 We analyzed the gene structure of ZnF-706 and investigated its tissue expression pattern in the day-3 5th instar larvae of the silkworm based on the published silkworm microarray data. Using phylogenetic analysis by Maximum Likelihood (PAML), we tested the evolution pattern of ZnF-706 in Lepidoptera. Based on the published genetic polymorphism data of the B. mori and Bombyx mandarina populations, we screened the artificial selection signal of ZnF-706 genic region. After analyzing the upstream 2 kb region of this gene, we detected the fixed SNPs in the domestic silkworm and predicted transcription factor binding motif in the region covering these SNPs. By knockout of this gene using CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing, we obtained the homozygosis mutant. The variation of cocoon weight and pupal weight of mutants was detected by using wild-type silkworm as the control. 【Results】 The encoded protein of ZnF-706 has a typical zinc finger protein domain. ZnF-706 is ubiquitously expressed in the silkworm larva, especially highly expressed in the cuticle, fat body and gonads. It evolved rapidly in three clades, namely Lepidoptera, Bombycoidea and Antherea yamamai. Strong artificial selection signals in the region covering this gene were detected, with significantly elevated population divergence (Fst) between the B. mori and B. mandarina populations and decreased population diversity (π) in the B. mori population, suggesting that it is located in a selective sweep. Nine fixed SNPs in the regulatory region of upstream of this gene were detected, and they were located in the motifs with transcription factor binding activity. Homozygous loss-of-function mutants of ΔZnF-706 showed weaker viability and significantly lower cocoon weight and pupal weight, as compared with the wild-type silkworm. But unlike in Drosophila melanogaster, the homozygous mutants of ZnF-706 in B. mori were not lethal.【Conclusion】 ZnF-706 evolves rapidly in Lepidoptera, especially silk producing insects, and is also under artificial selection during silkworm domestication, suggesting that it might be associated with cocoon silk. It may affect silk cocoon traits by direct regulation of silk protein gene, or by indirect regulation through affecting the growth and development of the silkworm. This study provides not only unique evidence from insect domestication for exploring the mechanism of artificial selection, but also cues to the further research on the transcriptional regulation of economic traits of the silkworm.
    Antennal transcriptome analysis and expression profiling of chemosensory protein genes in Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthopera: Acrididae)(In English)
    ZHOU Yuan-Tao, LI Ling, PANG Bao-Ping, SHAN Yan-Min, ZHANG Zhuo-Ran
    2019, 62(1):  21-32.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.003
    Abstract ( 782 )   PDF (7649KB) ( 238 )     
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    【Aim】 Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are soluble carrier proteins that may play multiple roles in insects. The objective of this study is to assembly the antennal transcriptomes of Oedaleus asiaticus, one of the most important grasshopper pests in northern China, to identify the chemosensory protein genes, and to analyze their tissue expression profiles. 【Methods】 The antennal transcriptomes of the O. asiaticus adults were sequenced and assembled by RNA-Seq. The CSP genes were identified by screening the transcriptome data, and their expression levels in  different adult tissues (antenna, head without antennae and mouthparts, labrum, labium without labial palps, labial palp, maxillary palp, thorax, tarsus, wing, and abdomen) were analyzed by qPCR. 【Results】 The antennal transcriptomes of the O. asiaticus adults were successfully assembled. A total of 61 629 unigenes with a mean length of 733 nt were obtained, and the total length and N50 were 45 175 449 nt and 1 130 nt, respectively. Among them, 26 064 unigenes (42.29%) were annotated to six databases (NR, NT, Swiss-Prot, KEGG, COG and GO). A total of 17 putative CSP genes were identified by blasting, cDNA cloning and sequencing. BlastP best hit results and phylogenetic analysis both showed that the putative OasiCSPs were most closely related to LmigCSPs from Locusta migratoria and SgreCSPs from Schistocerca gregaria. qPCR analysis howed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of eight different SP genes in different adult tissues. Especially, OasiCSP8 was much highly expressed in the abial palps and maxillary palps, and OasiCSP11 and OasiCSP13 had the highest expression evels in the antenna. OasiCSP15 had much higher expression levels in chemosensory tissues antenna, labrum, labium without labial palps, labial palp, maxillary palp, and tarsus) han in non-chemosensory tissues (head without antenna and mouthpart, thorax, wing, and abdomen). However, OasiCSP12 had similar expression distribution in nearly all the tested tissues.【Conclusion】 The results suggest that OasiCSPs might play multiple roles in the hemosensory process and development of O. asiaticus. Our findings provide a foundation for the further functional studies of these CSPs in O. asiaticus.

