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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2021, Volume 64 Issue 8
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Function of receptor for activated C kinase 1 gene PxyRACK1 in the regulation of metamorphosis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    HU Xiao-Han, TIAN Su-Fen, LIN Shuo, CHEN Yi-Xin, WEI Hui, GU Xiao-Jun, HUANG Jing-Fei
    2021, 64(8):  887-896.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.001
    Abstract ( 143 )   PDF (4528KB) ( 79 )   PDF(mobile) (4528KB) ( 18 )     
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    【Aim】 Receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) is involved in the transduction of some crucial signals in multicellular organisms to regulate their growth and development. The aim of the present study is to clone the RACK1 gene PxyRACK1 in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, to vestigate its expression pattern and to find out its effect on pupation as well as its underlying mechanism. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of PxyRACK1 was cloned and subjected to bioinformatic analysis, and its expression profiles at different developmental stages (egg, 1st-4th instar larvae, prepupa, pupa and adult) of P. xylostella were detected by qPCR. The RNA interference of PxyRACK1 was carried out by microinjecting PxyRACK1 dsRNA into the 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella. After RNAi, the expression levels of PxyRACK1 and pupal specifier PxyBr-Z2/3 were detected, and the mortality, pupation rate, average pupation time and pupal weight of P. xylostella were recorded and calculated. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA of PxyRACK1 (GenBank accession no.: MW160739) of P. xylostella is 1 148 bp in length, with an open reading frame of 960 bp encoding 319 amino acids. The predicted amino acid sequence of PxyRACK1 protein contains seven WD40 repeats, each WD40 repeat consisting of 39-42 amino acids. PxyRACK1 was ubiquitously expressed at various developmental stages of P. xylostella, with the highest expression level in the day-2 4th instar larva and the lowest expression level in the 2 dold pupa. At 24 h after microinjection of dsPxyRACK1, the expression levels of PxyRACK1 and PxyBr-Z2/3 in the 4th instar larvae in the treatment group were significantly decreased by 36.26% and 83.46%, respectively, as compared to those in the control group (dsGFP injection group), and the microinjection of dsPxyRACK1 resulted in the increase in mortality, delay in pupation and decrease in pupation rate and pupal weight. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that PxyRACK1 is involved in the regulation of pupal metamorphosis of P. xylostella. This study provides clues for further exploring of the signal regulation pathway of metamorphosis and developing novel insect growth regulators.
    BmlncR2036 regulates the P25 promoter activity and is involved in the regulation of midgutdevelopment in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    HUO Chun-Yue, CHENG Hao, FU Yu, CHANG Mei-Ling, WANG Yi, KAN Yun-Chao, LI Dan-Dan
    2021, 64(8):  897-907.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.002
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (2491KB) ( 40 )   PDF(mobile) (2491KB) ( 10 )     
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     【Aim】 Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of development of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. In our previous study, a lncRNA BmlncR2036 was found near the silk fibroin gene P25 of B. mori. This study aims to further explore the molecular mechanism of BmlncR2036 regulating the expression of P25. 【Methods】 qPCR was used to detect the expression profiles of BmlncR2036 in different tissues (cuticle, brain, nerve, testis, ovary, silk gland, Malpighian tubules, hemolymph, fat body and midgut) of the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori and in the anterior silk gland, middle silk gland and posterior silk gland during different developmental stages of B. mori. miRNAs that can target both P25 and BmlncR2036 were predicted. The interaction between miRNA and P25 was verified by luciferase assay. Luciferase assay was used to assess the effect of BmlncR2036 on the transcription activity of P25 promoter. Finally, the expression of BmlncR2036 was knocked down in the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori by dsRNA injection, and phenotype changes of their silk glands and midgut were observed. 【Results】 The qPCR results showed that BmlncR2036 was highly expressed in the posterior silk glands of the day-3 5th instar larvae and mature 5th instar larvae, showing a expression pattern consistent with that of P25 gene. Meanwhile, BmlncR2036 was also highly expressed in the testis and midgut of the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori, while lowly expressed in other tissues, suggesting the diverse roles of BmlncR2036. miR-2739 and miR-279a can not only match with BmlncR2036, but also target the 3′UTR of P25 gene. Luciferase assay results showed that P25, however, was not the real target of miR-2739 and miR-279a, and BmlncR2036 had a negative effect on the promoter activity of P25, extremely significantly decreasing the luciferase activity by 52% after the co-transfection with pcDNA3.1(+)[BmlncR2036] and pGL3-Enhancer[P25-promoter] vector. After knocking down the expression of BmlncR2036 in the day-3 5th instar larvae of B. mori, the body color darkened, and a large amount of undigested food was retained in the midgut until its death, indicating that BmlncR2036 might be involved in the regulation of midgut development in B. mori. 【Conclusion】 We found that lncRNA BmlncR2036 can regulate the promoter activity of P25 gene and might also play roles in the regulation of midgut function in B. mori. This study lays the experimental foundation for further exploring the functional roles of lncRNAs in B. mori.

