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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 January 2020, Volume 63 Issue 1
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Expression of glutathione S-transferase gene LsGSTe1 and its relationship with ethyl formate tolerance in the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne (Coleoptera: Anobiidae)
    YAN Yi, XU Kang-Kang, YANG Hong, HU Da-Ming, YANG Wen-Jia
    2020, 63(1):  1-10.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.001
    Abstract ( 655 )   PDF (2364KB) ( 164 )   PDF(mobile) (2364KB) ( 36 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the molecular characteristics and biological function of the glutathione S-transferase (GST) gene LsGSTe1 from the cigarette beetle, Lasioderma serricorne. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome database of L. serricorne, the full-length cDNA of LsGSTe1 was cloned using RT-PCR and then subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The expression levels of LsGSTe1 in different developmental stages (early instar larva, late instar larva, pupa, callow adult, and mature adult) and different tissues (integument, midgut, fat body, and Malpighian tubules) of the late instar larvae of L. serricorne, and the changes in the expression level of LsGSTe1 in the 5th instar larvae after exposure to ethyl formate fumigation were detected via qPCR. The target gene LsGSTe1 in the 5th instar larvae of L. serricorne was further knocked down by RNAi, and the changes in the susceptibility of the larvae to ethyl formate fumigation were determined by insecticide bioassay. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of LsGSTe1 in L. serricorne was cloned and deposited at GenBank under the accession number MN480468. The open reading frame of LsGSTe1 is 684 bp in length encoding a 227-amino-acid protein. LsGSTe1 has the conserved catalytic sites at the N-terminal domain and C-terminal domain. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that LsGSTe1 belongs to the Epsilon family of GSTs. The qPCR results showed that LsGSTe1 was constitutively expressed in the tested developmental stages and had a relatively higher expression level in the late instar larva. Tissue-specific expression profiles showed that the expression level of LsGSTe1 was the highest in the fat body, followed by in the midgut and integument, and the lowest in Malpighian tubules. The expression level of LsGSTe1 in the 5th instar larvae subjected to fumigation treatment with LC30 (10 μL/L) and LC50 (20 μL/L) of ethyl formate was significantly increased by 2.96 and 5.80 times as high as that of the control, respectively. RNAi results showed that the expression levels of LsGSTe1 were significantly reduced by 79.9% and 83.0% at 48 and 72 h after RNAi, respectively. The mortality of the 5th instar larvae treated with the LC50 of ethyl formate in the dsLsGSTe1 injection group at 72 h after RNAi increased by 32.4% as compared with that of the control group (dsGFP injection group). 【Conclusion】 It is inferred that LsGSTe1 may be involved in the detoxification of ethyl formate in L. serricorne

    Ultrastructure of adult compound eyes of Manulea affineola (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae)
    CHEN Qing-Xiao
    2020, 63(1):  11-21.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.002
    Abstract ( 538 )   PDF (39203KB) ( 222 )   PDF(mobile) (39203KB) ( 31 )     
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    【Aim】 Superposition eyes play significant roles in the evolution of compound eyes of insects. The study aims to elucidate the type and structural features of compound eyes of nocturnal Manulea affineola, attempting to fill a gap in the compound eye research in the Arctiinae, to expand the characteristic data of the compound eyes of nocturnal insects, and to provide evidence for exploring the variation trend of superposition eyes and the evolution of compound eyes. 【Methods】 The ultrastructure of adult compound eyes of M. affineola was observed using light and transmission electron microscopy. 【Results】 The adult compound eyes of M. affineola possess clear zones, which are formed by electron-lucent cytoplasm of six secondary pigment cells. The ommatidium has eight retinula cells, one of which is short and only located at the base of ommatidium. Within the clear zone, seven retinula cells gather into a bundle, which distally connects with the proximal end of the crystalline tract but does not form a rhabdom. Beneath the clear zone the seven retinula cells form a centrally-fused rhabdom. The rhabdoms display approximately square transverse profiles in the ommatidia in the dorsal rim area of the compound eye, whereas in the rest ommatidia they assume multi-branched transverse profiles. 【Conclusion】 The adult compound eyes of M. affineola are of the superposition eyes. The square rhabdoms in the dorsal rim area of the compound eye are likely related to the polarization sensitivity of insects.
