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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 March 2020, Volume 63 Issue 3
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Identification and expression analysis of miR-2769 target gene in Bombyx mori
    SUN Yan-Yan, WANG Jing-Ya, WANG Lu, LI Xiao-Zhe, KAN Yun-Chao, QIAO Hui-Li
    2020, 63(3):  245-254.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.001
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (1891KB) ( 124 )   PDF(mobile) (1891KB) ( 34 )     
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    【Aim】 MiRNAs play very important roles in insect metamorphosis. The study of miRNAs and their target genes in Bombyx mori will help to elucidate the molecular mechanism of miRNAs involved in the metamorphosis of this insect. 【Methods】 The expression of miR-2769 in the fat body of B. mori was detected by qRT-PCR after injecting molting hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), into the hemolymph of the day-2 5th instar larvae. The target genes of miR-2769 of B. mori were predicted by bioinformatics methods. The interaction between miR-2769 and its predicted target gene BmE75B was analyzed by dual luciferase reporter assay system. The expression levels of miR-2769 and different splice isoforms of its target gene BmE75 at different developmental stages (larva, pupa and adult) and larval tissues (head, epidermis, silk gland, fat body, testis, ovary, Malpighian tubules, midgut and hemolymph) of B. mori were detected by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The results showed that miR-2769 could significantly inhibit the expression of luciferase reporter gene by interacting with the 3′UTR binding site of BmE75B of B. mori. The qRT-PCR results showed that miR-2769 and BmE75A/BmE75B presented the opposite expression trends in the fat body of B. mori post induction by 20E. The spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that miR-2769 and different splice isoforms of the target gene BmE75 had specific expression characteristics in different developmental stages and larval tissues of B. mori. The expression levels of miR-2769 and BmE75A were low in B. mori at different developmental stages; however, the expression level of BmE75B was relatively high in the pupal stage and that of BmE75C was extremely high in the late 5th instar larvae and early pupae. Furthermore, the expression of miR-2769 was negatively correlated with that of different splice isoforms of BmE75. miR-2769 promoted the expression of BmE75A in the hemolymph and BmE75B in the fat body of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori, while it inhibited the expression of different splice isoforms of BmE75 in other tissues. 【Conclusion】 MiR-2769 can negatively regulate the expression of different splice isoforms of BmE75 by interacting with the 3′UTR region of E75B in B. mori.
    Cloning and expression profiling of vitellogenin gene and its response to UV-A stress in Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
    LIU Fang, MENG Jian-Yu, YANG Chang-Li, ZHANG Chang-Yu
    2020, 63(3):  255-265.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.002
    Abstract ( 465 )   PDF (3201KB) ( 116 )   PDF(mobile) (3201KB) ( 25 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of UV-A stress on the vitellogenin (Vg) gene expression and fecundity of the Asian corn borer Ostrinia furnacalis by cloning Vg and analyzing its expression pattern. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of Vg gene was cloned from O. furnacalis with RT-PCR and RACE techniques and analyzed by bioinformatic methods. The relative expression levels of Vg gene in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-5th instar larva, pupa and adult), different tissues (head, leg, cuticle, ovary, midgut and fat body) of female adults, and female adults of O. furnacalis exposed to UV-A for different time (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5 and 4 h) were detected by RT-qPCR. The reproduction and development of the F1 generation of O. furnacalis adults after exposure to UV-A for 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h/d were measured. 【Results】 The complete sequence of Vg gene from O. furnacalis was cloned and named as OfVg (GenBank accession no.: MK782978). Its full-length cDNA is 5 760 bp and contains a 5 332 bp open reading frame (ORF), encoding 1 776 amino acids with the predicted molecular weight of 202.10 kD and isoelectric point of 9.06. OfVg contains three functional domains (Vg-N, DUF 1943D and VWD) but has no transmembrane region. The phylogenetic analysis showed that OfVg was most closely related to Vg proteins of other lepidopteran insects. Developmental expression profiling showed that the expression level of OfVg in female adult was significantly higher than those in other developmental stages, reaching the peak in 24 h-old female adult. Tissue expression profiling revealed that OfVg was specifically expressed in the fat body of female adults. UV-A stress induced the expression of OfVg in female adults, with the expression level decreasing firstly and then increasing with the increase of exposure time, reaching the maximum at 3.5 h post exposure to UV-A, and then decreasing abruptly. When the adults were exposed to UV-A for 1, 2 and 3 h/d, their fecundity increased, and the developmental duration of larvae of F1 generation was prolonged significantly. 【Conclusion】 The expression level of OfVg varies in different developmental stages, different tissues of female adults and female adults of O. furnacalis exposed to UV-A for different time. This study lays a foundation for further studying the effect of UV-A stress on the development and reproduction of O. furnacalis.