    Expression of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor gene AgKaSPI in Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in response to Akanthomyces lecanii infection 
    CHEN Ya-Ru, YANG Hong-Jia, LI Ze, CHE Jin-Ming, WANG Ze-Qun, FAN Dong
    2021, 64(8):  908-919.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.003
    Abstract ( 129 )   PDF (1905KB) ( 42 )   PDF(mobile) (1905KB) ( 12 )     
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     【Aim】 The objective of this study is to explore the role of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor KaSPI in the development, digestion, and immune defense processes of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines. 【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor gene from A. glycines was cloned by PCR based on the transcriptome data of A. glycines. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of AgKaSPI in the 1st-4thinstar nymphs and adults of A. glycines, and in A. glycines adults at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after infection by Akanthomyces lecanii. After RNAi of AgKaSPI with siRNA for 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h, the RNAi efficiency was detected by qRT-PCR, and the mortality and fecundity of A. glycines adults at 12, 24, 48 and 96 h post RNAi were recorded. The AgKaSPI content and the activities of serine protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin in A. glycines adults were detected by double antibody sandwich method after infection by A. lecanii and RNAi of AgKaSPI. The mortality of A. glycines adults at 12, 24, 48 and 96 h after infection by A. lecanii following RNAi of AgKaSPI for 6 h was observed and recorded. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of a serine protease inhibitor gene AgKaSPI (GenBank accession no. MK440557) was cloned from A. glycines. AgKaSPI is 1 019 bp in length, with the open reading frame of 324 bp, encoding 107 amino acids. AgKaSPI has the Kazal domain, with the molecular weight of 11.43 kD and isoelectric point of 9.24. AgKaSPI was expressed at different developmental stages of A. glycines. At 24 h after infection by A. lecanii, the expression level of AgKaSPI and the corresponding AgKaSPI content in A. glycines adults were significantly up-regulated, being 4.31-fold and 1.69-fold as high as those of the control group, respectively, while the activities of serine protease, trypsin and chymotrypsin were inhibited. At 6 h after RNAi of AgKaSPI, the expression level of AgKaSPI in A. glycines adults decreased by 71.05%. The KaSPI content decreased by 51.11% and the activities of serine protease and chymotrypsin increased significantly at 12 h after RNAi of AgKaSPI. The fecundity per one hundred individuals decreased by 49 born aphids and the mortality of A. glycines adults increased by 10.12% at 96 h after RNAi of AgKaSPI. 【Conclusion】 AgKaSPI is expressed at different developmental stages of A. glycines, and the expression level of AgKaSPI is significantly up-regulated at 24 h after infection by A. lecanii. AgKaSPI may participate in the immune response of A. glycines to A. lecanii infection by regulating the serine protease activity.

