Please wait a minute...
Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 2020, Volume 63 Issue 12
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Changes in the mRNA levels and activities of carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes in the diapause-destined, non-diapause-destined and immediately acid-treated eggs of the bivoltine silkworm (Bombyx mori)
    XU Jin, JIANG Tao, XUE Peng, SHEN Guang-Sheng, HUANG Jing-Yi, ZHU Juan, WANG Mei-Xian, TANG Shun-Ming, SHEN Xing-Jia
    2020, 63(12):  1431-1440.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.001
    Abstract ( 387 )   PDF (1754KB) ( 133 )   PDF(mobile) (1754KB) ( 30 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 To clarify the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and diapause during the earlyembryonicdevelopmentalstageinBombyx mori. 【Methods】 Theactivatedhibernating eggs of bivoltine B. mori strain Qiufeng were used as materials. Some were incubated under 17℃ in darkness and fed normally to produce the non-diapause-destined eggs (ND), and others were incubated under 25℃ in natural circadian rhythm and fed normally to produce the diapause-destined eggs (DD), part of which were further treated with HCl solution to produce the immediately acid-treated eggs (IA). Samples were collected at 0, 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h, respectively, after oviposition or acid treatment. The mRNA levels of genes of five carbohydrate metabolism-related enzymes including hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and trehalase (TRE) in B. mori eggs were detected by qRT-PCR, and the activities of the five enzymes in B. mori eggs were assayed by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry. 【Results】 The overall mRNA levels and activities of the key enzymes of glycolysis,hexokinase (BmHK) and phosphofructokinase (BmPFK), and the key enzymes of glycometabolism, sorbitol dehydrogenase (BmSDH-1) and trehalase (BmTRE), in ND and IA of B. mori were higher than those in DD, while the mRNA levels and activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (BmPEPCK) related to gluconeogenesis in DD were higher than those in ND and IA. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that in the early embryonic developmental stage of DD, carbohydrate metabolism is mainly towards energy and material storage for diapause, while in ND and IA, carbohydrate metabolism is mainly towards material catabolism due to fast embryonic development. This study has preliminarily uncovered the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and diapause of B. mori, being beneficial to better understand the molecular mechanisms of diapause of B. mori.
    Morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the compound eyes of the last instar nymphs and adults of Meimuna mongolica(Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
    LAN Ying, WEI Cong
    2020, 63(12):  1441-1451.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.002
    Abstract ( 396 )   PDF (1902KB) ( 130 )   PDF(mobile) (1902KB) ( 35 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the differences in the compound eyes of the last instar (5th instar) nymphs and adults of the cicada Meimuna mongolica, so as to ascertain the changes in the morphological structure and functions of compound eyes of nymphs and adults of Cicadidae in the process of ecological niche shift. 【Methods】 The compound eyes of the last instar nymphs and adults of M. mongolicawere observed and compared at the morphological, histological and ultrastructural levels using light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. 【Results】 The compound eyes of M. mongolica are of apposition type. The color of the compound eyes of the last instar nymphs change from white to red and dark brown gradually before adult emergence, whereas the compound eyes of the adults are light brown. Sensilla basiconica, sensilla trichoid and sensilla chaetica were observed on the surface of the compound eyes of the last instar nymphs, but no sensillum was found on the surface of the compound eyes of adults. The surface of the white compound eyes of the last instar nymphs has a complete cornea, and no ommatidial facet was observed. The red and dark brown compound eyes of the last instar nymphs are composed of many irregular, hexagonal or pentagonal ommatidia, whereas the compound eyes of adults are composed of equilateral hexagonal ommatidia. The white compound eyes of the last instar nymphs are composed of a large amount of clustered cells, and no ommatidium was observed. In each ommatidium of the dark brown compound eyes of the last instar nymphs, the nuclei of secondary pigment cells are distributed between the rhabdom and the crystalline cone. In the compound eyes of adults, the nuclei of secondary pigment cells are distributed around the proximal center of crystalline cone. In the dark brown compound eyes of the last instar nymphs, the pigment granules of the primary pigment cells and retinula cells are evenly distributed, whereas those in the compound eyes of adults are mainly distributed around the rhabdoms.【Conclusion】 The compound eyes of the last instar nymphs and adults of M. mongolica show significant differences in the development of ommatidia, the distribution of pigment cells, and the presence or absence of sensilla. The major developmental period of compound eyes of cicadas is during the last instar nymphal stage when the compound eyes are red in color. The results suggest that the compound eyes of cicada nymphs during the earlier developmental stage of the last instar as well as the earlier instars do not have visual ability, but can function to sense mechanical pressure or other environmental signals underground. This should be an adaptation to the niche shift during the ontogeny of cicadas which live underground for a very long time in the nymphal stage and have a short adult lifespan above ground. The findings of morphological, ultrastructural and functional characteristics of compound eyes of the last instar nymphs and adults of this species improve our understanding of the changes in the development and function of compound eyes of insects and their association with habitats, and provide new information for further exploring the phylogenetic relationship between Cicadoidea and allies in Hemiptera.