    Isolation and identification of an entomopathogenic fungus infecting Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    ZHANG Ting-Feng, WANG Rui, LIU Chang-Zhong
    2020, 63(1):  22-28.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.003
    Abstract ( 599 )   PDF (13051KB) ( 99 )   PDF(mobile) (13051KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 One pathogenic fungus named TF-2 was isolated and purified from naturally entomopathogen-infected Acyrthosiphon pisum. This study aims to determine the classification status of the strain and to provide fungal resources for biological control of A. pisum. 【Methods】 The pathogenetic strain TF-2 was isolated and purified by back infestation test. Spore suspensions of TF-2 strain at different concentrations were prepared under microscope, and its virulence to adult pea aphid was measured by dipping method and in vitro leaf feeding method. The morphological characteristics of TF-2 strain were observed by optical microscope. The rDNA-ITS sequence of TF-2 strain was amplified by PCR and sequenced, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed for molecular identification of TF-2 strain. 【Results】 The results of virulence test showed that TF-2 strain showed strong pathogenicity to A. pisum adults, causing 100% corrected mortality at 6 d after treatment at a concentration of 1×107 conidia/mL spore suspension. The colony of TF-2 is round on PDA medium, white or light yellow felt-like, and the bottom of the colony is creamy. The results of optical microscope observation showed that the spore phialides of the strain are bottle-shaped, and there are 2-3 spore phialides singly or laterally grown on the hypha, (19-42) μm×(1.1-2.5) μm in size. The base is relatively thick and gradually taper to the tip, and the conidia are oval, (4.2-11.8) μm×(1.6-2.6) μm in size. Mycelium produces crystals as octahedra. The rDNA-ITS sequence of the strain TF-2 has 99% nucleotide identity with that of Lecanicillium longisporum (GenBank accession no.: KX426564) and shares the same branch of phylogenetic tree. 【Conclusion】 The strain TF-2 is determined as the pathogenic fungus L. longisporum with potential application value in biological control of A. pisum.
    Toxicity and risk assessment of eight neonicotinoid insecticides to workers of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apoidea)
    WANG Shuo, XIE Li-Xia, CHEN Hao, WU Guang-An, ZHOU Hao, WANG Yu, YU Yi, ZHENG Li, ZHAI Yi-Fan, YAN Yi
    2020, 63(1):  29-35.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.004
    Abstract ( 740 )   PDF (1166KB) ( 122 )   PDF(mobile) (1166KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to evaluate the toxicity and ecological risk of neonicotinoid insecticides to Bombus terrestris workers so as to provide a scientific basis for application of neonicotinoid insecticides in greenhouse. 【Methods】 The acute oral and 
    contact toxicities of eight neonicotinoid insecticides, including thiamethoxam, clothianidin, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, dinotefuran, thiacloprid, and flupyradifurone, to adult workers of B. terrestris were tested by feeding and contact
    methods, respectively, and the ecological risk of these neonicotinoid insecticides to B. terrestris was assessed. 【Results】 Clothianidin showed the highest toxicity to adult workers of B. terrestris by acute oral exposure, with the LD50 values of 0.0433 and 0.0330 μg a.i./bee at 24 and 48 h after exposure, respectively, while fluorofuranone showed the lowest toxicity, with the LD50 values of 72.4119 and 67.9079 μg a.i./bee at 24 and 48 h after exposure, respectively. The toxicities of the eight insecticides determined by acute contact were similar to those determined by acute oral exposure. Clothianidin showed the highest acute contact toxicity to adult workers of B. terrestris, with the LD50 values of 0.0220 and 0.0192 μg a.i./bee at 24 and 48 h after acute contact, respectively, while fluorofuranone showed the lowest toxicity, with the LD50 values of 141.7641 and 130.3062 μg a.i./bee at 24 and 48 h after acute contact, respectively. Ecological risk assessment revealed that acetamiprid, thiacloprid and flupirfenone showed low risk to adult workers of B. terrestris, while imidacloprid, nitenpyram and dinotefuran showed moderate risk. Thiamethoxam and clothianidin showed moderate risk to adult workers of B. terrestris in oral toxicity, while high risk in contact toxicity. 【Conclusion】 Among the eight neonicotinoid insecticides tested, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, and flupirfenone show low toxicity to adult workers of B. terrestris, while the other five neonicotinoid insecticides
    (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and dinotefuran) show high toxicity. We recommend that the five neonicotinoid insecticides with high and moderate risk should be banned in order to avoid exposing bumblebees to insecticide risk, while the other three insecticides with low risk might be considered for application in the field.