    Cloning and expression profiling of odorant binding protein genes in Callosobruchus chinensis (Coleoptera: Bruchidae)
    WANG Hong-Min, ZHANG Jing, ZHANG Chong, ZHUANG Guo-Dong, ZHENG Hai-Xia, ZHANG Xian-Hong
    2021, 64(8):  920-928.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.004
    Abstract ( 144 )   PDF (1795KB) ( 72 )   PDF(mobile) (1795KB) ( 12 )     
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     【Aim】This study aims to clone and identify odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes in the adzuki bean seed weevil, Callosobruchus chinensis and to assay their tissue-specific expression profiles in C. chinensis adults, so as to to lay a foundation for studying the function of OBPs in olfactory perception in C. chinensis. 【Methods】Based on the antenna transcriptome data of C. chinensis, six OBP genes in C. chinensis were cloned by RT-PCR and analyzed by bioinformatics. The expression levels of OBP genes in tissues including head (excluding antennae), antennae, abdomen, legs and wings of female and male adults of C. chinensis were analyzed by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The open reading frames of six OBP genes from C. chinensis were obtained, and named as CchiOBP1-CchiOBP6 (GenBank accession number: MN832700-MN832703, MN901841-MN901842). CchiOBP5 is a segment of Minus-C OBP with incomplete C-terminus, and the others belong to complete classical OBPs. It was predicted that all the six CchiOBPs contain signal peptides. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CchiOBP1, CchiOBP2 and CchiOBP5 were closely related to OBPs of Chrysomelidae, and CchiOBP3, CchiOBP4 and CchiOBP6 were closely related to OBPs of Cerambycidae. The qRT-PCR results showed that six CchiOBP genes were differentially expressed in the antennae, head (excluding antennae), abdomen, wings and legs of C. chinensis adults. CchiOBP1-4 and CchiOBP6 were highly expressed in antennae of female and male adults of C. chinensis, and their expression levels in antennae were extremely significantly higher than those in the other adult tissues. CchiOBP5 was highly expressed in female antennae and head (excluding antennae), but in males it showed significantly higher expression level in legs than in other adult tissues, with the lowest expression level in antennae. 【Conclusion】 The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of six CchiOBP genes of C. chinensis have been determined, among which five CchiOBP genes are highly expressed in the antennae of female and male adults of C. chinensis, suggesting their important roles in olfactory recognition of host plants.

    Identification of bacterial proteins in the saliva of adults of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    PAN Cheng, NIU Yu-Qun, XIA Lu-Xia, WU Chun-Fang, JING Kai-Ting, CHENG Qiang-Yi, WANG Meng-Xin, HAN Bao-Yu
    2021, 64(8):  929-942.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.005
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (2032KB) ( 50 )   PDF(mobile) (2032KB) ( 14 )     
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     Abstract: 【Aim】 To understand the bacteria species in the watery saliva of adults of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca flavescens, by identifying the bacterial proteins in their saliva. 【Methods】 Saliva of tea green leafhopper adults was collected by the self-made collection device with treching two layers of Parafilm with sucrose diet. After concentration by ultrafiltration and electrophoretic separation, saliva protein solution was hydrolysated by filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) method. Saliva proteins were analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The bacterial proteins in saliva were searched against the UniProt database of bacterial protein by using Mascot 2.2. 【Results】 One hundred and forty-two proteins from 49 species of bacteria in 27 orders were identified. Bacterial proteins of Proteobacteria were the most abundant, with a total of 107 proteins, among which bacterial proteins of α-Proteobacteria and γ-Proteobacteria accounted for the most. Bacterial proteins of Firmicutes (28 proteins) were the second most abundant, belonging to Bacilli and Clostrida, respectively. These proteins are involved in amino acid, vitamin and energy metabolism. 【Conclusion】 The identified bacterial proteins may be important participants in the life cycle of leafhoppers. This study provides basic information for further study on the relationship among endosymbiotic bacteria, tea green leafhoppers and tea plants.