    Cloning, prokaryotic expression and spatio-temporal expression profiling of the developmental gene optomotor-blind (omb) in Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    ZHANG Xiao-Hong, FENG Li, LIU Ya-Chao, QIAO Ning, YIN Hong
    2019, 62(1):  33-40.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.004
    Abstract ( 709 )   PDF (7460KB) ( 221 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to clone the coding sequence of the developmental gene optomotor-blind (omb) in Locus migratoria and to analyze its structure properties and expression profiles, so as to further understand the role of omb in the wing development of L. migratoria and to provide a new fundamental evidence for the pest management and control. 【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of omb was amplified from L. migratoria with RT-PCR, and the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the gene were analyzed using different bioinformatics software. The phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method of MEGA 6.0. The recombinant expression vector pET-30a/LmOmb was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant protein was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The expression profiles of omb in different developmental stages and adult tissues of L. migratoria was detected by qPCR. 【Results】 We cloned the partial cDNA sequence of omb from L. migratoria, which is named LmOmb (GenBank accession no.: MG867658) and 792 bp in length encoding 264 amino acids, with a conserved T-box superfamily domain between 37-219 amino acids. Homologous sequence alignment analyses showed that LmOmb has 93% amino acid sequence identity with NlOmb of Nilaparvata lugens. The recombinant expression vector pET-30a/LmOmb was constructed and the target protein was stably expressed in host bacteria in the form of 6×His tag fusion protein after IPTG induction. The qPCR result revealed that LmOmb was expressed in L. migratoria at different developmental stages, and the expression level was the highest in the embryonic stage. The expression level of LmOmb decreased in the nymphal stage, and was relatively stable among nymphs of different instars. LmOmb was expressed in the thorax, leg, abdomen and wing of adults, and showed obviously different expression level between male and female. 【Conclusion】 LmOmb may be involved in the embryonic development of L. migratoria. The results provide a basis for further studying the function of LmOmb in L. migratoria.
    Orthogonal optimization of the conditions for determining the activity of transglutaminase (MsTGase) and its in vivo distribution in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae
    RAO Wen-Bing, XU Jiu-Yong, ZHANG Xian-Fei, Solange MUHAYIMANA, HUANG Qing-Chun
    2019, 62(1):  41-48.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.005
    Abstract ( 592 )   PDF (2889KB) ( 151 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to optimize the combination conditions in Grossowicz colorimetry for determining the activity of Mythimna separata transglutaminase (MsTGase), and to analyze the distribution of MsTGase in various larval instars based on its activity 【Methods】 MsTGase was prepared from the 4th instar larvae of M. separata, purified by tissue homogenate and precipitation, and assayed by Grossowicz colorimetry. The multiple experimental factors of Grossowicz colorimetric method were optimized by orthogonal experiment. The MsTGase activities in larvae of different instars and subcellular fractions including cell nucleus and debris, mitochondria, microsomes and cytosol, which were separated by differential centrifugation, were further determined. 【Results】 The experimental factors such as enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH value of the reaction system, temperature and calcium ion concentration had significant influences on the MsTGase activity, and the effect of the experimental factors was ranked in the descending order as enzyme concentration>temperature>pH value>substrate concentration>Ca2+ concentration. The optimum conditions for MsTGase activity determination included 20 mg/mL  of enzyme and 0.04 mol/L of substrate in a reaction system of pH 6.5, temperature 37℃, and no Ca2+ added. In the 1st-5th instar larvae of M. separata, the MsTGase activity in the 4th instar larvae was the highest and its specific activity was also significantly higher than those in other larval stages. The MsTGase activities in the cytosol of the 1st-5th instar larvae of M. separata accounted for 39%, 25%, 48%, 60% and 61% of the total enzyme activity of each subcellular fraction, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The optimum conditions obtained are applicable for determining the MsTGase activity. MsTGase shows a significant instar-dependent accumulation and subcellular distribution in M. separata larvae.
    Comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed microRNAs and their target genes in the larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica during the late stage of Ascosphaera apis stress
    GUO Rui, DU Yu, ZHOU Ni-Hong, LIU Si-Ya, XIONG Cui-Ling, ZHENG Yan-Zhen, FU Zhong-Min, XU Guo-Jun, WANG Hai-Peng, GENG Si-Hai, ZHOU Ding-Ding, CHEN Da-Fu
    2019, 62(1):  49-60.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.006
    Abstract ( 960 )   PDF (8664KB) ( 159 )     
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    【Aim】 Ascosphaera apis is a deadly fungal pathogen that specially infects the larval gut of honeybees. MicroRNA (miRNA) plays a key negative role in regulation of mRNA at the post-transcriptional level. This study aims to comprehensively analyze the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEmiRNAs) and their target genes in the larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica during the late stage of A. apis stress, so as to provide important information for revealing the roles of DEmiRNAs in the stress response process. 【Methods】Normal and A. apis challenged 6-day-old larval gut of A. m. ligustica (represented as AmCK and AmT, respectively) were sequenced using small RNA-seq (sRNA-seq) technology, followed by prediction and analysis of DEmiRNAs. Target genes of DEmiRNAs were predicted with TargetFinder, and annotations of target genes in GO and KEGG databases were performed using Blast. The regulation networks between DEmiRNAs and the target mRNAs were constructed using Cytoscape. The reliability of the sequencing data was verified by stem-loop RT-qPCR. 【Results】 Deep sequencing of AmCK and AmT samples respectively generated 9 230 496 and 10 823 667 clean tags. There were 15 up-regulated and 6 down-regulated miRNAs in AmCK vs AmT comparison group, binding 3 503 and 3 252 target genes, which could be annotated to 40 and 39 GO terms as well as 104 and 99 metabolic pathways, respectively. Further investigation indicated that 17 DEmiRNAs within the regulation networks could bind to 116 serine proteaserelated mRNAs, and 14 DEmiRNAs were capable of binding to 54 ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis associated mRNAs. The result of stem-loop RT-qPCR showed that the variation trends in the expression levels of randomly selected four DEmiRNAs (miR-251-x, miR-9277-y, miR-1672-x and miR-4968-y) were consistent with those in sRNA-seq data, indicating the credibility and reliability of our sequencing data. 【Conclusion】Our study takes the lead in the prediction and investigation of DEmiRNAs and corresponding target genes in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica during the late stage of A. apis stress, and provides expression patterns and differential expression information of miRNAs. The DEmiRNAs including ame-miR-927b, miR-429-y and miR-8440-y may be involved in the regulation of serine protease and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. Complex regulations exist between DEmiRNAs and their target genes. DEmiRNAs are believed to participate in the interactions between the larval gut of A. m. ligustica and A. apis.