    Transcriptomic analysis of learning and memory-related genes in nurses of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    GAO Yan, ZHU Ya-Nan, ZHANG Wei, WANG Xue-Yan, LI Qiu-Fang, SU Song-Kun, NIE Hong-Yi
    2020, 63(3):  266-277.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.003
    Abstract ( 489 )   PDF (2468KB) ( 111 )   PDF(mobile) (2468KB) ( 36 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to screen out the genes closely related to learning and memory in nurses of the Italian honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica. 【Methods】 A. m. ligustica individuals at defined age (10-day-old nurses, 21-day-old nurses and 21-day-old foragers) in artificial bee colonies were collected, and the differences in learning and memory abilities of the three groups were determined using proboscis extension reflex (PER) assay. The gene expression levels in brains of the 10-day-old and 21-day-old nurses with and without learning ability were analyzed by RNA-seq technique, and the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) closely related to learning and memory were screened. The differentially expressed genes were subjected to GO and KEGG enrichment analysis. The expression levels of three DEGs randomly selected (the up-regulated genes TpnCⅢa and MED23, and down-regulated gene Pkc) in brains of the 10-day-old and 21-day-old nurses with and without learning ability were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 The results of PER assay showed that the learning ability of 21-day-old nurses of A. m. ligustica was significantly higher that of the 10-day-old nurses after they were trained five times, but the learning ability between the 21-day-old nurses and the 21-day-old foragers showed no significant difference. Similarly, the memory ability of the 21-day-old nurses was significantly higher than that of the 10-day-old nurses, but the memory ability between the 21-day-old nurses and 21-day-old foragers showed no significant difference. RNA-seq analysis demonstrated that 88 DEGs were closely related to learning and memory of nurses, with 18 genes up-regulated and 70 genes down-regulated. The results of GO enrichment showed that up-regulated DEGs were most enriched in the biological process classification, mainly in the related aspects of signal transduction, protein processing and modification. Down-regulated DEGs were also enriched in the biological process classification, mainly concentrated in the related aspects of transcription, signal transduction and protein biosynthesis, with significant enrichment in the related aspects of transcription. The KEGG enrichment showed that down-regulated DEGs were significantly enriched in phagosome, phototransduction, and AGE-RAGE signal pathway. The qPCR results showed that the expression trends of the differentially expressed genes TpnCⅢa, MED23 and Pkc in brains of the 10-day-old and 21-dayold nurses with and without learning ability were consistent with RNA-seq data. 【Conclusion】 The PER assay indicated that age is an important factor that affects the learning and memory abilities of A. m. ligustica nurses. This study obtained the change trends of gene expression and its enrichment analysis in the brain of nurses after learning train, providing a theoretical foundation for further research on the molecular mechanism of learning and memory of nurses.