    Postembryonic development of the thoracic muscles of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    LI Zhao-Ying, SUN Jing, ZHANG Min, XIE Shu-Qin, TONG Li-Juan, WANG Shu-Wen
    2020, 63(12):  1452-1460.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.003
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (2044KB) ( 66 )   PDF(mobile) (2044KB) ( 12 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the postembryonic development of the thoracic muscles of the Italian honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica, so as to provide some theoretical support for the study of animal muscle development and pathology, and to present a valuable insect model system to investigate muscle regeneration in vivo. 【Methods】 The postembryonic developmental process and structure characteristics of the thoracic muscles of A. m. ligustica were observed and compared by using hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. 【Results】 The thoracic muscles of A. m. ligustica larvae are derived from myoblasts formed during embryonic development. Muscle development is accomplished through the fusion of fusion-competent myoblasts (FCMs) and founder cells (FCs), and the division of myoblasts and muscle cells. In the early stages of the development of A. m. ligustica pupa, most of the larval muscles degenerate and disappear. Adult thoracic muscles originate from three myoblast nests of two muscle cell groups, of which dorsal longitudinal muscles (DLMs) mainly originate from one myoblast nest of dorsal fan-shaped cell group, and other muscles originate from two myoblast nests of the ventral spindle cell group. Adult myoblasts of the myoblast nest continuously divide and proliferate. These divided cells expand and extend in specific directions. These cells become muscle fibers after the myofilaments are formed, and then multiple cells form a muscle bundle. These muscle bundles make up the entire muscles of the adult thorax. 【Conclusion】 The developmental modes of muscles of A. m. ligustica are different between its larvae and adults, and also different from those of Drosophila.
    Construction and annotation of the full-length transcriptome of Nosema ceranae based on the third-generation nanopore sequencing technology
    CHEN Hua-Zhi, DU Yu, FAN Xiao-Xue, ZHU Zhi-Wei, JIANG Hai-Bin, WANG Jie, FAN Yuan-Chan, XIONG Cui-Ling, ZHENG Yan-Zhen, FU Zhong-Min, XU Guo-Jun, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2020, 63(12):  1461-1472.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.004
    Abstract ( 320 )   PDF (13687KB) ( 82 )   PDF(mobile) (13687KB) ( 5 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 This study aims to assemble and annotate a high-quality full-length transcriptome of Nosema ceranae using Oxford Nanopore sequencing technology. 【Methods】 The transcriptome of clean spores of N. ceranae was sequenced using Nanopore PromethION system. Full-length transcripts were identified by recognizing primers at both ends of every clean read. Full-length transcripts were aligned to Nr, Swiss-Prot, KOG, eggNOG, Pfam, GO and KEGG databases to gain the corresponding annotations. Protein domain analysis methods including CPC, CNCI, CPAT and Pfam were used to predict long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and the intersection was determined to be high-reliability lncRNAs. The expression level of each full-length transcript was calculated using CPM (counts per million) method. 【Results】 A total of 6 988 795 raw reads were obtained by Nanopore PromethION sequencing system, and 6 953 469 clean reads were gained after quality control, including 5 143 999 full-length transcripts. Besides, 10 243 non-redundant fulllength transcripts were identified, with the N50, the average length and the maximum length of 1 042, 894 and 4 855 bp, respectively. Furthermore, 9 342, 4 038, 4 283, 2 569, 4 859 and 3 450 full-length transcripts were annotated to Nr, KOG, eggNOG, Pfam, GO and KEGG, respectively. Additionally, the majority of full-length transcripts were annotated to N. ceranae, Nosema apis and Nosema bombycis. Totally, 87 high-reliability lncRNAs were identified, including 49 sense lncRNAs, 25 antisense lncRNAs and 13 intergenic lncRNAs. The sequencing depth in this study was enough to detect all expressed fulllength transcripts with the expression level (CPM) ranging from 0.1 to more than 10 000. 【Conclusion】 The high-quality full-length transcriptome of N. ceranae was constructed and annotated in this study, laying a key foundation for comparative transcriptome analysis, investigation of alternative splicing and alternative adenylation of transcripts, identification of simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci, optimization of gene structure, and full-length sequence cloning and functional study of genes.