    Analysis of intestinal bacterial diversity in Bombyx mori larvae reared on different feeds
    HAO Chang-Fu, LI Gang, SUN Xi, TANG Jian, QIAN He-Ying, ZHAO Guo-Dong, DENG Xiang-Yuan, XU An-Ying
    2019, 62(1):  61-72.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.007
    Abstract ( 970 )   PDF (18931KB) ( 371 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of feed on intestinal microflora of different silkworm (Bombyx mori) varieties. 【Methods】 The polyphagous silkworm strain GS and common silkworm strain 1015 were fed with mulberry leaves (groups GS.m and C1015.m) and artificial diet (group GS.b), respectively, and the intestinal samples of the 4th instar larvae of B. mori were collected. The V3-V4 region of the 16S rDNA of intestinal microorganisms was sequenced by using the high-throughput sequencing method, and the differences in intestinal microflora between the two strains were compared.【Results】 The results showed that the dominant bacteria in B. mori intestine at the phyla level were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, those at the family level were Leuconostocaceae, Lactobacillaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, and those at the genus level were Weissella, Lactobacillus, Buchnera, Methylobacterium, Phyllobacterium, Enterococcus, Bacteroides, etc. After GS was fed with mulberry leaves and the artificial diet, Methylobacterium and Buchnera were present only in the intestine of GS fed with mulberry leaves, while Weissella and Brevibacillus appeared only in the intestine of GS fed with the artificial diet. The common dominant intestinal bacteria in silkworm strains GS and 1015 fed with mulberry leaves were Phyllobacterium, Bacteroides, Acinetobacter, etc. Compared with the intestinal microflora of the GS strain, Enterococcus, Herbaspirillum and Thiothrix were detected only in the strain 1015. The species diversity of intestinal bacteria in group GS.b was lower than those of groups GS.m and C1015.m. The intestinal bacteria whose abundance showed the most significant difference was Proteobacteria in GS.m,  Bacilli  and Lactobacillales in GS.b, and Enterococcus and Enterococcacea in C1015.m. 【Conclusion】 The intestinal microflora in different silkworm strains (GS and 1015) fed with mulberry leaves are more consistent as compared to that in silkworm strains fed with the artificial diet. The species diversity of intestinal microflora in the polyphagous silkworm fed with mulberry leaves is higher than that in the polyphagous silkworm fed with the artificial diet.
    Oviposition avoidance of Drosophila melanogaster to high salt and its biological significance
    GAO Lu, LI Zhao, HE Xiao-Yuan, GAN Ying, JIN Hong-Yun, YAN Qin, BAI Peng, LIU Wei
    2019, 62(1):  73-81.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.008
    Abstract ( 755 )   PDF (2536KB) ( 394 )     
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    【Aim】 To study the oviposition avoidance of Drosophila melanogaster to high salt, and to explore the biological significance of this phenomenon by the changes of the survival rate and developmental duration of the offspring under high salt. 【Methods】 The oviposition preference of female adults of D. melanogaster and D. yakuba to culture media containing 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl was assayed by the twochoice apparatus. The location effect of 1 mol/L NaCl on D. melanogaster adults was detected with oviposition apparatus. The oviposition ability of D. melanogaster adults under salt stress was detected with forced oviposition assay. The feeding behavior of D. melanogaster under salt stress was examined with capillary feeding and mouthpart extension assays. The visional and olfactory perceptions of oviposition selection were carried out in darkness and with Orco2 mutant, respectively. The sensory system mediating this behavior was studied by surgically removing the partial taste receptor of D. melanogaster forelegs and using the saline taste mutant Ionotropic Receptor 76b (IR76b). D. melanogaster was cultured on the media containing a serial of concentrations of NaCl (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mol/L), and the effects of NaCl on the developmental duration and survival rate of the offspring of D. melanogaster were investigated. 【Results】 The female adults of D. melanogaster avoided to lay eggs on the media containing 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl, with the oviposition indexes of -0.45 and -0.59, respectively. D. yakuba adults created similar response to high salt, with the oviposition preference indexes of -0.78 and -0.99, respectively. Both species tested showed oviposition avoidance to high concentration of KCl and CaCl2. D. melanogaster avoided to stay at the media containing 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl, with the location indexes of -0.74 and -0.88, respectively. There were comparable numbers of eggs laid on the media containing 0, 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl. D. melanogaster adults rejected 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl, with the feeding indexes of -0.37 and -0.41, respectively, and their appetite decreased as the concentration increased. Under darkness, D. melanogaster adults still showed a significant avoidance response to 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl, with the oviposition indexes of -0.49 and -0.59, respectively. After the forelegs of D. melanogaster adults were removed, the oviposition avoidance response of flies to 0.25 mol/L NaCl was impaired, with the oviposition index of -0.05. The oviposition avoidance response of IR76b mutant to 0.25 and 1 mol/L NaCl was compromised, with the oviposition indexes of 0.46 and 0.39, respectively. The time to puparium formation of the offspring on the media containing 0.25 mol/L NaCl was significantly prolonged by 0.40 d as compared to the control, and the larval survival rate of the offspring was decreased by 16.5%. The eggs of the offspring completely failed to form pupa and adults on the medium containing 1 mol/L NaCl. 【Conclusion】 Female adults of D. melanogaster display the oviposition avoidance to high salt through salt taste perception, thus promoting the development and larval survival of the offspring.