    Effects of earthworm extract on the oxidative damage, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme contents in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    XU Qi-Lin, QI Gui-Lan, JIANG Yi-Long, NI Kui, CHEN Ya-Ying, LIU Han-Yang, ZHU Jia-Wen, WU Yong-Sheng
    2020, 63(3):  278-284.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.004
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (1321KB) ( 49 )   PDF(mobile) (1321KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 To study the effect of earthworm extract on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme contents in the midgut of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, so as to explore the antioxidant function of earthworm extract. 【Methods】 The 5th instar larvae of B. mori were fed with mulberry leaves treated with the 50-, 100- and 200-fold dilutions of the original earthworm (Eisenia foetida) extract solution, respectively, the contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as the products of oxidative damage in the midgut of the larvae treated for 6 d were determined, the expression levels of key antioxidant enzyme genes Cat, Sod and GSH-Px were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR, and the contents of antioxidant enzymes including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were detected by enzyme linkedimmunosorbent assay. 【Results】 The contents of MDA, CAT, SOD and GSH-Px and the T-AOC in the 50-, 100- and 200-fold dilution treatment groups showed no significant difference from those in the control group, and the LDH content in the 200-fold dilution treatment group was significantly decreased by 9.85% as compared to that in the control group. The expression levels of Cat and GSH-Px in the 100-fold dilution treatment group was significantly higher than those in the control group. The expression levels of Sod in the three dilution treatment groups were significantly higher than that in the control group. 【Conclusion】 Dietary earthworm extract can improve the antioxidant capacity in B. mori by reducing the LDH content and increasing the expression level of antioxidant enzyme genes.
    Histomorphological observation of the embryonic development of female Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    ZHU Xiang-Jie, XU Xin-Jian, ZHOU Shu-Jing, HAO Zhen-Bang, CHEN Lin, ZHOU Bing-Feng
    2020, 63(3):  285-293.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.005
    Abstract ( 407 )   PDF (10757KB) ( 89 )   PDF(mobile) (10757KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the embryonic development process of the female Eastern hive honey bee, Apis cerana cerana. 【Methods】 In the normally developed colony of A. c. cerana, the queen was restricted to the comb with worker cells for 1 h by the queen controller. The queen laid fertilized female eggs in the worker cells. Then the patch of comb with these eggs was cut off and incubated at the conditions of constant temperature 35±0.2℃ and RH 75%±5% in incubator. The newly obtained eggs laid by queen within 1 h were set as the age 0 h, and egg samples were collected every 4 h. The embryonic development of female A. c. cerana was observed by paraffin section based on female eggs. 【Results】 Based on the morphological characteristics, the embryonic development process of female A. c. cerana can be divided into four stages: (1) Cleavage (0-12 h), with energids moving to the surface of embryo in a doublelayer arrangement; (2) Formation of blastoderm (12-28 h), with energids arranged in a single layer and cytomembrane form; (3) Formation of germinal layers (28-40 h), with lateral plates covering the middle plate, and then two lateral plates coalescing together at the ventral midline; (4) Formation of organ systems (40-68 h). 【Conclusion】 In this study, the morphological changes of embryos of female A. c. cerana were identified, and the developmental stages and corresponding time were defined based on the morphological characteristics of each stage. The results of this study are helpful for the further study of honey bee ecology, developmental biology, and nutritional science related to embryonic development.