    Identification of GABA receptor genes and the role of FoRDL in spinosad resistance in Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    WANG Jing, HE Bing-Qing, HUA Deng-Ke, ZHANG Kun, YUAN Jiang-Jiang, ZHENG Xiao-Bin, XU Bao-Yun, ZHANG You-Jun, WU Qing-Jun
    2021, 64(8):  943-955.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.006
    Abstract ( 159 )   PDF (4607KB) ( 33 )   PDF(mobile) (4607KB) ( 10 )     
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    【Aim】 Gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) is an important neurotransmitter in animal nervous system. This study aims to identify the GABA receptor (GABAR) familygenesinthewestern flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, and to clarify the role of ionotropic receptor (GABAAR) in the resistance evolution to spinosad in F. occidentalis. 【Methods】 Based on the genomeand transcriptome data of F. occidentalis, the GABAR genes were identified, cloned and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. The expression patterns of the GABAAR subunit genes, FoRDL, FoLCCH3, and FoGRD in the spinosad susceptible strain of F. occidentalis at different developmental stages (1st-2nd instar nymphal, pupal, and adult stages), and their expression differences between the spinosad susceptible and resistant strains of F. occidentalis at the adult stage were detected by qPCR. After treatment with 0.250 and 0.400 mg/L spinosad at 24 h post RNAi of FoRDL in the 3-day-old adults of the spinosad susceptible strain of F. occidentalis, the mortality rates of F. occidentalis adults were determined by bioassay. 【Results】 Eight GABAR genes including FoRDL, FoLCCH3, FoGRD, FoGRD-like1, FoGRD-like2, FoB1, FoB2, and FoB-like (GenBank accession numbers: MH148151-MH148158) were annotated and cloned, and their ORF lengths vary from 1 080 to 3 720 bp. Phylogenetic analysis showed that GABAR genes of F. occidentalis were clustered with the corresponding genes of other insect species, indicating high conservativeness. GABAAR subunits FoRDL, FoLCCH3 and FoGRD all have a typical nitrogen-terminal extracellular region loop structure (loop A-F) and four transmembrane regions (TM 1-4), and exon 3 of FoRDL has mutually exclusive splicing. The expression levels of FoRDL, FoLCCH3 and FoGRD in the spinosad susceptible strain of F. occidentalis increased with the developmental stage of F. occidentalis, and the expression peak occurred at the adult stage. The expression level of FoRDL in the spinosad resistant strain of F. occidentalis at the adult stage was significantly lower than that in the susceptible strain at the adult stage. After treatment with 0.250 and 0.400 mg/L spinosad following RNAi of FoRDL in the susceptible strain of F. occidentalis, the mortality rates of F. occidentalis adults decreased significantly by 55.80% and 43.00%, respectively, as compared to those of the control. 【Conclusion】 Five ionic and three metabotropic GABAR genes have been identified in F. occidentalis. FoRDL may play a role in the resistance evolution to spinosad in F. occidentalis.

    Adaptability of different geographical populations of Atractomorpha sinensis (Orthoptera: Pyrgomorphidae) to environmental temperature
    LI Wen-Bo, GAO Yu, CUI Juan, TANG Jia-Wei, SHI Shu-Sen
    2021, 64(8):  956-966.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.007
    Abstract ( 125 )   PDF (1919KB) ( 75 )   PDF(mobile) (1919KB) ( 24 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to ascertain the adaptability of different geographical populations of Atractomorpha sinensis in response to environmental temperature. 【Methods】By using soybean leaves as the food source, we observed the growth and development process of various developmental stages of five geographical populations of A. sinensis from Yan′an, Shaanxi (YA), Zhengzhou, Henan (ZZ), Chengdu, Sichuan (CD), Qujing, Yunnan (QJ) and Guangzhou, Guangdong (GZ) under the conditions of different constant temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28 and 32℃), RH 70% and a photoperiod of 16L∶8D, evaluated the variations in the developmental duration, developmental rates, developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures of different geographical populations, and analyzed the acorrelation between population biological indices and habitat environmental temperature. 【Results】 The developmental rate of different geographical populations of A. sinensis increased with the increase in temperature. However, the CD and GZ populations could not complete their generation at 16℃. As the habitat latitude and altitude increased, the developmental threshold temperatures of generation and various developmental stages of the populations gradually decreased, while their effective accumulated temperatures exhibited an increasing trend. The developmental threshold temperatures of the GZ, QJ, CD, ZZ and YA populations were 15.61, 10.76, 14.93, 11.46 and 10.51℃, respectively. The developmental threshold temperatures of generation of the GZ and CD populations were significantly higher than those of the other populations. The effective accumulated temperature of the GZ, QJ, CD, ZZ and YA populations were 828.41, 1 482.94, 963.13, 1 295.80, and 1 430.98 degree-days, respectively. The effective accumulated temperatures of the QJ and YA populations were significantly higher than those of the other populations. The temperature 24℃ is the optimal environmental temperature for the five geographical populations. The effective accumulated temperature of each developmental stage of different geographical populations is significantly negatively correlated with the annual average temperature of their habitats, while the developmental threshold temperature is significantly positively correlated with the annual average temperature of their habitats. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that there exist differences in the adaptability of different geographical populations of A. sinensis to environmental temperature, and their adaptability to low environmental temperature increases with the increase in habitat latitude and altitude, while that to high environmental temperature show the opposite trend.