    Wing-form differentiation, phototaxis and flight performance of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) under near-zero magnetic fields
    ZHANG Ming, LIU Rui-Ying, HE Jing-Lan, YUAN Rui, WAN Gui-Jun, PAN Wei-Dong, CHEN Fa-Jun
    2019, 62(1):  82-90.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.009
    Abstract ( 936 )   PDF (2012KB) ( 533 )     
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    【Aim】 The geomagnetic field (GMF) is not constant and varies with space and time. To date, most studies related to the animal responses to magnetic field changes focus on magnetoreception during the magnetic orientation and navigation in migratory animals. However, it is still unclear how the changes in GMF intensity between the emigration and immigration regions of migratory animals affect the physiology and behavior of these animals. 【Methods】 The test insects of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, a migratory species, were collected from the paddy fields of Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Science. The wing-form differentiation, phototaxis and flight performance of N. lugens adults under near-zero magnetic field (NZMF) and GMF, were investigated by indoors simulating NZMF and GMF with Helmholtz coil systems. 【Results】 The results showed that compared to the GMF, the NZMF significantly enhanced the proportion of brachypterous male adults by 6.4% (P<0.05), while showed no significant effects on the proportion of brachypterous female adults (P>0.05). For macropterous females, the NZMF significantly increased the proportion of the 2-day-old adults that moved towards the light by 55% (P<0.05), while significantly decreased this proportion in the 4-day-old adults by 22% (P<0.05). Overall, the NZMF showed an age-dependent effect on the phototaxis of N. lugens, strengthening the phototaxis at the younger age and then weakening it at the older age. Similar effects were found in macropterous male adults, but no significant effects on the phototaxis of adults at a certain age were found (P>0.05). The NZMF significantly decreased the flight time of the 2-day-old macropterous male adults by 46% (P<0.05), and significantly increased the flight speed of macropterous female and male adults by 65% and 101% (P<0.05), respectively. In addition, the flight speed of macropterous male adults was significantly lower than that of macropterous female adults under the GMF (96%) (P<0.05), while no significant differences were found under the NZMF (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the NZMF can enhance the proportion of brachypterous individuals of N. lugens, with an age-dependent effect on the phototaxis of macropterous adult, strengthening the phototaxis at the younger age and then weakening it at the older age. Moreover, the NZMF can also change the flight strategy of macropterous individuals in a way that increases the flight speed and shortens the flight time at the same time without changing their flight distance.