    Transcriptomic analysis reveals the molecular mechanism underlying Nosema ceranae infection of Apis mellifera ligustica
    GENG Si-Hai, ZHOU Ding-Ding, FAN Xiao-Xue, JIANG Hai-Bin, ZHU Zhi-Wei, WANG Jie, FAN Yuan-Chan, WANG Xin-Rui, XIONG Cui-Ling, ZHENG Yan-Zhen, FU Zhong-Min, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2020, 63(3):  294-308.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.006
    Abstract ( 585 )   PDF (3568KB) ( 122 )   PDF(mobile) (3568KB) ( 42 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to reveal the molecular mechanism underlying Nosema ceranae infection of Apis mellifera ligustica at the transcriptome level by investigation of differentially expressed genes (DEGs), virulence factors and infection-associated factors. 【Methods】 Following the criteria of P≤0.05 and |log2(Fold change)|≥1, DEGs within NcCK vs NcT1, NcCK vs NcT2 and NcT1 vs NcT2 comparison groups were screened out via the comparative analysis based on our previously obtained high-quality transcriptome datasets from purified spores of N. ceranae (NcCK) and N. ceranae in the midgut of A. m. ligustica workers at 7 d and 10 d post infection (NcT1 and NcT2, respectively). Venn analysis, GO classification and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis of DEGs were conducted using the related bioinformatic software, virulence factors and infection-associated factors of N. ceranae were summarized and analyzed based on Nr database annotations, KEGG database annotations and related literature documentations. The transcriptomic data and expression trends of DEGs were verified by RT-qPCR. 【Results】 In total, 1 397, 1 497 and 52 DEGs were identified in NcCK vs NcT1, NcCK vs NcT2 and NcT1 vs NcT2, respectively. Venn analysis showed that 10 up-regulated genes and one downregulated gene were shared by various comparison groups. GO functional classification results showed the largest functional terms of DEGs in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2 were metabolic process, cellular process, single-organism process, cell, cell part, organelle, catalytic activity and binding, while DEGs in NcT1 vs NcT2 were mostly enriched in metabolic process, cellular process, singleorganism process, catalytic activity and binding. In addition, KEGG pathway enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs within NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2 were enriched in 80 and 79 pathways, respectively. The number of upregulated genes enriched in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and MAPK signaling pathway was more than that of downregulated genes. Investigation of virulence factors displayed that spore wall protein 9 encoding gene and spore wall protein 12 encoding gene were down-regulated in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2, while spore wall protein 8 encoding gene was down-regulated only in NcCK vs NcT1. In additional, the expression levels of spore wall protein precursor encoding gene, spore wall and anchoring disk complex protein encoding gene, chitinase encoding gene, polar tube protein encoding gene, and ricin B lectin encoding gene were all up-regulated in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2. Moreover, the infection-associated factor analysis demonstrated that in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2 three key enzyme genes engaged in glycolytic pathway were upregulated, while in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2 three ATP/ADP transferaseassociated genes were up-regulated but one down-regulated. Two ABC transporterassociated genes were up-regulated in NcCK vs NcT1 and NcCK vs NcT2, while four down-regulated. Finally, the RT-qPCR results verified the authenticity of the transcriptomic data and expression trends of DEGs. 【Conclusion】 In this study the transcriptomic dynamics of N. ceranae infecting the A. m. ligustica worker was deciphered through the comparative analyses. Our findings revealed that genes encoding virulence factors including spore wall protein, spore wall and anchoring disk complex protein, chitinase, polar tube protein and ricin B lectin, and genes encoding infection-associated factors such as hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, 6-phosphofructokinase, ATP/ADP transferase and ABC transporters, are likely to play key roles in pathogen proliferation, providing a basis for clarifying the infection mechanism of N. ceranae.
