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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2021, Volume 64 Issue 11
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Comparative microRNA microarray and transcriptome analyses of the testis and ovary of the 5th instar larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    ZHANG Bing, LI Na, KAN Yun-Chao
    2021, 64(11):  1235-1243.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.001
    Abstract ( 281 )   PDF (2033KB) ( 149 )   PDF(mobile) (2033KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to identify microRNA (miRNA) and possible target genes involved in the gonadal development of Bombyx mori through miRNA microarray and transcriptome analyses of the testis and ovary of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori. 【Methods】 A new generation of highthroughput sequencing platform was used to perform miRNA microarray analysis and transcriptome sequencing of the testis and ovary (defined as test and control, respectively) of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori. According to the criteria of P<0.05 and log2(fold change, FC)≥2, the differentially expressed miRNAs of test vs control were screened. According to the criteria of q≤0.05 and [log2 (fold change)]≥1, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of test vs control were screened by comparative analysis. Eight up-regulated and 12 down-regulated differentially expressed miRNAs were randomly selected,and their expression and their predicted five target genes were verified by qRT-PCR. The DEGs and target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were enriched by KEGG pathway analysis. 【Results】 Sixty-eight differentially expressed miRNAs and 3 991 DEGs were identified from the testis and ovary (test vs control). Among them, 36 and 32 miRNAs were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively, and 2 033 and 1 958 DEGs were up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. qRT-PCR verification results of differentially expressed miRNAs were consistent with the microarray data. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in the signal pathways involved in metabolism and ribosome. The possible target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs in the DEGs were predicted. Four groups of miRNAs and their target genes showing the opposite expression trend were found, including bmo-miR-2774a and LOC101745556, bmo-miR-92b and LOC101735954, bmo-miR-3266 and LOC733130 and LOC778467, respectively. One group of miRNA and its target gene showing the consistent expression trend was bmo-miR-3321 and LOC101744895. The results of qRT-PCR of five target genes were consistent with the results of transcriptome sequencing. 【Conclusion】 In this study, the transcriptome and miRNA microarray data of the testis and ovary of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori have been obtained, and four groups of miRNAs and their target genes showing the opposite expression trend and one group of miRNA and its target gene showing the consistent expression trend screened and verified, laying a foundation for exploring the development differences between the testis and ovary of B. mori.
    Improvement of the annotation of Antheraea pernyi  (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) genome using  full-length transcripts (In English)
    LI Ying, LEI Yu-Yu, LIANG Shi-Mei, ZHANG Xian, DU Jie, YANG Xin-Feng, LI Shan-Shan, DUAN Jian-Ping
    2021, 64(11):  1244-1251.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.002
    Abstract ( 220 )   PDF (2396KB) ( 90 )   PDF(mobile) (2396KB) ( 25 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to improve the annotation of the genome of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, so as to expand its application to comparative genomics and breed improvement. 【Methods】 The full-length transcriptome of A. pernyi was sequenced and analyzed, and compared with the reference genome to identify novel genes and transcripts with functional annotation and to predict long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). The gene models in the genome of A. pernyi were modified by thousands of novel protein-coding transcripts and lncRNAs. Finally, the corrected and merged annotation of the genome of A. pernyi was created. 【Results】 A total of 1 997 novel protein-coding genes and 3 399 novel lncRNA genes were discovered and supported by 2 402 and 3 574 full-length transcripts, respectively. The genome of A. pernyi contains 25 021 genes, including 19 825 protein-coding genes, from which seven juvenile hormone acid O-methyltransferase genes were identified. 【Conclusion】 This study improves our knowledge of the known genes in the genome of A. pernyi and provides valuable resources for comparative and functional genomic studies in A. pernyi and its relatives.