    Effects of mung bean trypsin inhibitor on the growth and development and the activities of detoxifying and protective enzymes in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
    FAN Yan-Ping, DANG Hai-Yan, WANG Hong-Min, ZHENG Hai-Xia, CHENG Xiao-Fang, ZHANG Yao-Wen, ZHANG Xian-Hong
    2020, 63(12):  1473-1481.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.005
    Abstract ( 339 )   PDF (1575KB) ( 92 )   PDF(mobile) (1575KB) ( 21 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 Protease inhibitor is a low molecular weight protein widely found in plants that inhibits larval development by affecting enzyme activity in insects. This study aims to clarify the effects of mung bean trypsin inhibitor (MBTI) on the growth and development and enzyme activities in Callosobruchus chinensis. 【Methods】 The inhibitory effects of feeding on artificial mung bean containing 2.0% MBTI on the growth and development of C. chinensis were determined by means of artificial inoculation, and the activities of detoxifying enzymes, carboxylesterase (CarE) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), and protective enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT), in the larvae fed on artificial mung bean containing different concentrations (0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0%) of MBTI were measured by biochemical methods. 【Results】 After the larvae of C. chinensis fed with 2.0% MBTI, the larval weight and adult emergence rate were significantly lower than those of the control (fed with the artificial mung bean made with the susceptible mung bean variety), being 72% and 55% of that of the control, respectively, and the developmental duration of immature stages was prolonged, being 1.083-fold as long as that of the control. However, MBTI had no significant effect on the number of eggs laid on beans and egg hatching rate. The CarE, GSTs and POD activities in various instar larvae were promoted by the intake of artificial mung bean with different contents of MBTI. However, the activities of SOD and CAT in various instar larvae were inhibited by the intake of artificial mung bean with different contents of MBTI. The inhibitory and promotive effects on the enzyme activities were enhanced with the increase of MBTI content. The CarE, GSTs and POD activities in the 1st instar larvae were most strongly promoted by 2.0% MBTI, being 46.5%, 60.5% and 67.3% of that in the control, respectively. MBTI at the concentration of 2.0% showed the strongest inhibitory effect on the SOD activity in the 4th instar larvae and the CAT activity in the 1st instar larvae, being 80.0% and 47.6% of that in the control, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Mung bean trypsin inhibitor inhibits both the larval weight and adult emergence rate of C. chinensis, results in a relatively prolonged developmental duration of immature stages, and affects the activities of detoxifying enzyme and protective enzyme. Thus, the larvae of C. chinensis can not grow normally.
    Electroantennographic and behavioral responses of female adults of Maladera orientalis (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) to peach tree volatiles
    ZHANG Meng-Meng, CHEN Hong-Hao, WANG Wen-Kai, CHEN Li
    2020, 63(12):  1482-1489.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.006
    Abstract ( 405 )   PDF (1496KB) ( 91 )   PDF(mobile) (1496KB) ( 27 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Maladera orientalis is an important garden pest in China. This study aims to identify peach tree volatile compounds attracting M. orientalis, so as to provide a theoretical basis for developing attractants of plant origin. 【Methods】 Leaf volatiles were collected from peach tree by dynamic headspace adsorption. The electrophysiologically active compounds for M. orientalis adults were identified from peach tree volatiles by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) and coupled gas chromatography electroantennogram detection (GC-EAD) techniques. The electrophysiological and behavioral responses of female adults of M. orientalis to the identified active compounds were tested by using electroantennography (EAG) and Y-tube olfactometer, respectively, using hexane as a control. 【Results】 Six active compounds were identified from peach tree volatiles, including E-2-hexenal, Z-3-hexenyl acetate, E-3-hexenol, Z-3-hexenol, methyl salicylate and an unknown compound. E-2-Hexenal triggered significantly greater EAG response in female adults of M. orientalis than the other four compounds at the doses of 1 and 10 μg. When the dose was increased to 100 μg, Z-3-hexenyl acetate triggered significantly lower EAG response in female adults of M. orientalis than the other four compounds. In behavioral response experiments, the female adults of M. orientalis were significantly attracted to E-3-hexenol and Z-3-hexenol at the dose of 100 μg. 【Conclusion】 Among peach tree volatile compounds, E-3-hexenol and Z-3-hexenol are significantly attractive to female adults of M. orientalis.