    Evaluation of the effects of Beauveria bassiana on the predation of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) by Orius sauteri (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae) using functional response model
    CHEN Ya-Feng, WANG Su, DI Ning, JIN Dao-Chao
    2021, 64(8):  967-975.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.008
    Abstract ( 155 )   PDF (1459KB) ( 61 )   PDF(mobile) (1459KB) ( 11 )     
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     【Aim】 The application of natural enemies and biocontrol bacteria are effective means of pest biological control, and the combined application of the two kinds of agents have strong application prospects and potential of synergistic effect on biological control in the production. However, it is essential to evaluate the safety of biocontrol bacteria on natural enemies. This study aims to assess the biocontrol potential of combined release

    of Beauveria bassiana and Orius sauteri for biological control of pests. 【Methods】 We measured the emergence rate of O. sauteri adults after the 5th instar nymphs were treated with two different concentrations of B. bassiana spore suspensions (routine concentration: 1×107 conidia/mL; low concentration: 5×103 conidia/mL) and spore powder (1×107 conidia/individual) and the predation ability of the 5th instar nymphs of O. sauteri

    subjected to the above treatments to female adults of Tetranychus urticae under different prey densities. 【Results】 The emergence rate of O. sauteri adults was significantly reduced after the 5th instar nymphs were treated with B. bassiana spore powder (1×107 conidia/individual), and there was no significant difference in adult emergence rate between the other treatments and control. The predation of the 5th instar nymphs of O.

    sauteri in the three treatment groups on female adults of T. urticae fitted with Holling Ⅱ functional response models, and the searching efficiency reduced with the increasing of prey densities. Specifically, the 5th instar nymphs of O. sauteri treated with B. bassiana spore suspension at a low concentration (5×103 conidia/mL) showed the highest daily maximal predation amount (Na-max) and the shortest handling time (Th), and the  gression of searching efficiency showed the lowest decreasing trend with the increasing of prey density. However, the 5th instar nymphs of O. sauteri treated with B. bassiana spore powder had the lowest Na-max and the longest Th. 【Conclusion】 Low concentration of B. bassiana spore suspension does not affect the predation ability of the 5th instar nymphs of O. sauteri on female adults of T. urticae, but spore powder treatment causes adverse effect to the predation ability of the 5th instar nymphs of this natural enemy on female adults of T. urticae. This study preliminarily demonstrated the feasibility of the combined application of low concentration of B. bassiana spore suspension and O. sauteri on the control of T. urticae.

    Scanning electron microscopic observation of the external morphology of Lardoglyphus konoi (Acariformes: Acaridida: Lardoglyphidae) at different developmental stages
    YAO Run, JIANG Feng, WANG Mei-Qing, ZHANG Qin, YUAN Ya-Ping, ZHU Zhi-Wei, LI Chao-Pin, ZHAN Xiao-Dong
    2021, 64(8):  976-981.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.009
    Abstract ( 110 )   PDF (10027KB) ( 38 )   PDF(mobile) (10027KB) ( 10 )     
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     【Aim】 To observe the external morphology and ultrastructure characteristics of Lardoglyphus konoi at different developmental stages. 【Methods】 Based on the individual samples of different developmental stages of L. konoi cultured in the laboratory, the external morphology and ultrastructure of various developmental stages of L. konoi, including egg, larva, nymph and adult, were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). 【Results】 The egg of L. konoi is oval. The larva has three pairs of legs, but has no genital organs, genital setae and anal setae. The nymph has four pairs of legs, and the genital area, genital setae and anal setae still look under-developed. The hypopus has a tapering front end and a round and pear-shaped rear end. Sucker plate appears in the end idiosoma, and there are 13 suckers on the sucker plate with 2-2-4-5 distribution. The chelicera of adult mite is slender, scissor-like, and there are several small teeth on its fixed digit and movable digit. The external vertical seta (ve) is about half the length of the internal vertical seta (vi), and situated at the same horizon as the internal vertical seta. Tarsus end of the 3rd leg in the male adult is replaced by two thick, blunt teeth. At the ventral idiosoma, there is a genital region and an anal region with a pair of anal suckers. All legs in the female adult have forked claws. The ventral gonopore is a longitudinal crack. The anus does not reach the posterior margin of idiosoma. 【Conclusion】 The external morphology and ultrastructure of L. konoi at different developmental stages are observed by SEM, and the morphological characteristics of the mite are understood in more details, providing a theoretical basis for further study of its taxonomy and biology.

    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research advances of salivary effectors and elicitors in herbivorous insects
    DONG Yu-Mei, ZHANG Mei-Qian, SHEN Hui, HUANG Xing-Ge, YANG Yu-Xia, LI Ji-Fen, ZHANG Wen-Dan, SHEN Dan-Yu, JING Mao-Feng, DOU Dao-Long, XIA Ai
    2021, 64(8):  982-997.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.010
    Abstract ( 154 )   PDF (2201KB) ( 90 )   PDF(mobile) (2201KB) ( 19 )     
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     Herbivorous insects and host plants have developed complicated defense and counter defense mechanisms through co-evolution. In this article, we systematically reviewed the roles of insect saliva effectors and elicitors in the interactions between insects and plants and their mechanisms. The salivary elicitors secreted by insects during feeding can be recognized by plants to trigger early plant immunity, while insect effectors released from oral secretion can inhibit plant immune defenses. Resistant plants further evolved R proteins to recognize insect avirulence effectors and initiate effector-triggered immunity. Phytophagous insects can avoid the recognition by plant R proteins through different strategies. Therefore, in this arms race, insect saliva determines whether insects can succeed to feed on plants. During feeding process, chewing insects secrete a large number of enzymes into plants, and piercing-sucking insects secrete sheath saliva and water saliva into plants, but both of them utilize effectors and elicitors to manipulate plant immune responses. By analyzing the reported insect effectors, it was found that the molecular mechanisms of insect effectors are different. They affect plant early defense signals, regulate plant hormone pathways or others, or target small RNA pathways. Recent advances in insect elicitors were also reviewed in this article, revealing that elicitors can induce the release of plant secondary metabolites, and regulate hormone levels, Ca2+ influx and reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst to enhance plant resistance. Finally, we analyzed the secretory characteristics, host specificity and multifunctionality of insect effectors, and discussed research prospects on avirulence effectors and their plant R genes as well as pattern recognition receptors of elicitors. 
    Research advances in the diversity of symbionts in the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    SHENTU Xu-Ping, SHI Jia-Teng, SONG Yang, YU Xiao-Ping
    2021, 64(8):  998-1008.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.08.011
    Abstract ( 119 )   PDF (1608KB) ( 85 )   PDF(mobile) (1608KB) ( 15 )     
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     There are a large number of symbionts in the brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, and these symbionts exhibit the diversity not only in their species but also in their functions on hosts. Up to now, 19 and 53 genera of symbiotic fungi and bacteria (sequencing abundance>0.1%), respectively, have been identified by using molecular biological methods and high-throughput sequencing technology, but plenty of symbionts remain unknown in taxonomic status due to technical limitations and their unculturable characteristics. Symbionts play vital roles in the life activities of BPH including the growth, development, reproduction, nutritional metabolism, resistance variation and immune function, and various symbionts have different functions. The symbiotic fungi are mainly involved in the synthesis of sterols and essential amino acids, while the symbiotic bacteria mainly take part in the synthesis of vitamins. The symbionts have important influence on the virulence variation, the development of high resistance to insecticides and the reproduction of host BPH, but the molecular mechanisms have not yet been clarified. In this article we reviewed the diversity of symbionts of BPH and prospected the focal points of future research including the species identification of symbionts of BPH, the functional studies of specific and single species of symbionts, the diffusion pathway, diffusion species and regulatory mechanism of symbionts in different tissues of BPH, and the control of BPH using symbionts as targets.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 64 Issue 8
    2021, 64(8):  1009-1009. 
    Abstract ( 72 )   PDF (481KB) ( 18 )   PDF(mobile) (481KB) ( 9 )     
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