    Ultrastructure of sensilla on the proboscis and the central projection of their sensory neurons in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    YAN Xi-Zhong, XIE Jiao-Xin, DENG Cai-Ping, HAO Chi
    2021, 64(11):  1252-1260.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.003
    Abstract ( 170 )   PDF (5761KB) ( 77 )   PDF(mobile) (5761KB) ( 17 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to characterize the morphology of sensilla on proboscis and the central projection of their sensory neurons in adults of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. 【Methods】 The structure of the proboscis of P. xylostella adults and sensilla on the proboscis were observed under scanning electron microscopy, and the central projection of the sensory neurons of sensilla on the proboscis were observed by using neuronal backfills and confocal microscope. 【Results】 Five types of sensilla were found on the proboscis, including sensilla trichodea (two subtypes), sensilla coeloconica, sensilla basiconica, sensilla chaetica and sensilla styloconica. Sensilla trichodea are located outside of each galea with a smooth surface, and can also be divided into two subtypes (sensilla trichodea subtype Ⅰ and Ⅱ), of which subtype Ⅰ is longer than subtype Ⅱ. Sensilla basiconica are located outside of the proboscis, and composed of a sensory cone and short dome-shaped socket. Sensilla coeloconica have a sensory cone but no socket, and only occur in the food canal. Sensilla chaetica are composed of a long sensory bristle and a round socket, without pores on the surface, and occur on the external surface of the proboscis. Sensilla styloconica are the most typical sensilla on the proboscis, consisting of a single sensory cone inserted at the top of a stylus, and concentrated in the tip region. The sensory and motor neurons on the proboscis project to the primary gustatory center, the suboesophageal ganglion (SOG). 【Conclusion】 The types, distribution and morphology of sensilla of the proboscis of P. xylostella adults and the pattern of central projections of their neurons have been illustrated in this study, providing a basis for further investigation on the physiology and function of sensilla of the proboscis of P. xylostella.
    Mining of potential biomarkers of pebrine disease of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae)
    SUN Ying, LIANG Rui-Ye, ZHANG Wen-Juan, WANG Yong, JIANG Yi-Ren, QIN Li
    2021, 64(11):  1261-1274.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.004
    Abstract ( 178 )   PDF (11745KB) ( 52 )   PDF(mobile) (11745KB) ( 6 )     
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     【Aim】 The potential biomarkers of pebrine disease of the Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, are to be identified in this study, so as to lay a foundation for the development of detection methods of the disease and the study of the differences and functions of metabolites of A. pernyi infected by Nosema pernyi. 【Methods】 The differences of metabolites in the haemolymph between healthy and pebrine-infected female adults of A. pernyi were assayed via non-targeted metabolomics analysis by means of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and high resolution mass spectrometer (MS). 【Results】 Tested in the positive ion model, 8 870 metabolites were identified from the haemolymph of healthy and pebrineinfected female adults of A. pernyi and 5 390 metabolites were annotated. In response to the infection of N. pernyi, 472 differentially expressed metabolites were screened, including 260 up-regulated and 212 down-regulated. Furthermore, 12 differentially expressed metabolites were secondarily identified, including 8 up-regulated and 4 down-regulated. Tested in the negative ion model, 6 716 metabolites were identified, and 3 848 metabolites were then annotated. In total, 301 differentially expressed metabolites were identified including 207 up-regulated and 94 downregulated. Furthermore, 9 differentially expressed metabolites were secondarily identified including 8 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated. Moreover, differentially expressed metabolites secondarily identified in the positive ion model included valine, benzothiazole, 3dehydroxycarnitine, 1-methylguanine, 2-ethoxynaphthalene, N6-acetyl-L-lysine, biotin, morin, timolol, acylcarnitine 15∶0, acylcarnitine 18∶4 and isoquercitrin, and those in the negative ion model included dimethylmalonic acid, glutaric acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 1,3-diacetylpropane, DL-p-hydroxyphenyllactic acid, pantothenate, fluorescein, delphinidin-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside and lysoPI 16∶1. 【Conclusion】 There are significant differences in the metabolites of haemolymph collected from healthy and pebrine-infected female adults of A. pernyi. Twenty-one differentially expressed metabolites secondarily identified have been mined by metabolomics, and these metabolites can be used as potential biomarkers for developing the detection methods for pebrine disease in A. pernyi.
    ATP6 protein affects the transmission efficiency of wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma by the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    DING Lei, LU Wen-Jing, YANG Yan-Jun, MA Huan, WU Yun-Feng
    2021, 64(11):  1275-1282.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.005
    Abstract ( 199 )   PDF (3032KB) ( 49 )   PDF(mobile) (3032KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate the effect of ATP6 protein of the leafhopper Psammotettix alienus on the transmission efficiency of wheat blue dwarf phytoplasma (WBDp). 【Methods】 cDNA was synthesized by reverse transcription from the mRNA of P. alienus, and then a cDNA library was constructed with cDNA using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid membrane system. Protein P2-4 related to the transmission of WBDp was used as bait to screen interacting proteins by hybridizing with the cDNA library of P. alienus. The effect of ATP6 protein on the WBDp transmission by the 3rd instar nymphs of P. alienus was verified by RNAi of ATP6 gene. 【Results】 A cDNA library of P. alienus using a split-ubiquitin yeast two-hybrid membrane system was constructed. Several interacting proteins including ATP6 were obtained in cDNA library using P2-4 as the bait. Silencing of ATP6 gene by RNAi significantly reduced the transmission rate of WBDp by the 3rd instar nymphs of P. alienus by 23.33%±3.33% as compared with the control group, indicating that ATP6 is a key protein involved in WBDp transmission by P. alienus. 【Conclusion】 ATP6 of P. alienus has been identified as a key protein involved in the transmission of WBDp. This study provides a theoretical basis for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of WBDp transmission by P. alienus and controlling phytoplasma diseases in fields.