    Effects of 5 h LED light of different wavelengths in scotophase on the growth, development and reproduction of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHONG Chun-Lan, CHEN Su-Hong, ZHOU Xiao-Mei, WENG Ru-Yu, XIAO Guo-Quan, ZHENG Huan-Huan, TU Xiao-Yun
    2020, 63(12):  1490-1496.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.007
    Abstract ( 348 )   PDF (1267KB) ( 54 )   PDF(mobile) (1267KB) ( 9 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 To understand the effects of exposure to 5 h LED light of different wavelengths in scotophase on the growth, development and reproduction of Spodoptera litura. 【Methods】 Various developmental stages of S. litura in treatment groups were exposed to LED light of different wavelengths [red (620-625 nm), yellow (580-585 nm), blue (465-467 nm), green (520-523 nm) and white (composite) light], respectively, for 5 h in scotophase, expressed as the photoperiods of 14L∶5R∶5D, 14L∶5Y∶5D, 14L∶5B∶5D, 14L∶5G∶5D and 14L∶5W∶5D, respectively, with those in the control group cultured under a photoperiod of 14L∶10D, and the egg hatching rate, pupation rate, adult eclosion rate, developmental duration and adult longevity were observed and calculated. Pupae were weighted and the number of eggs laid per female counted. 【Results】 Exposure to LED light of different wavelengths for 5 h in scotophase had no significant effect on the egg hatching rate, pupation rate, adult eclosion rate of S. litura. The egg duration of the yellow light group (4.0 d) was significantly prolonged as compared to that of the control (3.0 d), while the pupal duration of various treatment groups was significantly shortened as compared to that of the control, and the male pupal duration was significantly longer than the female pupal duration. The pupal weight of various treatment groups was reduced as compared to that of the control, but there was no significant difference in the pupal weight between female and male. The adult longevity of various treatment groups was extended as compared to that of the control. The male adult longevity of the red light group (18.4 d) was significantly longer than the female adult longevity of this group (15.0 d), and the pre-oviposition period of the red light group (3.0 d) was the shortest and the number of eggs laid per female (1 346.0 eggs) of this group was the highest. 【Conclusion】 Under certain conditions, 5 h LED light of different wavelengths in scotophase mainly affects the pupal duration, pupal weight and adult longevity of S. litura, but the effects vary with the wavelength.
    Investigation and evaluation of insect diversity in Xingshan County, Three Gorges Reservoir Area, Hubei Province, central China
    ZHENG Xiao-Xu, XIAO Neng-Wen, ZHAO Mu-Hua, WEN Dong, HE Shuai-Jie, LI Xue-Mei, YANG Feng-Lian, WU Gang
    2020, 63(12):  1497-1507.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.008
    Abstract ( 337 )   PDF (1577KB) ( 75 )   PDF(mobile) (1577KB) ( 26 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 The unique geographical environment and climatic conditions of Xingshan County in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area of Hubei Province, central China have created abundant insect resources. This study aims to investigate and evaluate the insect diversity in Xingshan County, Hubei Province, to explore the threat factors to insects and to put forward the suggestions for protecting the insect diversity in Xingshan County. 【Methods】 The Xingshan County was divided into 28 grids using GPS positioning system, and each was 10 km both in length and width. The diversity of insects in Xingshan County during the occurrence period (mid-June), outbreak period (mid-August) and overwintering period (mid-October) of insects were investigated and evaluated in 2017 using the line transect survey method. 【Results】 A total of 612 insect species of 136 families in 16 orders were collected and identified from Xingshan County, Hubei Province in 2017. The dominant orders are Lepidoptera (47.39%), Coleoptera (22.88%) and Hemiptera (11.44%). The low-altitude grids in Xingshan County had low insect diversity index and richness, while the high-altitude grids in Xingshan County had high insect diversity index and richness. The highest Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) and Margalef richness index (ds) of insects were found in Huangbo Plain (Longmenhe Forest Farm). 【Conclusion】 The dominant groups of insects in Xingshan County, Hubei Province are Lepidoptera, Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Habitats in the grids of such as woodland and woodland-shrubland mixture are more suitable for insects. The insect diversity index in the high-altitude habitats with rich vegetation (mainly woodlands and bushes) is significantly higher than that in the low-altitude habitats with a single habitat composition (mainly grasslands, underbushes, vegetable gardens and orchards). The threat factors to insect diversity in Xingshan County mainly include habitat destruction, climate change and pesticide abuse. We recommend that Longmenhe Forest Farm be listed as a key protection and research object based on the investigation of insect diversity in Xingshan County.