    Low temperature adaptability of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and its spring source in wheat fields in Yangling, Shaanxi, northwestern China
    XU Xiang-Li, HE Le-Le, YU Xiao-Ting, WU Jun-Xiang
    2020, 63(3):  309-316.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.007
    Abstract ( 504 )   PDF (1880KB) ( 119 )   PDF(mobile) (1880KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the survival rate and response to rapid cold acclimation in the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae, under extremely low temperature so as to provide a basis for the study of cold tolerance and accurate prediction of this insect. 【Methods】 The supercooling point and freezing point of the laboratory population of S. avenae at various developmental stages were determined, the survival rates of the 1st instar nymphs and the apterous adults exposed to extremely low temperature from -7℃ to -11℃ for 3 h and those exposed to lethal temperature for 3 h after cold acclimation at 0℃ for 1-5 h, respectively, and then transferred to 15℃ for 72 h, were assessed, and the population dynamics of S. avenae was investigated during the whole wheat growth period in Yangling, Shaanxi, northwestern China. 【Results】 The supercooling points of the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs of S. avenae showed a small fluctuation from -27.4℃ to -19.2℃ and from -27.3℃ to -18.3℃, respectively, while those of the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs and adults showed a large fluctuation from -27.4℃ to -10.7℃, from -26.7℃ to -12.5℃, and from -26.7℃ to -11.2℃, respectively. The supercooling point and freezing point of S. avenae increased significantly with the increasing instars. The supercooling point of adults was significantly higher than those of the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. There were no significant differences in the supercooling points of the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs and adults between the alate and apterous morphs at the same developmental stage. The analysis of survival rate at low temperature showed that the lethal temperatures (80% mortality) for the 1st instar nymphs and apterous adults remained around -10.5℃ and -8.1℃, respectively. The rapid cold acclimation at 0℃ improved significantly the survival rate of the 1st instar nymphs and apterous adults at extremely low temperature, with the highest survival rate after cold acclimation for 2 h. The results of field investigation from 2018 to 2019 revealed that S. avenae could overwinter as parthenogenetic nymphs and adults in Yangling, Shaanxi. 【Conclusion】 S. avenae shows strong low temperature adaptability. Its parthenogenetic aphids can overwinter successfully in Yangling, Shaanxi. These results suggest that aphids in the wheat field in early spring may source partly from the survived locally overwintering individuals of this aphid.
    Effects of age and mating status on the characteristics of internal genital organs of male moths of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
    FENG Bo, ZHANG Wan-Min, ZHANG Dan, QU Li-Li, MENG Wei, WANG Wei, WANG Hao-Jie, DU Yong-Jun
    2020, 63(3):  317-326.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.008
    Abstract ( 410 )   PDF (12657KB) ( 66 )   PDF(mobile) (12657KB) ( 23 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of age and mating on the internal genital organs of male adults of Ostrinia furnacalis and to ascertain the relationship between the mating status of O. furnacalis male moths and sex pheromone trapping. 【Methods】 The characteristics of internal genital organs of male adults of O. furnacalis at different age (day-old) and in different mating statuses were studied with behavioral bioassay and genital anatomy and compared with those of male adults captured with sex pheromone lure in the field. 【Results】 In addition to the testis, vas deferens, vesiculae seminales, accessory glands, ductus ejaculatorius duplexes and ductus ejaculatorius simplex, the reproductive system of male moths of O. furnacalis also contains a pair of ponds of accessory gland. The primary segment of ductus ejaculatorius simplex can be divided into five segments (PS1-5), and the segment PS1 can be divided into five regions (PS1Ⅰ-Ⅴ). The genital contents in the genital duct can be grouped into five grades (grade 0-4) according to the compactness, with two statuses of the genital duct fully and not fully filled with contents. The grades of genital contents of different genital organs in 1-day-old male moth were different, but the age had no evident effect on the grade of genital contents of the reproductive system of male moth. Except for vas deferens, vesiculae seminales and ponds of accessory gland, the grades of genital contents of other reproductive organs in the newly mated male moths were significantly different from those in the unmated individuals. With the increase of time after mating, the grades of genital contents of male reproductive organs were gradually recovered, and the recovery rates of different genital organs were different. After 60 h, the grades of genital contents of the mated males were the same as that of the unmated individuals. However, until 228 h after mating, the genital contents of PS5 in the mated male moths still showed some different morphological characteristics like breaks from those of the unmated male moths. In the male moths attracted by sex pheromone lures, the reproductive system of 60.9% males showed the same characteristics as that of the unmated male moths. 【Conclusion】 The characteristics of the genital content of PS5 can be used to distinguish the mated and unmated male moths of O. furnacalis, and most of male moths of O. furnacalis attracted by sex pheromone are unmated. The results of this study lay a theoretical foundation for the determination of mating status of male moths of O. furnacalis and for pest moth monitoring and control by sex pheromone trapping.
    Cooperatively breeding behavior of Sclerodermus sichuanensis (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae) on the host Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    ZHAO Qi, MENG Ling, LI Bao-Ping
    2020, 63(3):  327-333.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.009
    Abstract ( 397 )   PDF (1512KB) ( 103 )   PDF(mobile) (1512KB) ( 15 )     
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    【Aim】 Sclerodermus spp. are unique in parasitoids for cooperative brood care by foundresses, an uncommon quasi-social behavior. This study aims to investigate how foundresses perform such cooperatively breeding behaviors on an unnatural yet larger host. 【Methods】 The larvae of the long-horned beetle Monochamus alternatus with the body weight ranging from 0.16 to 0.44 g were selected at random, individually weighed, and then parasitized by 1, 2 and 4 foundresses (mated and naive female adults) of S. sichuanensis, respectively. The foundress preoviposition time and offspring developmental parameters of S. sichuanensis were measured, and the effects of host body weight (as a continuous predictor variable) and foundress number (factorial predictor variable) on these parameters were analyzed. 【Results】 All of the observed variables were not influenced by an interaction between host body weight and foundress number, suggesting that the two factors are independent from each other in their effects on the measured performances. The pre-oviposition time of S. sichuanensis was prolonged with the increase in host body weight, but the pre-oviposition time under the 4-foundress treatment was shortened by 18.3% and 20.6%, respectively, as compared to those under the 1- and 2-foundress treatments. The average number of offspring parasitoids per foundress of S. sichuanensis under the 1-foundress treatment was 1.5 and 3.3 times as high as those under the 2- and 4-foundress treatments, respectively. The average number of offspring parasitoids per foundress did not vary with the host body weight. The offspring sex ratios (proportion of males) of S. sichuanensis under the 2- and 4-foundress treatments slightly increased as compared to that under the 1-foudress treatment and were ultra female-biased. The offspring sex ratio of S. sichuanensis did not vary with the host body weight. The egg-to-adult survival rate of S. sichuanensis offspring under the 4-foundress treatment decreased by 37.4% and 30.5%, respectively, as compared to those under the 1- and 2-foundress treatments. The egg-to-adult survival rate of S. sichuanensis offspring did not vary with the host body weight. The offspring body size (hind tibia length) of S. sichuanensis increased as an increasing function of host body weight, but was not influenced by foundress number. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study suggest that the cooperatively breeding performance of S. sichuanensis parasitoids on a large and unnatural host depends more on the foundress number than on the host body size.
    Effects of invasion intensity of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), on the discovery-dominance trade-off of species of native ant communities
    YAN Di, LU Zhi-Xing, WANG Qing, YU Xiao-Yu, ZHANG Nian-Nian, LI Qiao, CHEN You-Qing
    2020, 63(3):  334-342.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.010
    Abstract ( 491 )   PDF (1522KB) ( 86 )   PDF(mobile) (1522KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aim】 Discovery-dominance trade-off plays an important role in interspecific competition. This study aims to clarify how the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, with different invasion intensities affects the discovery-dominance trade-off of species of native ant communities, and to explore the competition mechanism between the red imported fire ant and native ant species. 【Methods】 From October to November 2017, ants in an Phyllanthus emblica plantation in Mouding County, Chuxiong Prefecture, Yunnan Province were collected by using baits and pitfall methods, and then the discovery ability, recruitment ability, dominance ability, the earliest time period of discovering baits and the individual number of each ant species were measured and recorded. 【Results】 The invasion of the red imported fire ants significantly affected the discovery-dominance trade-off of species of the native ant communities. There was no correlation between the relative discovery ability and the relative dominance ability of species of the native ant community in the strong invasion plot (5.6 ant colonies/100 m2), a weak but not significant correlation in the weak invasion plot (0.14 ant colonies/100 m2), and a significantly negative correlation in the control plot (without ant colonies)(strong invasion plot: r=-0.01, P=0.97; weak invasion plot: r=-0.60, P=0.21; control plot: r=-0.81, P=0.04). The red imported fire ants in the strong invasion plot discovered baits significantly faster than those in the weak invasion plot. The ant communities in the strong invasion plot discovered baits within 5 min, but the ant communities in the weak invasion plot needed 10-60 min to discover baits (χ2(5)=33.37, P<0.001). The frequencies of discovering baits and dominance behavior of the red imported fire ants in the strong invasion plot were significantly higher than those in the weak invasion plot (frequency of discovering baits: χ2(1)=17.27, P<0.001; frequency of dominance behavior: χ2(1)=6.25, P=0.03), but there was no significant difference in the recruitment frequency between the two invasion plots (χ2(1)=1.75, P=0.55). 【Conclusion】 The red imported fire ants break the discovery.dominance trade-off of species of native ant communities, and with the increase of its population, the discovery-dominance trade-off is affected and even destroyed. These results provide the scientific evidence for understanding the invasion mechanism of the red imported fire ant.
    Effects of stocking density of alien Apis mellifera on the community structure and species diversity of native pollinating bees in Luoping, Yunnan, southwestern China
    HU Xiao-Ling, REN Xiao-Xiao, MA Fang-Zhou, MENG Bo-Da, ZHANG Rui, HUANG Yong-Quan, WU Shui-Ju, GU Zhong-Tang, WU Jun, DONG Kun
    2020, 63(3):  343-353.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.011
    Abstract ( 460 )   PDF (2072KB) ( 113 )   PDF(mobile) (2072KB) ( 22 )     
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    【Aims】 In recent years, with the improvement of traffic conditions, alargenumber of Apis mellifera apiaries migrate from all parts of the country to Yunnan for beekeeping every year. This study aims to clarify the impact of stocking density of A. mellifera as an alien bee species on the species, quantity and species diversity of native pollinating bees in Yunnan, southwestern China. 【Methods】 The native pollinating bees were collected by Malaise traps and the community structure of native pollinating bees was investigated at six test sites including two sites (Lute and Zoumatian) with high stocking density of A. mellifera, two sites (Waina and Xiaalie) with medium stocking density and two sites (Maba and Xiazhuangke) with low stocking density in Luoping County, Yunnan Province. Each site has two habitat types, i.e., wooded mountain habitat and farmland habitat. The differences of species diversity index (H′), evenness index (J′) and richness index (Dm) of native pollinating bees under different stocking densities of A. mellifera and different habitat types were compared and analyzed. 【Results】 In total 1 715 individuals of native pollinating bees belonging to 53 species of 10 families were collected, among which Apidae, Halictidae and Vespidae were the dominant groups, and Apis cerana and Lasioglossum excisum the dominant species. In the range of stocking density (the number of A. mellifera colonies in an area with a radius of about 3 km around each test site) from 723 to 2 750 honeybee colonies, the species number and individual number of native pollinating bees decreased with the increase of stocking density of A.mellifera, and the species diversity index (H′) and richness index (Dm) also decreased correspondingly. However, the evenness indices (J′) of native pollinating bees were not significantly affected by the stocking density of A. mellifera. In addition, the species diversity of native pollinating bees in wooded mountain habitats was significantly higher than that in farmland habitats. 【Conclusion】 The community structure and species diversity of native pollinating bees in Luoping, Yunnan are significantly influenced by the stocking density of A. mellifera. In the range of stocking density from 723 to 2 750 honeybee colonies, the higher the stocking density of A. mellifera, the smaller the number of individuals, the number of species, diversity index and richness index of native pollinating bees. This study provides ideas for further research on the rational control of stocking density of A. mellifera in order to protect the species diversity of native pollinating bees in Yunnan.
    Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Carpoglyphus lactis (Acari: Carpoglyphidae)
    ZHAO Ya-Nan, LI Chao-Pin
    2020, 63(3):  354-364.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.012
    Abstract ( 537 )   PDF (2178KB) ( 106 )   PDF(mobile) (2178KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 To sequence and analyze the complete mitochondrial genome of Carpoglyphus lactis, and to explore the phylogenetic position of C. lactis in Acariformes based on the mitochondrial genome sequence, so as to provide a scientific basis for the classification of Acariformes and the study of mitochondrial genome of Carpoglyphidae. 【Methods】 Genomic DNA of C. lactis was initially extracted from adult mites of C. lactis bred in the laboratory using conventional phenol-chloroform and commercial DNA extraction kit. Partial sequences of mitochondrial genes including cox1, cob, rrnS and nad4-nad5 were amplified by PCR using universal primers for arthropods or mites. Species-specific primers were designed for long-PCR amplification and primer-walking sequencing, and the complete mitochondrial genome of C. lactis was sequenced. Bioinformatic software SeqMan, SEQUIN 9.0 and tRNAscan were used to analyze the genetic structure of complete mitochondrial genome. Finally, the phylogenetic relationship was constructed by using maximum likelihood method (ML) based on the nucleotide sequences of concatenated proteincoding genes (PCGs) of 17 species of Acariformes. 【Results】 The complete mitochondrial genome of C. lactis (GenBank accession no.: MN073839) is 14 060 bp in length. It is a classical closed circular double-stranded DNA molecule, and comprises 37 coding genes, including 13 proteincoding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes, and 22 transfer RNA genes, and one large non-coding region (LNR). The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that C. lactis belongs to Acaroidea and clustered into one branch with Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Acaroidae and Histiostomatoidae clustered into a group, forming a sister group to Psoroptidia. 【Conclusion】 We successfully sequenced and analyzed the complete mitochondrial genome of C. lactis. The relationship between C. lactis and A. ovatus is close.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress in odorant binding proteins of insects
    DU Ya-Li, XU Kai, ZHAO Hui-Ting, LIU Yu-Ling, NIU Qing-Sheng, JIANG Yu-Suo
    2020, 63(3):  365-380.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.03.013
    Abstract ( 790 )   PDF (4377KB) ( 337 )   PDF(mobile) (4377KB) ( 93 )     
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    Abstract: Insects depend critically on their sophisticated and sensitive chemoreception system to recognize and distinguish a variety of semiochemical signals from the environment. Olfaction is a sensory modality responsible for the olfactory signal transduction, which can evoke insect survival and reproduction behaviors, such as foraging, oviposition, capulation, and avoiding predators. As essential proteins in the normally functioning olfactory system, odorant binding proteins (OBPs) initially interact with external lipophilic chemicals in the process of olfactory sensing, and transfer them to chemical receptor neurons to activate olfactory receptors (ORs) distributed on the surface of dendritic membrane. In recent years, with the rapid development of high-throughput sequencing and molecular biology technologies, more and more OBPs have been identified in different species and their biological functions have been explored. Insect OBPs are a class of soluble small molecular proteins, and generally contain a stable and compact hydrophobic binding pocket consisting of 6 αhelices, where the conformational change varies with insect species and ligand structures. The expression of OBPs is not limited to olfactory organs, but also in non-olfactory tissues such as mouthparts, legs, midgut and glands. Insect OBPs can perform different physiological roles in olfaction recognition, gustatory perception, nutrient transport, pheromone synthesis and release, and histological development and differentiation. It is reasonable to suspect that the common property linking their very different functions is the ability of OBPs to bind and solubilize small hydrophobic compounds including pheromone components, common odor molecules, and nonvolatile substances. The stability and versatility of OBPs suggest their extensive application potentials in many fields including pest control, biosensors, analytical chemistry and ecology. In this article we reviewed the relevant studies of insect OBPs over the last 20 years to provide theoretical references for the in-depth study on the functions of OBPs.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 63 Issue 3
    2020, 63(3):  381-381. 
    Abstract ( 254 )   PDF (481KB) ( 45 )   PDF(mobile) (481KB) ( 7 )     
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