    Toxicity of sea anemone toxin Av3 to Blattella germanica (Blattaria: Blattellidae) and its action mechanisms
    ZHU Qing, GAO Rong
    2021, 64(11):  1283-1292.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.006
    Abstract ( 189 )   PDF (1579KB) ( 70 )   PDF(mobile) (1579KB) ( 4 )     
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    【Aim】 Investigation of the action mechanisms of selective toxicity of type III sea anemone toxin (Av3) on insects would be highly valuable for future design of highly selective anti-insect compounds. 【Methods】 Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatogram (RP-HPLC) and electrosprayionization mass spectrum (ESI-MS) were used to identify the purity and molecular weight of chemically synthesized Av3 wild type (Av3-WT) and its mutants. The toxicities of Av3-WT and its mutants to  Blattella germanica adults and their inhibition effect on the inactivation of sodium channel BgNav1-1a were tested by bioassay and double voltage clamp, respectively. Systematically replacing the extracellular loops of BgNav1-1a with those of rat sodium channel rNav1-2a was executed to determine the key region for Av3-WT selective toxicity by double voltage clamp. 【Results】 The toxicity of three Av3-WT mutants Y7A, W8A and Y18A generated via mutation of aromatic amino acids Y7, W8 and Y18 to B. germanica adults was significantly reduced, and the median knockdown dose (KD50) values of these three mutants increased by more than 10-fold compared with that of Av3 wild-type toxin (Av3-WT). As compared to the Av3-WT, the inhibition of the mutants Y7A, W8A and Y18A at the dose of 250 mmol/L on the inactivation of BgNav1-1a significantly decreased. The inhibition rates of Y7A, W8A and Y18A on channel inactivation were 12%, 23% and 8%, respectively, while that of Av3-WT was 62%. The chimera bearing DI/SS2-S6 of the rat sodium channel in BgNav1-1a almost lost sensitivity to Av3-WT, the inactivation of only 3.6% channels was inhibited. Substitution His404Y in DI/SS2-S6 completely abolished the inhibition effect of toxin on channel inactivation, and the inactivation of only 6% channels was inhibited by 1 μmol/L Av3-WT. 【Conclusion】 Three aromatic residues Tyr7, Trp8 and Tyr18 are involved in the constitution of bioactive surface of Av3-WT, DI/SS2-S6 is the key region affecting the specificity action of Av3-WT, and His404 in DI/SS2-S6 is critical for Av3-WT selective toxicity.
    Resistance of different alfalfa cultivars to Therioaphis trifolii (Hemiptera: Drepanosiphidae) analyzed by EPG technology
    YU Liang-Bin, YUE Fang-Zheng, CHENG Tong-Tong, WANG Yu-Tong, CUI Jin, XU Lin-Bo
    2021, 64(11):  1293-1304.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.007
    Abstract ( 204 )   PDF (1918KB) ( 50 )   PDF(mobile) (1918KB) ( 9 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the feeding behaviors of Therioaphis trifolii on different cultivars of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), to ascertain the anti-aphid factors and insect resistance sites, and to screen out the M. sativa cultivars resistant to aphids. 【Methods】 The feeding behaviors of T. trifolii adults on 10 alfalfa cultivars were recorded using electrical penetration graph (EPG) technology, appropriate EPG parameters were selected based on clustering analysis and aphid resistance was evaluated with these EPG parameters. 【Results】 T. trifolii adults fed on different alfalfa cultivars showed eight waveforms including np waveform, pd waveform, A waveform, B waveform, C waveform, E waveform, F waveform and G waveform, and the total duration of E waveform, F waveform and G waveform of T. trifolii adults on different alfalfa cultivars showed significant differences. During the 5 h test period, the duration of E waveform on Aohan was the longest, followed by that on Golden Empress and Zhongmu No.3, and that on Caoyuan No.2 and Algonquin was the shortest. The total duration of F waveform on Zhungeer, Algonquin and Golden Empress was the longest, and that on Aohan, Derby and Caoyuan No. 2 was the shortest, suggesting that the formers have strong mechanical resistance and the latters have weak mechanical resistance. Using the duration of the first probe, total duration of probe wave, total duration of F waveform, total duration of C waveform, and total duration of E waveform as indices for cluster analysis, 10 alfalfa cultivars were clustered into 3 categories: Algonquin, Caoyuan No. 2, WL168HQ, Derby, Zhongmu No. 2 and Xinmu No. 2 in category I, Golden Empress, Zhongmu No. 3 and Zhungeer in category II, and Aohan in category III. 【Conclusion】 The feeding behaviors of T. trifolii adults on different alfalfa cultivars are different. The alfalfa cultivars Caoyuan No. 2, Algonquin and WL168HQ show resistance to T. trifolii adults at the levels of leaf epidermis, mesophyll and phloem, and Golden Empress shows resistance to T. trifolii adults when leaf epidermis and mesophyll are pierced. T. trifolii adults can pierce and suck for a long time on Aohan, so Aohan shows the lowest resistance to T. trifolii adults. This study provides a theoretical basis for further exploring the mechanisms of alfalfa resistance to insects and the integrated control of aphids.
    Age-stage, two-sex life table of Mycterothrips gongshanensis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), a new outbreak pest in tea gardens in Yunnan, southwestern China
    XIE Yan-Lan, WEI Ling-Chang, MA Run-Min, ZHANG Hong-Rui
    2021, 64(11):  1305-1312.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.008
    Abstract ( 229 )   PDF (1645KB) ( 66 )   PDF(mobile) (1645KB) ( 19 )     
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    【Aim】 Mycterothrips gongshanensis is a new outbreak thrips pest on tea (Camellia sinensis) plants in Yunnan, southwestern China. This study aims to clarify the biological and ecological characteristics of M. gongshanensis, to ascertain its development, survival and reproduction, and to simulate its population growth. 【Methods】 The age-stage two-sex life table of the experimental population of M. gongshanensis originated from Lincang, Yunnan, southwestern China was established, and the life history, survival rate, fecundity and other life table parameters of the experimental population of M. gongshanensis feeding on young tea leaves at 25℃ were observed and analyzed. Finally, its population growth for a period of 60 d was simulated. 【Results】 The developmental duration of M. gongshanensis at the egg, 1st instar nymphal, 2nd instar nymphal, prepupal and pupal stages was 3.89±0.04, 1.71±0.04, 3.14±0.03, 2.23±0.04 and 3.32±0.05 d, respectively. The average longevity of female adult was 15.50±0.32 d, while that of male adult was 14.06±0.26 d. The mean number of eggs laid per female was 36.12±0.78. The survival rate of the preadult stage was high, and the mortality sharply increased after the 25 day-old adult stage. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), mean generation time (T), and net reproductive rate (R0) of the experimental population of M. gongshanensis were 0.1379±0.0044/d, 1.1479±0.0050/d, 21.33±0.13 d, and 18.95±1.68, respectively. Starting with 10 eggs, the population of M. gongshanensis reared in the absence of external interference will multiply to 17 335 individuals in 60 d based on computer simulation. 【Conclusion】 The population of M. gongshanensis in Lincang, Yunnan has high survival rate, high fecundity, and short mean generation time, and consequently, the population can grow very fast in this area.
    Changes of the potential suitable distribution areas of Apis dorsata (Hymenoptera: Apidae), an important pollinator, under the global change pattern
    XU Chun-Yang, LIU Xiu-Wei, HE Chun-Ling, GAO Jie, PENG Yan-Qiong
    2021, 64(11):  1313-1327.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.009
    Abstract ( 187 )   PDF (15431KB) ( 84 )   PDF(mobile) (15431KB) ( 28 )     
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     【Aim】 Global climate change, land-use change, and intensifying human activities are threatening the biodiversity and distribution of wild pollinating insects. Bees are the important pollinator group in the ecosystem, and they are sensitive to climate and environmental changes. In this study, using Apis dorsata, an important pollinator, as a target, we explored the changes of its potential suitable distribution areas under the global change pattern, and analyzed the key factors that influence its distribution. 【Methods】 The distribution data of A. dorsata worldwide were collected through literatures, specimens and field survey, and 13 environmental variables were used to model the potential suitable distribution areas of A. dorsata in the present by MaxEnt. The potential suitable distribution areas of A. dorsata in the past, present and future were also modeled by using nine climate variables and Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4). 【Results】 The AUC ratio shows that MaxEnt model had high accuracy in modeling the potential distribution areas of A. dorsata. The model results show that the medium and high suitable distribution areas of A. dorsata are mainly in the moist tropical rainforests, tropical seasonal forests and lowland forests in South and Southeast Asia. Human influence, temperature seasonality, isothermality, mean temperature of the coldest quarter and elevation are the most important top five factors that influence the potential suitable distribution areas of A. dorsata. The distribution areas of A. dorsata are shrinking to mountains and continuous evergreen forests under human disturbance, and the medium and high suitable distribution areas of A. dorsata are significantly reduced and show the fragmented trend. The past, present and future results of global climate models based on nine climate variables and global climate models CCSM4 show that Southeast Asia region could be the refuge of A. dorsata in the Last Glacial Maximum. And in the future, the potential distribution areas of the widespread species A. dorsata in tropical regions will be close to those in the present, and the fitness index will rise in some areas. 【Conclusion】 Although the model results based on climate variables show that A. dorsata can actively adapt to future climate change, A. dorsata is still under threat from increasing human activities and global climate change. So great importance should be attached to the medium and high suitable distribution areas in South and Southeast Asia in order to protect A. dorsata.
    Isolation and development of microsatellite markers for Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) (In English)
    ZHENG Chun-Yan, YANG Fan, ZENG Ling, XU Yi-Juan
    2021, 64(11):  1328-1337.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.010
    Abstract ( 134 )   PDF (1131KB) ( 42 )   PDF(mobile) (1131KB) ( 3 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to isolate microsatellite markers from Tapinoma melanocephalum genome, and to identify polymorphisms of the microsatellite loci. 【Methods】 We developed microsatellite loci from the genomes of 11 geographic populations of T. melanocephalum from the mainland and islands of South China via 454 GS FLX pyrosequencing technology. We used 10 pairs of microsatellite primers selected from randomly designed 100 pairs of microsatellite primers to determine the polymorphisms of the 10 microsatellite loci and to analyze the population genetic diversity and population differentiation of four geographic populations including Dong′ao Island (DAD), Hebao Island (HBD), Meizhou (MZ) and Shanju (SJ) of T. melanocephalum. 【Results】 We successfully developed and isolated 10 pairs of microsatellite primers from the genomes of the 11 geographic populations of T. melanocephalum. In populations DAD, HBD, MZ and SJ, seven of ten microsatellite loci showed high polymorphism and the 10 loci were significantly departed from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The number of allele (A) per locus was 3.50-9.00, allele richness (AR) per locus in each population ranged from 1.992 to 12.938. The AR and expected heterozygosity (HE) from island geographic populations (DAD and HBD) showed no significant difference from those from mainland geographic populations (MZ and SJ). All of the four geographic populations exhibited higher level of genetic divergence (FST=0.15969). HBD and MZ populations showed higher genetic divergence (FST=0.185) and lower gene flow than other paired geographic populations, suggesting that the gene flow of the two populations was restricted. In addition, the genetic variation derived from between individuals within geographic populations. 【Conclusion】 Newly screened microsatellite loci can offer an effective tool for researching on the colony structure and breeding structure of T. melanocephalum, so that its spread mechanism can be deeply understood.

    REVIEW ARTICLES
     Problems of subspecies taxonomy of rare butterflies and their significance in conservation: with Teinopalpus Hope as examples
    ZOU Wu, ZENG Ju-Ping, JIANG Meng-Na, WANG Lu, ZHOU Shan-Yi, ZHANG Jiang-Tao
    2021, 64(11):  1338-1349.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.011
    Abstract ( 279 )   PDF (1846KB) ( 84 )   PDF(mobile) (1846KB) ( 26 )     
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     Subspecies is a subunit of species, and its status is questioned because of different definitions and subjectivity in taxonomy. However, all attempts either to replace the subspecies by a different terminology or to abandon it altogether have been found unacceptable in taxonomic practice. Subspecies, as a part of the natural process, are also an important part of biodiversity, and with certain uniqueness, they also have values in conservation. Based on subspecies concepts and characteristics, it is proposed that two principles, geographical isolation (such as allopatric distribution) and differences in phenotype, should be applied in subspecies taxonomy. In this article, we reviewed the application and problems of the two principles with the rare butterflies of Teinopalpus as examples, collected the data of geographic distribution, morphological descriptions of subspecies taxonomy or related literatures of this butterfly genus, and summarized the status, problems and causes in the subspecies taxonomy of this genus. From 1843 to 2007, eight subspecies were recorded in T. imperialis and its sister species T. aureus, respectively. However, some subspecies were applied simultaneously in one administrative region, such as T. i. imperialis, T. i. himalaicus and T. i. behludinii all were applied in Sichuan Province of China, and two subspecies were recorded together in Zhejiang Province of China, indicating uncertainties in subspecies application. Considering that both the two sister butterflies were distributed (sympatric) in Southeast Asia, the geographical isolation between subspecies was then determined by comparing the consistency of locations of their holotype specimens in biomes and ecoregions. The niche differentiation in T. imperialis (over three biomes) could be higher than that in T. aureus (with only one biome). According to the isolation of ecoregion, we suggest that the subspecies taxonomy of T. imperialis should be revised as the seven subspecies T. i. imperialis, T. i. himalaicus, T. i. miecoae, T. i. behludinii, T. i. imperatrix (including T. i. bhumipholi), T. i. gillesi and T. i. gerritesi in T. imperialis, and that of T. aureus as T. a. aureus (including T. a. wuyiensis, T. a. guangxiensis and T. a. nagaoi), T. a. eminens (including T. a. laotiana), T. a. shinkaii and T. a. hainani. Due to the lack of reference specimens, the information available for morphological comparison is limited and incomplete (such as only unisexual comparison in morphology), so it could lead to over-subspecialization. In rare butterflies, subspecies problems such as over-subspecialization and uncertainty would affect management in conservation, since governors usually make decision after weighing costs and effectiveness and identifying priorities in regions or species in conservation. Therefore, subspecies taxonomy should not be recommended until more definitive information available.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Toxicity and risk assessment of eleven pesticides to workers of Bombus terrestris (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    WANG Hong-Dong, HAN Bing, WANG Yu-Sai, HAN Shuang, WANG Ru-Ming, LI Dong-Gang
    2021, 64(11):  1350-1358.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2021.11.012
    Abstract ( 600 )   PDF (1517KB) ( 76 )   PDF(mobile) (1517KB) ( 13 )     
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    【Aim】 To assess the ecological risk of common pesticides to Bombus terrestris, so as to provide a scientific basis for the rational application of pesticides in greenhouses. 【Methods】 The acute oral toxicity and acute contact toxicity of eleven pesticides, including six insecticides (chlorfenapyr, beta-cyhalothrin, flupyradifurone, spirotetramat, isoprocarb, and diflubenzuron), three acaricides (cyflumetofen, fenpyroximate, and bifenazate), and two fungicides (kasugamycin and boscalid), to adult workers of B. terrestris were determined by feeding method and contact method, respectively, and their ecological risk was assessed. 【Results】 Among the 11 pesticides tested, beta-cyhalothrin, isoprocarb and chlorfenapyr showed high acute oral toxicity, flupyradifurone and fenpyroximate showed medium acute oral toxicity, and the others showed low acute oral toxicity to B. terrestris workers. In the acute contact toxicity test, beta-cyhalothrin and isoprocarb showed high toxicity, chlorfenapyr showed medium toxicity, and the others showed low toxicity to B. terrestris workers. The ecological risk assessment showed that isoprocarb and beta-cyhalothrin had medium risk, and flupyradifurone, boscalid, diflubenzuron, fenpyroximate, bifenazate, spirotetramat, kasugamycin and cyflumetofen had low risk to B. terrestris workers via oral and contact exposure, while chlorfenapyr had medium risk via oral exposure and low risk via contact exposure to B.terrestris workers. 【Conclusion】 It is suggested that isoprocarb, beta-cyhalothrin and chlorfenapyr with medium risk should be banned when using B. terrestris pollination in the flowering period of greenhouse crops, flupyradifurone and fenpyroximate should be used cautiously to avoid harm to B. terrestris, while the other six low toxic pesticides could be applied reasonably according to the field conditions, and the ecological risk of pesticides to bumblebees can be reduced by means of ventilation, air drying and interval setting.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 64 Issue 11
    2021, 64(11):  1359-1359. 
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (474KB) ( 13 )   PDF(mobile) (474KB) ( 4 )     
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