    Division of larval instars of Wiebesia pumilae (Hymenoptera: Agaonidae)
    BAO Tian-Tian, CHEN You-Ling, WU Wen-Shan, WU Ting-Ting, ZHANG Xing-Tan, CHOU Lien-Siang
    2020, 63(12):  1508-1515.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.009
    Abstract ( 424 )   PDF (8786KB) ( 43 )   PDF(mobile) (8786KB) ( 13 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Ficus pumila. var. pumila is not only a key tree species of tropical and subtropical plant ecosystems, but also an important tree species of urban vertical greening. Wiebesia pumilae is the obligate pollinator of F. pumila var. pumila. Fig wasp larvae live in the gall of syconium for a long time, with special features of small body, long stadium, and difficulty for observation. The purpose of this study is to establish the classification criteria of larval instars of fig wasps, and to explore a reliable method for determining the number and stadia of larval instars of recessive insect larvae. 【Methods】 A total of 447 larvae of W.pumilae at different developmental stages were collected, and the morphological indicators including head capsule width, width of the 3rd segment, body length and girth were measured. The larval instars were determined by frequency distribution method, and the larval stadia were calculated by the population median stadium measurement method. 【Results】 The frequency distribution of larval head capsule width, width of the 3rd segment, body length and girth all showed five peaks, suggesting that there are five larval instars. Since the coefficient of variation in the width of the 3rd segment was greater than 20%, it was not suitable as the index of instar division. Regression analysis showed that the head capsule width, body length and girth were extremely significantly correlated with the larval instars (P<0.01). Because the coefficient of determination (R2) of regression curve for body length measurement and larval instars was the highest, the body length was the optimal measurement index of instars, and the regression equation was y=0.14e0.55x(P<0.01, R2=0.97). The stadia of the 1st-5th instar larva of W. pumilae was 429, 13.19, 6.27, 24.46 and 8.90 d, respectively, and the total larval stadium was 57.11 d. 【Conclusion】 This study determined the number and stadia of larval instars of W. pumilae and screened out the optimal age index of larval fig wasps, providing a foundation for studying fig-wasp co-evolution.
    Genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of Adelphocoris nigritylus (Hemiptera: Miridae) populations in North China
    WANG Meng-Qi, ZHANG Li-Juan, ZHANG Hong-Rui, SUN Yue-Xian
    2020, 63(12):  1516-1524.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.010
    Abstract ( 218 )   PDF (2907KB) ( 64 )   PDF(mobile) (2907KB) ( 7 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 This study aims to examine the genetic diversity and genetic differentiation of geographical populations of Adelphocoris nigritylus in North China based on the mitochondrial gene sequence. 【Methods】 A total of 233 adults from 12 geographical populations of A. nigritylus in North China were collected and used to amplify the fragments of the mitochondrial genes ND5, ND4, and Cytb by PCR. The software of MEGA, DnaSP and Arlequin were used to analyze the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation and molecular variation of A. nigritylus populations. 【Results】 The concatenated sequence of the mitochondrial genes ND5, ND4, and Cytb of A. nigritylus obtained in this study is 2 226 bp in length with 87 haplotypes, of which the haplotypes Hap3, Hap9 and Hap8 are shared by multiple individuals. The results of genetic diversity analysis showed that A. nigritylus populations had high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. The results of SAMOVA analysis indicated that the genetic variation mainly came from the populations within the group. The Mantel test results demonstrated that there was no significant correlation between the genetic distance and the geographical distance of A. nigritylus populations. 【Conclusion】 The total population of A. nigritylus in North China has a high level of genetic diversity, and might have experienced recent population expansion.