    Potential impacts of climate change on the distribution of Subpsaltria yangi (Hemiptera: Cicadidae), a rare cicada species in the Loess Plateau and adjacent areas in China (In English)
    WANG Zhen-Peng, PENG Shou-Zhang, HE Zhi-Qiang, WEI Cong
    2019, 62(1):  91-100.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.010
    Abstract ( 638 )   PDF (7261KB) ( 237 )     
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    【Aim】 Climate change is expected to continue to play a dominate role in causing habitat loss for many organisms over the next decades. Due to the vulnerability of endemic species, it is essential to predict the impact of climate change on the distribution of species with a high degree of endemism in order to conserve biodiversity. 【Methods】 The current and future habitat suitability of the endemic cicada Subpsaltria yangi in China, an evolutionarily and ecologically significant species of conservation concern in the Cicadoidea, was assessed using the Maxent model based on the current known distribution records of this species combined with the bioclimatic and topographic data of related areas. 【Results】 Our results showed that this rare species is strictly confined to the Loess Plateau and adjacent areas. Future predictions to the year 2050 showed a clear decrease in suitable area for S. yangi, even under a moderate climate change scenario. Annual mean temperature, minimum temperature of the coldest month, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and precipitation of the wettest month are all critical factors associated with the habitat distribution of this species. Existing areas should be protected from encroachment, and some areas such as Tianshui in Gansu Province and Yan′an in Shaanxi Province should be treated as the key protected areas for S. yangi in response to pending climate change. 【Conclusion】 The habitat suitability maps for S. yangi obtained in this study will provide useful information for discovering new populations, identifying toppriority survey sites, planning land management around existing populations and setting priorities to restore natural habitat for more effective conservation of this rare species.
    Sequencing of the complete mitochondrial genome of Anopheles lindesayi and a phylogenetic analysis of the genus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) based on mitochondrial genomes (In English)
    MAO Qi-Meng, LI Ting-Jing, FU Wen-Bo, YAN Zhen-Tian, CHEN Bin
    2019, 62(1):  101-116.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.011
    Abstract ( 626 )   PDF (3475KB) ( 452 )     
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    【Aim】 To sequence and analyze the complete mitochondrial genome (mtgenome) of Anopheles lindesayi, and to construct and discuss the molecular phylogenetic relationships of the genus Anopheles based on the known mtgenomes. 【Methods】 The complete mtgenome of An. lindesayi was sequenced and annotated, and its general features and base composition were analyzed. The phylogenetic relationships between An. lindesayi and other 32 species in the genus Anopheles were reconstructed using maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods based on the concatenated nucleotide sequences and amino acid sequences of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), and the systematics of the genus Anopheles was discussed based on the phylogenetic analysis. 【Results】 The complete mtgenome sequence of An. lindesayi is 15 366 bp in length, which contains 13 PCGs, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and one control region. The mtgenome has a clear bias in nucleotide composition with a positive AT-skew and a negative GC-skew. The initiation codons of PCGs comply with the ATN rule except that COX1 uses TCG and ND5 uses GTG as the start codon, and the termination codon is TAA or incomplete T. The tRNAs have the typical clover-leaf structure, but  tRNASer(AGN) has a large loop instead of the conserved stem-and-loop structure. The control region has the highest AT content 94.54%). The sliding window analysis suggested that the PCGs are the most suitable markers to elucidate the phylogenetic relationships at the subgenus and genus levels. The phylogenetic analysis strongly supported each of the subgenera Cellia, Anopheles, Nyssorhynchus and Kerteszia to be a monophyletic group. An. lindesayi and An. atroparvus+An. quadrimaculatus A, the latter two traditionally classified as Anopheles Series, are separated by An. sinensis in Myzorhynchus Series on all the four phylogenetic trees, raising a new debate on the taxonomy of the two Series. 【Conclusion】This study obtained the complete mtgenome sequence of An. lindesayi and explored the mtgenome characteristics and phylogeny of the genus Anopheles, establishing the information frame for further studying the mtgenomes and phylogeny of the family Culicidae.

    Anatomical and scanning electron microscopy observation of the labial gland of Reticulitermes chinensis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    WANG Yi, JI Bao-Zhong, LIU Shu-Wen, XU Li-Jun, XIONG Jia-Xin
    2019, 62(1):  117-123.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.012
    Abstract ( 527 )   PDF (3633KB) ( 241 )     
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    【Aim】 To study the anatomical structure of the labial gland of Reticulitermes chinensis and its differentiation in individuals of different castes so as to provide a reference for further exploring the mechanism of stomodeal trophallaxis and caste differentiation. 【Methods】 The anatomical structure of the labial gland of R. chinensis and its differentiation among individuals of different castes were observed by microdissection, the structure and nerve innervation of the labial gland of worker were observed by scanning electron microscope, and the drinking water habit of workers and the water storage function of the labial gland reservoir were investigated by water drinking test. 【Results】 The labial gland of R. chinensis consists of a pair of symmetric structures, each consisting of a labial glandular acinus, a labial gland reservoir and relevant ducts. Each side duct respectively opens at the base of the hypopharynx. The labial gland of the termite queen was the most developed among various castes. The four parameters, i.e., the sizes of the labial gland and the labial gland reservoir, the size of acinus and the number of acini in labial gland, of termite queen were significantly higher than those of other castes of individuals. The labial gland of soldier, worker and alate were also rather developed, but the differences in the above four parameters among them were not significant. Revealed by scanning electron microscope, the acini of the labial gland of workers are connected by branch ducts and common ducts, and the nerves are distributed on the lateral side of the acini. Workers had the ability to drink water, and the obtained water was stored in the labial gland reservoir. 【Conclusion】 Among different castes, the termite queen of R. chinensis has the most developed labial gland, and the alate also has rather developed labial gland, suggesting that in addition to performing reproductive function, the termite queen also undertakes other jobs such as stomodeal trophallaxis and breeding larva. R. chinensis workers have the ability to drink water, and the labial gland reservoir has the function of storing water.
    Advances in the adaption to plant defenses in phytophagous insects
    ZHAO Chan, ZHANG Peng-Jun, YU Li-Xing, YU Xiao-Ping
    2019, 62(1):  124-132.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.013
    Abstract ( 983 )   PDF (1370KB) ( 868 )     
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    In the process of co-evolution between plants and phytophagous insects, plants are selected to optimize their defenses, whereas phytophagous insects are selected to develop diverse traits to adapt to plant defenses in turn. The adaption to plant defenses in phytophagous insects exhibits diversity. Insects can exploit the effectors from their oral secretions to inhibit or impair plant defenses, activate some proteins that are specifically expressed in their guts to inhibit the production of defensive metabolites or directly degrade defensive metabolites, and employ microbes that they harbored to indirectly suppress plant defenses. In addition, insects also can adapt to plant defenses with other behavioral or physiological traits, including oviposition, insect-induced plant volatiles, and recognition of defensive metabolites. In this article, we reviewed the research progress on how insects exploit diverse effectors that they harbored to adapt to plant defenses.

    Cloning of heat shock protein gene MpHsp70 and its expression analysis under UV-B stress in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    YANG Chang-Li, MENG Jian-Yu, SU Li, ZHANG Chang-Yu
    2019, 62(1):  133-140.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.014
    Abstract ( 604 )   PDF (3442KB) ( 284 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the molecular mechanism of Myzus persicae to adapt to UV-B stress.【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of the heat shock protein gene Hsp70 was cloned from M. persicae by using RT-PCR and RACE techniques, and its sequence characteristics were analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The relative expression levels of this gene in M. persicae adults exposed to UV-B stress for different time (0, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min) were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 The cDNA of a Hsp70 gene was cloned from M. persicae and named as MpHsp70 (GenBank accession no.: MF509827). The full length of the gene is 2 221 bp and the open reading frame (ORF) is 1 965 bp, encoding 654 amino acids. The relative molecular weight of its encoded protein is 71.41 kD, and the isoelectric point (pI) is 5.34. The highly conserved sequence EEVD shows that this protein belongs to the cytoplasmic heat shock protein (Hsp). The phylogenetic relationship analysis showed that MpHsp70 is highly homologous to Hsp70s of various insects and shows the high conservation characteristic of Hsp70 gene. The qPCR results showed that the relative expression level of MpHsp70 in M. persicae adults increased first, achieved the highest at 30 min post exposure, and then decreased with the prolonged UV-B irradiation time. 【Conclusion】MpHsp70 gene in M. persicae can respond to UV-B stress and may play an important role in the adaptation of M. persicae to UV-B stress.

    Contents of Vol. 62 Issue1
    2019, 62(1):  141-141.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2019.01.015
    Abstract ( 330 )   PDF (498KB) ( 69 )     
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