    Effects of sublethal doses of chlorpyrifos and chlorfenapyr on the growth, reproduction and detoxification enzymes of Blattisocius dentriticus (Acari: Ascidae)
    YANG Juan-Sheng, CONG Lin, WANG Cui-Lun, HOU Dong-Yuan, ZHOU Hao-Nan, YU Shi-Jiang, CHENG Lu-Yan, LEI Shuang, FU Yun-Mei, CHENG Ming-Ming, RAN Chun
    2020, 63(1):  36-45.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.005
    Abstract ( 588 )   PDF (1518KB) ( 130 )   PDF(mobile) (1518KB) ( 30 )     
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    【Aim】 In integrated pest management, chemical control also presents a certain lethality to natural enemy resources. To alleviate this contradiction, the study aims to investigate the effects of sublethal doses of chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos on the growth, reproduction, and detoxification enzyme activity and gene expression in Blattisocius dentriticus. 【Methods】 The 2-3 day-old adults of B. dentriticus were treated with chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos for 24 h using the residual film method, and the sublethal doses of the two pesticides were determined. The biological characteristics (fecundity, oviposition period, egg hatching rate and longevity of female adult) of F0 and F1 generations of female adults exposed to LC10 and LC30 of the two pesticides were investigated and compared. The changes in the activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and carboxylesterase (CarE) and the expression levels of their genes in B. dentriticus adults treated with LC10, LC30 and LC50 of the two pesticides were detected using enzyme activity assay and RT-PCR, respectively. 【Results】 The LC50 values of chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos against B. dentriticus adults at 24 h were 42.56 mg/L and 72.42 mg/L, respectively. After B. dentriticus adults were treated with LC10 and LC30 of chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos, the longevity and oviposition period of F0 generation of female adults were significantly shortened (P<0.05) as compared with those in the control (treatment with water), while the fecundity and egg hatching rate showed no significant change. The activities of GST, CYP450 and CarE of adults stayed stable after the adults were treated with chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos at LC10 and LC30, but significantly increased when the adults were exposed to the dose of LC50 (P<0.05). Gene expression profiles revealed that two GST genes (BdGST3 and BdGST6), three CYP450 genes (BdCYP2-4 ), and five CarE genes (BdCarE1-5) were significantly up-regulated after the adults were treated with chlorfenapyr at the doses of LC10, LC30 and LC50, while the expression levels of three GST genes (BdGST1, BdGST3 and BdGST4), three CYP450 genes (BdCYP2, BdCYP5 and BdCYP6) and two CarE genes (BdCarE1 and BdCarE2) were significantly up-regulated when the adults were treated with chlorpyrifos at the three doses. 【Conclusion】 The results show that chlorfenapyr and chlorpyrifos at LC10 and LC30 inhibit the growth and reproduction of F0 female mites of B. dentriticus, the two pesticides at LC10, LC30 and LC50 induce the expression of GST, CarE and CYP450 genes, and the activities of GST, CarE and CYP450 in adults exposed to the two pesticides at LC50 are significantly increased. This study provides a theoretical basis for screening the resistant strains of B. dentriticus and their application in fields.
    Population parameters of the red and green color morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on different soybean varieties
    MA Ya-Ling, LI Chun-Jie
    2020, 63(1):  46-53.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.006
    Abstract ( 514 )   PDF (1404KB) ( 73 )   PDF(mobile) (1404KB) ( 28 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of different soybean varieties on population parameters of the red and green color morphs of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, so as to provide an experimental basis for evaluation of resistance of soybean varieties to aphids and comprehensive control of pea aphids. 【Methods】 The adult lifespan, reproduction and population parameters of the red and green color morphs of the pea aphid on leaves of four soybean varieties (Fendoumulv 2, Nanxiadou 25, Nanheidou 20 and Nandou 5) in artificial climate chamber under the conditions of photoperiod 10L∶14D, temperature 23±1℃, relative humidity 60%±10% and illumination intensity 212 μmol/m2·s were observed and analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that the adult longevities of the red and green color morphs of the pea aphid on Fendoumulv 2 were the shortest and the fecundities were the weakest as compared with those on other soybean varieties. The adult longevity of the red color morph of the pea aphid was 1.07 d longer than that of the green color morph, and the intrinsic rate of increase of the red color morph was 23.93 times as high as that of the green color morph. The adult longevity of the red color morph of the pea aphid on Nanxiadou 25 was 2.46 d longer than that of the green color morph, and the intrinsic rate of increase of the red color morph was 5.86 times as high as that of the green color morph. The adult longevity of the red color morph of the pea aphid on Nanheidou 20 was 2.47 d longer than that of the green color morph, and the intrinsic rate of increase of the red color morph was 1.54 times as high as that of the green color morph. The adult longevity of the red color morph of the pea aphid on Nandou 5 was 0.02 d shorter than that of the green color morph, and the intrinsic rate of increase of the red color morph was 1.41 times as high as that of the green color morph. 【Conclusion】 Different soybean varieties have different effects on the life table parameters of the red and green morphs of the pea aphid, and the two color morphs show different adaptive responses to different soybean varieties.
    The relationship between the mating rate and frequency of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and its age, sex ratio and testicular volume
    FENG Bo, ZHANG Wan-Min, ZHANG Dan, QU Li-Li, MENG Wei, WANG Wei, WANG Hao-Jie, DU Yong-Jun
    2020, 63(1):  54-62.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.007
    Abstract ( 416 )   PDF (1531KB) ( 91 )   PDF(mobile) (1531KB) ( 30 )     
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    【Aim】 The mating behavior of insects is closely related to their age and the development of reproductive system. This study aims to explore the relationship between the mating activity and age, sex ratio and the testicular volume of male moths of the Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis, so as to provide the theoretical basis for the application of ACB sex pheromone in mass trapping and mating disruption in the field. 【Methods】 The mating rate and frequency of ACB were determined by mating experiments in the laboratory with different pairing nights, age and sex ratios, and the relationship between the testicular volume and the mating frequency of male moths was analyzed by testicular anatomy. 【Results】 The mating rate of ACB increased with the number of pairing nights, but the increase was more rapid from the 1st to the 5th night than that from the 6th to the 7th night. The mating rate of moths increased with the age from 1-day-old to 4-day-old, but the mating rate of the 5-day-old moths decreased significantly. There was no significant difference in the mating rate between the 1-3 day-old moths pairing one night and pairing 2-4 nights after eclosion. ACB could mate 1-3 times, but the proportion of moths mating thrice was very low. When the number of pairing female moths increased from 1 to 2, the mating rate of male moth increased significantly. However, when the number of female moths increased to 3, the mating rate of male moth decreased significantly, the mortality rate of male moths increased significantly, and the proportion of moths mating twice increased. Male moth preferred to mate with virgin female for its second mating. The testicular volume of male moths mating once was always significantly larger than that of the unmated males at the same day-old, and the testicular shrinkage of males was slightly delayed by mating. Mating twice significantly increased the testicular shrinkage of male moths. 【Conclusion】 This study clarifies the relationship between the mating of ACB and the age, the sex ratio and the testicular volume of male moth. The results provide a theoretical basis for the development of mating disruption and mass trapping by sex pheromone and confirm the effectiveness of its application in the field.
    Biological characteristics and field population dynamics of the jackfruit borer, Diaphania caesalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    WANG Zheng, ZHANG Shao-Hua, YANG Chen-Jun, MENG Qian-Qian, SUN Shi-Wei, GAO Sheng-Feng, LIU Ai-Qin, YANG Jing
    2020, 63(1):  63-72.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.008
    Abstract ( 699 )   PDF (3916KB) ( 125 )   PDF(mobile) (3916KB) ( 27 )     
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    【Aim】 The jackfruit borer, Diaphania caesalis, is an important boring pest for tropical woody grain crop, Artocarpus heterophyllus, and seriously threats the development of jackfruit industry in hotspot. This study aims to clarify the biological characteristics and field population dynamics of D. caesalis and to provide a theoretical basis for the accurate prediction and efficient management of this pest. 【Methods】 The morphological characteristics, developmental duration and fecundity of various developmental stages of D. caesalis feeding on jackfruit leaves were observed under the room conditions of 26±1℃, RH 70%±5% and a photoperiod of 14L∶10D. The annual life cycle of D. caesalis was observed in the natural netting room. The host diversity of D. caesalis was assessed by selective and non-selective tests. The population dynamics of D. caesalis in Qiongzhong County, Hainan Province were measured during January-December, 2018 by systematic field investigation. 【Results】 The durations of egg, larval, pupal, prepupal and adult stages of D. caesalis were 4.58±0.50, 21.00±1.36, 2.50±0.51, 10.20±0.53 and 12.31±3.16 d, respectively. The average generation duration was 50.50±3.54 d. The main morphological characteristics of each stage were as follows: egg, elliptic with a reticulate surface; larva, yellowish-brown and becoming white before pupation, ecdysial suture shown as inverted “Y” shape; pupa, reddish brown, the legs and wings reaching to the 5th abdominal segment; adult, wheat yellow, fore wing with melon seed- and tower-shaped spots. The female adult laid eggs multiple times, and the egg-laying amount of a female was 147.25±84.24. The larvae showed a significant preference for A. heterophyllus, A. champeden and A. altilis. Observation results in the laboratory and natural netting room revealed that D. caesalis occur 8 generations per year in Hainan province. The results of field investigation during January-December, 2018 revealed that the population increased from March to July, reached the peak from late July to September, began to decline after October and remained at a low level until February of the following year. 【Conclusion】 D. caesalis is an oligophagous insect and can reproduce fertile offspring on jackfruit leaves. The 5th generation appears from July to September, during which the population of this insect reaches the peak in Hainan. So the key period for precise management is the adult stage of the 4th generation, i.e., from July to August.
    Genetic variation and population genetic structure of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), in Northeast China based on microsatellite markers
    JIANG Shan, WANG Xing-Ya, WANG Xiao-Qi
    2020, 63(1):  73-84.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.009
    Abstract ( 614 )   PDF (1645KB) ( 74 )   PDF(mobile) (1645KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 The purpose of this study is to clarify the population genetic variation, population genetic structure, population genetic differentiation and gene flow of the small brown planthopper, Laodelphax striatellus, in Northeast China. 【Methods】 Nine pairs of microsatellite primers were used to sequence and analyze 375 samples of L. striatellus collected from 15 geographical populations in Northeast China, and the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, gene flow and population genetic structure of  these geographical populations were analyzed using GeneAlex 6.51, GENEPOP 4.0.9 and STRUCTURE 2.3.4 based on the nine microsatellite (SSR) molecular markers. 【Results】 The average number of effective alleles per locus was 6.898 among the 375 individuals of L. striatellus assayed. In general, the genetic diversity of different geographical populations of L. striatellus was high (mean observed heterozygosity Ho=0.548; mean expected heterozygosity He=0.582), and the gene flow between different populations was low (Nm=0.660). The results of UPGMA clustering tree, PCoA and STRCTURE analysis showed that L. striatellus populations in Northeast China were divided into two groups: populations from Jilin (JL) and Shenyang (SY2012, SY2013 and SY2014) were clustered into one group, and the remaining populations into another group. The AMOVA analysis showed that the genetic variation of L. striatellus was mainly from within the population (87%), and the inter-population variation level was low (13%). 【Conclusion】 The genetic diversity of L. striatellus in Northeast China is relatively high, different geographical populations have a certain degree of genetic differentiation, the gene exchange is low and a certain population genetic structure exists.
    Molecular identification of citrus fruit flies and genetic diversity analysis of Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in China based on mtDNA COI gene sequences
    CUI Zhong-Yi, ZHOU Qiong, LIU YiPeng, SI Pin-Fa, WANG Yang
    2020, 63(1):  85-96.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.010
    Abstract ( 904 )   PDF (2200KB) ( 154 )   PDF(mobile) (2200KB) ( 21 )     
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    【Aim】To clarify the species of fruit flies that harm citrus and the genetic diversity of different geographical populations and different host populations of the Chinese citrus fruit fly, Bactrocera minax in China. 【Methods】 The mtDNA COI gene was detected to identify the species of fruit flies that harm citrus. The sequences of this mtDNA COI gene fragment (about 505 bp) of citrus fruit flies of 535 individuals from the 28 geographical populations were aligned, and the inter- and intra-species genetic distance was calculated and the phylogenetic tree was constructed by using MEGA software. The genetic diversity of different geographical populations and different host populations of B. minax was analyzed by using DnaSP software. 【Results】 Four species of fruit flies (B. minax, B. dorsalis, B. tsuneonis, and B. ruiliensis) were identified from the infested citrus fruits, with the inter-species genetic distance of 0.0264-0.2410 and the intra-species genetic distance of 0.0000-0.0140. There was no overlap between the intra-and inter-species genetic distances. There was usually only one fruit fly species in single citrus fruit, and very few fruits were harmed by two species of fruit flies (4/43). Among all the fruit fly species, the proportion of B. minax individuals was the highest (90.70%). The genetic diversity of geographical populations of B. minax was high, and there were 17 haplotypes in 28 populations. 【Conclusion】 In the regions surveyed in this study, B. minax is the dominant fruit fly species that damages citrus fruits. There exist a high degree of genetic differentiation and a high risk of proliferation hazard of B. minax. The results of this study are helpful for monitoring and controlling citrus fruit flies.
    Application of duplex PCR with universal primers in arthropod species identification
    WANG Yan-Kun, LI Tian-Chu, NIAN Jing-Zi, CHEN Si-Cong, HAO Zhi-Xia, JIANG Jin-Zhuang, HUANG Da-Wei
    2020, 63(1):  97-103.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.011
    Abstract ( 778 )   PDF (3013KB) ( 105 )   PDF(mobile) (3013KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to amplify two marker genes in a single sample by duplex PCR with universal primers of mitochondrial genes, so as to simplify the process of arthropod species identification. 【Methods】 The primers that could amplify two different molecular markers including mitochondrial COI gene and 16S rDNA were added in a single PCR experiment, and the genomic DNA of specimens of 14 arthropod species belonging to 14 families of eight orders of three classes were amplified. The amplification products were sequenced after electrophoresis and gel extraction, and the similarity sequences were searched using BLAST online, to test the effectiveness of the universal primers based on duplex PCR method for species identification among different animal groups. 【Results】 The primers based on COI and 16S rDNA could amplify target genes from the genomic DNA of the 14 species belonging to 14 families of eight orders of three classes. The sequencing results of the amplified products further confirmed the accuracy of the amplification. 【Conclusion】 This method not only ensures the high accuracy of species identification, but also significantly reduces the consumption of time and DNA sample, which is very important for the rapid and accurate identification of species, especially for rare material samples.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress and prospects of dopamine and its receptors in insects
    XU Gang, YE Gong-Yin
    2020, 63(1):  104-122.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.01.010
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (3241KB) ( 181 )   PDF(mobile) (3241KB) ( 49 )     
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    Dopamine (DA) is an important neurotransmitter, and exerts its effects via specifically binding to dopamine receptors (DARs). Insect DARs can be divided into D1-like DARs, D2-like DARs, and dopamine/ecdysteroid receptor (DopEcR). D1-like DARs have two subtypes, DOP1 and DOP2, both increasing intracellular cAMP via coupling to Gs signaling, and DOP2 can also activate Gq to mobilize intracellular Ca2+ signaling. D2-like DARs have only one subtype, DOP3, decreasing intracellular cAMP via coupling to Gi signaling. DopEcR can respond to both DA and ecdysteroids. In this review, we summarized the research progress of the regulation of DA, dopaminergic neurons, and pharmacological properties and physiological functions of DARs in insects in recent years. The genes in the processes of biosynthesis, transport and degradation of DA regulate multiple phenotypes, such as cuticle melanization, wing color and morphology of wing scales. DA is synthesized and released in dopaminergic neurons, and different types of dopaminergic neurons have different functions. With the development of single-cell sequencing and DA real-time imaging technologies in recent years, this will be beneficial to further investigate the functions of specific neurons. The activities of agonists and antagonists of DARs among insects are very different. These pharmacological differences will provide important basis for developing highly effective and selective insecticides targeting insect DARs. DARs are involved in regulating various physiological and behavioral processes in insects, such as feeding, learning, memory, forgetting, courtship, mating, sleep and wakefulness. The continuously successful application of CRISPR/Cas9 in various insects, as well as the combination of abundant genetic manipulation techniques in Drosophila melanogaster, will facilitate us to accurately investigate the functions of DARs.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 63 Issue 1
    2020, 63(1):  122-122. 
    Abstract ( 314 )   PDF (469KB) ( 32 )   PDF(mobile) (469KB) ( 4 )     
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