    Genetic differentiation and phylogeography of the pierid butterfly Colias fieldii (Pieridae: Coliadinae) in China based on mitochondrial gene sequences(In English)
    CHEN Ke-Ke, LUO A-Rong, WANG Yun-Liang, SI Cheng-Cai, HUANG Dun-Yuan, SU Cheng-Yong, HAO Jia-Sheng, ZHU Chao-Dong
    2020, 63(12):  1525-1535.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.011
    Abstract ( 335 )   PDF (4642KB) ( 69 )   PDF(mobile) (4642KB) ( 14 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】This study aims to explore the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, and phylogenetic relationships among populations of the pierid butterfly Colias fieldii in China, to infer their origin and divergence time, and to preliminarily clarify the causes of their spatiotemporally evolutionary history. 【Methods】 The four mitochondrial gene (COI, Cytb, NDI and ND5) sequences of 115 individuals from 23 geographic populations of C. fieldii in China collected in 2006-2018 were amplified by PCR and sequenced. The genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were analyzed using MEGA v.7.0, DnaSP v.5.0, Arlequin v.3.5.1 and other genetic analysis software. Using the closest relatives as the outgroups, the phylogenetic trees and haplotype median-joining network of C. fieldii were reconstructed with such analytical software as IQ-TREE, MrBayes v.3.1.2, Network v.4.6 and BEAST v.1.8.3, and the origin and divergence time of C. fieldii were estimated by using relaxed molecular dating method and calibrations of the previous studies. Based on the present biogeographic distribution of C. fieldii and the main earth environmental events since the Quaternary Period, the spatio-temporal pattern of its biogeographic distribution and the underlying earth environmental factors were tentatively inferred. 【Results】 The aligned sizes of mitochondrial gene segments of COI, Cytb, NDI and ND5 of C. fieldii populations are 648, 699, 393 and 777 bp, respectively, and the concatenated sequence of the four genes is 2 517 bp in length, which was shown to be significantly AT biased. In total, 18 haplotypes based on the four mitochondrial gene sequences were found in 115 individuals of 23 geographic populations of C. fieldii, with the haplotype diversity (Hd) of 0.677±0.048 and nucleotide diversity ) of 0.00066±0.00007 of the total population, showing a relatively high level of haplotype diversity and a low level of nucleotide diversity. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 18 haplotypes of C. fieldii populations were distinctly categorized into two large clades (clade I and II). Clade I included 13 haplotypes of populations from Shaanxi, Henan, Gansu, Anhui, Hubei, Sichuan, Qinghai, and some regions of Yunnan. Clade II included five haplotypes of populations from some regions of Yunnan and Tibet. The results of reconstructed haplotype median-joining network were generally consistent with those of the phylogenetic tree. AMOVA analysis indicated that a larger level of population differentiation (64.36%) occurred between the two haplotype clades and a subtle genetic differentiation (35.64%) existed within each haplotype clade of C. fieldii. The analysis results of neutrality tests and mismatch distribution indicated that populations with haplotypes in clade I did not experience a population expansion event, whereas those with haplotypes in clade II probably had a sudden demographic expansion at about 0.085 Ma in the late Pleistocene, a little earlier than the Last Glacial Maximum event, which may be caused by the warm and humid plateau climate in the interglacial period, the expansion of forest grassland and the decreased heavy rainfall on the core plateau. 【Conclusion】 The genetic differentiation of C. fieldii populations is correlated significantly with the geographical distance. In addition, we proposed that C. fieldii populations originated at about 0.48 Ma in southwestern areas of China (presently the Hengduan Mountains and adjacent areas), and began to diversify into two clades and later dispersed into other low-latitude areas due to the Quaternary glacial-interglacial cycle events, Southeast Asia monsoon and different habitat environments.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress of integrated coding of peripheral olfactory signals in the central nervous system of insects
    LIU Wei, WANG Gui-Rong
    2020, 63(12):  1536-1545.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.012
    Abstract ( 317 )   PDF (1975KB) ( 138 )   PDF(mobile) (1975KB) ( 10 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    A sensitive and complex sense of smell is essential for the survival and reproduction of insects. Antennae are the main olfactory organs of insects and covered with a large number of different kinds of olfactory sensilla on their surface. Volatile chemicals in the environment are detected by these sensilla and subsequently transformed into electrical signals. Those signals are then transmitted through olfactory receptor neurons to the primary olfactory center of the brain, the antennal lobe, for the early processing. After processing, the signals are sent to the lateral horn which is thought to mediate innate behaviors as well as the mushroom body which is required for memory storage and retrieval. In this article, we reviewed the research progress of integrated coding of insect olfactory central system for signals from the peripheral olfactory system with focus on the Drosophila model and lepidopterans. Significant progress has been made in Drosophila melanogaster due to its advantages in genetic manipulation technology, including the propagation of information within the primary olfactory center and the subsequent processing in higher olfactory centers. Compared to Drosophila, the studies on olfactory coding of the central nervous system of other insects make tardy progress and are limited to recording and identification of the neurons in the antennal lobe of lepidopterans because of lacking genetic manipulation technology. The following aspects are suggested to be investigated in the future: (1) Olfactory coding in the lateral horn should be thoroughly investigated in the Drosophila model to further explain the neurological mechanism of olfactory behaviors; (2) Genetic tools should be developed and combined with two-photon imaging in none-model insects to elucidate the mechanism of perception, interaction, and behavioral consequence of the critical odorants.
    Research progress of pheromone receptors in moths
    CAO Song, LIU Yang, WANG Gui-Rong
    2020, 63(12):  1546-1568.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2020.12.013
    Abstract ( 395 )   PDF (3860KB) ( 112 )   PDF(mobile) (3860KB) ( 26 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     As a vital element in male moth for reception of sex pheromone components emitted by the sex gland of the conspecific female moth, pheromone receptor (PR) determines the selectivity and specificity of male odorant receptor neuron (ORN) sensing sex pheromones. Since the first PR gene in moths was identified from Heliothis virescens, PR genes have been identified in more than 60 moth species with the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques combined with sequence homology analysis. Subsequent studies proved that unlike ordinary odorant receptor (OR) genes, PR genes in moths are relatively conserved in evolution, and they cluster into a unique group in the phylogenetic tree, forming the so-called traditional PR subfamily. The expression profile and in situ hybridization results demonstrate that PR genes are mainly specifically or biased expressed in male antennae, and in the studied moth species, PRs are restrictedly expressed in the long sensilla trichodea of male antennae. In recent years, the PRs of 30 moth species have been functionally characterized by using in vitro expression system, transgenic Drosophila and other methods. As an increasing number of PRs in moths have been identified and functionally studied, researchers found other PR clades separated with the traditional PR clade in moths, which also function to recognize moth pheromone components, giving us a new understanding of the evolutionary relationships of PRs in moths and the relationship between PR evolution and species differentiation. In this article, we reviewed the new research advances of PRs in moths from aspects including PR identification, expression patterns, functional characterization and evolution, and proposed the following important directions for further research: (1) Identifying and deorphanizing more PR genes in moths that do not use type I pheromone, to promote the understanding of the evolution of PR genes; (2) Characterizing the function of special PRs, to broaden our knowledge of the function of PRs; (3) Paying more attention to PRs in the new PR clades, especially for moth species whose PR genes belonging to the traditional PR clade have not been identified; (4) Studying the interactions between PR and other olfactory-related proteins, especially PBPs and SNMP1, to further understand how PR works; (5) Illuminating the structure of PR and Orco complex, to reveal the relationship between PR structure and function, and the relationship between the differentiation of PR function and the evolution of moth species; (6) Designing efficient and environmentally friendly measures to control moth pests based on the identified PRs.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 63 Issue 12
    2020, 63(12):  1569-1569. 
    Abstract ( 213 )   PDF (488KB) ( 20 )   PDF(mobile) (488KB) ( 5 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    General Contents of Volume 63(1-12)
    2020, 63(12):  1570-1570. 
    Abstract ( 251 )   PDF (1756KB) ( 32 )   PDF(mobile) (1756KB) ( 3 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics