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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2022, Volume 65 Issue 11
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Regulation of the expression of target genes USP and P300 by ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica workers
    HU Ying, ZHANG Wen-De, WANG Si-Yi, ZHANG Kai-Yao, REN Zhong-Min, JI Ting, LIN Zhe-Guang, ZHAO Hong-Xia, CHEN Da-Fu, GUO Rui
    2022, 65(11):  1401-1410.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.001
    Abstract ( 256 )   PDF (2251KB) ( 243 )   PDF(mobile) (2251KB) ( 41 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to clarify the regulatory effects of ame-miR-bantam on the expression of target genes USP and P300 by performing overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica workers through feeding method. 【Methods】 Overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-bantam in tissues of the larval gut of the 4-6-day-old workers of A. m. ligustica were conducted by feeding mimic-ame-miR-bantam and inhibitor-ame-miR-bantam, and their corresponding negative controls mimic-NC-ame-miR-bantam and inhibitor-NC-ame-miR-bantam of ame-miR-bantam, respectively. Target genes of ame-miR-bantam were predicted and analyzed using bioinformatic software. RT-qPCR was used to detect the overexpression and knockdown effects of ame-miR-bantam and the relative expression levels of target genes USP and P300 in the larval gut of the 4-6-day-old workers of A. m. ligustica. 【Results】 Compared with feeding with mimic-NC-ame-miR-bantam, feeding with mimic-ame-miR-bantam resulted in significant up-regulation of ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of the 4-6-day-old workers of A. m. ligustica. Compared with feeding with inhibitor-NC-ame-miR-bantam, feeding with inhibitor-ame-miR-bantam resulted in significant down-regulation of ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of the 4-day-old workers, and down-regulation of ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of the 5- and 6-day-old workers. ame-miR-bantam can target a total of 222 genes, which can be annotated to 35 GO terms such as cellular process and 160 KEGG pathways such as Wnt signaling pathway. After overexpression of ame-miR-bantam, the expression levels of USP and P300 in the larval gut of the 4-day-old workers were up-regulated, that of USP in the larval gut of the 5-day-old workers was down-regulated, that of P300 in the larval gut of the 5-day-old workers was significantly down-regulated, those of USP and P300 in the 6-day-old larval gut were significantly down-regulated as compared to those in the negative control group fed with mimic-NC-ame-miR-bantam. After knockdown of ame-miR-bantam, the expression levels of USP and P300 in the larval gut of the 4- and 5-day-old workers were up-regulated, that of USP in the larval gut of the 6-day-old workers was significantly up-regulated whereas that of P300 in the larval gut of the 6-day-old workers was up-regulated as compared with those in the negative control group fed with inhibitor-NC-ame-miR-bantam. 【Conclusion】 Effective overexpression and knockdown of ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut of A. m. ligustica workers can be achieved by feeding with mimic and inhibitor, respectively, and ame-miR-bantam in the larval gut may negatively regulates the expression of USP and P300.
    Screening of the digestive and detoxification enzyme genes highly expressed in the larval midgut of Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    LÜ Dong-Biao, ZHANG Zhan-Li, LENG Chun-Meng, YUAN Xiang-Qun, LI Yi-Ping
    2022, 65(11):  1411-1425.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.002
    Abstract ( 311 )   PDF (4016KB) ( 276 )   PDF(mobile) (4016KB) ( 60 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the digestive and detoxification enzyme genes highly expressed in the midgut of Grapholita molesta larvae so as to provide the theoretical basis for the future research of novel pesticides and transgenic crops targeting intestine. 【Methods】 Based on the FPKM values of high-throughput transcriptome sequencing data of the 4th instar larval midgut of G. molesta, the highly expressed genes were screened and subjected to GO function annotation and KEGG pathway enrichment analysis, and the highly expressed genes of the digestive and detoxification enzymes were screened by alignment using BLAST software. Phylogenetic analysis of these highly expressed digestive and detoxification enzymes and the homologous proteins from other lepidopteran insects was performed using MEGA software. Quantitative analysis and verification of the expression levels of the representative digestive and detoxification enzyme genes highly expressed in the midgut of G. molesta larvae at different instars were carried out by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 A total of 103 677 genes highly expressed in the migdut of the 4th instar larvae of G. molesta were annotated in GO database, including 41 branches of three function categories cellular component, molecular function and biological process. KEGG pathway analysis showed that 10 846 highly expressed genes are involved in five types of biochemical metabolism pathways. Seventeen digestive enzyme genes [five trypsin (TRY) genes, three aminopeptidase (APN) genes and nine carboxypeptidase (CP) genes] and 32 detoxification enzyme genes [11 glutathione Stransferase (GST) genes, 13 cytochrome P450 (CYP450) genes and eight carboxylesterase (CarE) genes] with complete open reading frames were obtained. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that the homologous clustering branches of the digestive enzymes of G. molesta were scattered, and the homologous clustering branches of the GST and CYP450 proteins of G. molesta were concentrated, but they were all clustered with the homologous proteins of at least one lepidopteran insect. qRT-PCR verification result showed that the expression levels of digestive enzyme and detoxification enzyme genes in the midgut of G. molesta larvae at different instars were significantly different, with the highest expression levels in the 4th instar larval stage. 【Conclusion】 In this study, we successfully screened and verified some digestive enzyme and detoxification enzyme genes highly expressed in the larval midgut of G. molesta, and clarified their evolutionary relationship with homologous proteins of other lepidopteran insects. These results provide references for the transcriptome analysis of other related species of Lepidoptera and the study of insect pest control targeting intestine.
    Cloning and expression profiling of odorant binding protein genes highly expressed in Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) adults
    LI Kai-Xuan, LI Yan-Yan, WANG Shu-Juan, SI Qin, ZHANG Li-Ying, PANG Bao-Ping
    2022, 65(11):  1426-1236.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.003
    Abstract ( 191 )   PDF (4244KB) ( 265 )   PDF(mobile) (4244KB) ( 14 )     
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     【Aim】The peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii, is one of the most damaging borers of fruit trees in northern China. Once the larvae of this insect bore into fruits, they deteriorate the quality of the fruits. The adult stage is the key period to control the occurrence of this pest. Odorant binding proteins (OBPs), as important odor transport proteins binding to odor molecules in insect olfactory sensing system, play an important role in insect host localization and mating behaviors. In this study, the OBP genes in C. sasakii were cloned and identified, and their tissue-specific expression profiles in adults were assayed in order to lay a foundation for studying the function of OBPs in olfactory perception in C. sasakii. 【Methods】 Based on the transcriptome sequencing data of C. sasakii obtained previously, five OBP genes of C. sasakii (CsasOBP7, CsasOBP12, CsasOBP15, CsasOBP19 and CsasOBP21) highly expressed in the antennae of female and male adults were selected. The full-length cDNA sequences of the five OBP genes screened were cloned by RACE, and analyzed by bioinformatics. The expression levels of the five OBP genes in different developmental stages (1 and 5-day-old egg, newly hatched larva, mature larva, and pupa) of C. sasakii and different tissues (antenna, head without antenna, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing) of its newly emerged adults and female and male adults at the mating peak stage and 6 h after mating were detected by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 The fulllength cDNA sequences of the five OBP genes CsasOBP7, CsasOBP12, CsasOBP15, CsasOBP19 and CsasOBP21 (GenBank accession no.: MZ476786-MZ476790) of C. sasakii were obtained. CsasOBP19 is a segment of Minus-C OBP with incomplete C-terminus, and the others belong to complete Classical OBPs. It was predicted that all the five CsasOBPs contain signal peptides. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CsasOBP7 and CsasOBP19 have the closest relationship among the five CsasOBPs of C. sasakii. qRT-PCR results showed that CsasOBP7 and CsasOBP19 were highly expressed in the pupal stage of C. sasakii whereas CsasOBP12, CsasOBP15 and CsasOBP21 were highly expressed in the egg stage. The expression pattern of the five CsasOBP genes totally showed a decreasing trend from adult eclosion to mating peak, till 6 h after mating. In the newly emerged adults, the five CsasOBP genes were ubiquitously expressed in various tissues, and highly expressed mainly in male tissues. During the mating peak of adult, the five CsasOBP genes were highly expressed in the male antennae, and especially, CsasOBP7 and CsasOBP15 were specifically expressed in the male antennae. At 6 h after mating, each CsasOBP gene was only highly expressed in one or two tissues. 【Conclusion】 The high expression of the five CsasOBP genes in the male antennae of C. sasakii during the mating peak of adult suggests that these CsasOBP genes may play an important role in the process of males searching for females.
    Prokaryotic expression, preparation of polyclonal antibody and detection of actinomycin-induced activation state of apoptotic protein Strica of Drosophila
    MENG Kun, HU Xu-Hao, SHI Liu-Liu
    2022, 65(11):  1437-1443.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.004
    Abstract ( 182 )   PDF (3194KB) ( 94 )   PDF(mobile) (3194KB) ( 10 )     
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    【Aim】 Apoptosis is a type of conserved programmed cell death in eukaryotes, and it is mediated by caspase protease. Strica is a special caspase in Drosophila. Its commercial antibody is not available and its biochemical function is unknown so far. The objective of this study is to clone, prokaryotically express and purify Drosophila Strica protein, and prepare its polyclonal antibody so as to preliminarily study its function. 【Methods】 Based on the gene sequence of Drosophila strica, a prokaryotic expression vector was constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) competent cells to express Strica protein. Rabbits were immunized with the purified Strica protein to prepare polyclonal antibody. Antibody titer and sensitivity were determined by indirect ELISA and Western blot, respectively. pAc5-V5-Strica overexpression plasmid previously constructed was transfected Drosophila S2 cells, and siRNA was designed and synthesized to verify the specificity of the antibody through RNAi. Subcellular localization of Strica in Drosophila S2 cells was examined by immunofluorescence assay using the antibody, and the activation state of Strica protein in Drosophila S2 cells after actinomycin (10 μg/mL) treatment was explored by Western blot. 【Results】 The recombinant Drosophila Strica was obtained. The titer of Strica antibody detected by ELISA was more than 1∶25 600. Western blot showed that the antibody at a dilution of 1∶10 000 could react with the recombinant Strica. The antibody can detect the overexpressed and endogenous Strica protein in S2 cells. Strica protein is distributed scatteringly in the cytoplasm of S2 cells, and actinomycin induced the cleavage activation of Strica. 【Conclusion】 Rabbit polyclonal antibody against Drosophila Strica was successfully prepared. Strica can be activated in response to apoptosis stimulus actinomycin, suggesting that Strica is involved in the process of cell apoptosis of Drosophila. This study provides an experimental basis for further study of the function of Strica.
    Screening and identification of symbiotic actinomycetes with antibacterial activity from the gut of adult Periplaneta americana (Blattodea: Blattidae)
    YIN Peng-Kai, WANG Ming-Ming, YANG Zi-Zhong, YANG Da-Song, YANG Yin-He
    2022, 65(11):  1444-1451.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.005
    Abstract ( 227 )   PDF (5496KB) ( 186 )   PDF(mobile) (5496KB) ( 17 )     
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    【Aim】 In view of the strong adaptability of Periplaneta americana in harsh environments, this study aims to isolate and screen actinomycetes with antibacterial activity from the gut of P. americana adults in the wild in Dali prefecture of Yunnan province so as to provide strain resources for the development of antibiotics. 【Methods】 The gut actinomycetes of P. americana adults were isolated by coating plate method and plate marking method, and six strains of common human pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant S. aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, were used as the indicator strains. The antibacterial activities of the secondary metabolites extracted from these actinomycetes were determined by the Oxford cup method. The actinomycetes with broad spectrum and obvious antibacterial activities were identified according to their morphological features as well as 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Their taxonomic statuses were confirmed by the BLAST analysis of their 16S rRNA gene sequences and phylogenetic analysis. 【Results】 Totally, 41 actinomycetes strains were isolated from the gut of P. americana adults. The results of antibacterial activity test showed that 34 strains (82.9%) of actinomycetes had inhibitory activities against at least one indicator pathogenic bacterium. Among them, seven strains had inhibitory activities against more than three pathogenic bacteria, and nine strains had obvious antibacterial activities. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, these actinomycetes were identified as Streptomyces spp. 【Conclusion】 The gut of P. americana adults in the wild contains rich actinomycete resources with antibacterial activity, which provides an important microbial source for further exploration of new antibiotics.
    Transmission characteristics of Tomato chlorosis virus on Capsicum annuum by adult Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    ZHANG Ji-Song, ZHANG Zhuo, ZHANG De-Yong, ZHANG Zhan-Hong, LIU Yong, SHI Xiao-Bin, ZHANG You-Jun
    2022, 65(11):  1452-1458.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.006
    Abstract ( 241 )   PDF (8757KB) ( 151 )   PDF(mobile) (8757KB) ( 15 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze and compare the differences in the transmission of Tomato chlorosis virus (ToCV) on Capsicum annuum plants between Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED adults, and to investigate the insect-virus-host plant interaction so as to provide reference for the control of ToCV on C. annuum in the field. 【Methods】 The ToCV acquisition and transmission of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED adults on C. annuum plants were compared by using B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED adults and cDNA infectious clones of ToCV, respectively. The feeding preference of B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED adults to healthy and ToCV-infected C. annuum plants was compared. 【Results】 When inoculated on ToCV-infected C. annuum plants for 96 h, the virus accumulation in B. tabaci MEAM1 and MED adults gradually increased, faster acquisition and higher accumulation of ToCV in MED adults than in MEAM1 adults were found, and the level of virus acquisition of MED adults was 1.74 times as high as that of MEAM1 adults. The level of virus transmission of MED adults on C. annuum plants was 10 times as high as that of MEAM1 adults, and the transmission rate of MED adults was 29% higher than that of MEAM1 adults. MEAM1 and MED adults showed similar feeding preference to healthy and ToCV-infected C. annuum plants, with an obvious feeding preference to ToCV-infected C. annuum plants. 【Conclusion】 The ability of B. tabaci MED adults to acquire and transmit ToCV on C. annuum plants is higher than that of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults, which is an important reason for the rapid spread of ToCV in China.
    Effects of sodium channel auxiliary subunits on the expression levels of sodium channel genes and insecticide susceptibility in Rhopalosiphum padi (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    ZHANG Cun-Huan, LIU Lang, PENG Xiong, QIE Xing-Tao, CHEN Mao-Hua
    2022, 65(11):  1459-1468.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.007
    Abstract ( 145 )   PDF (3407KB) ( 117 )   PDF(mobile) (3407KB) ( 3 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the effect of sodium channel auxiliary subunits on the sodium channel function in Rhopalosiphum padi, and to explore the roles of auxiliary subunits in the gating properties of sodium channel. 【Methods】 The expression levels of five sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes (RpTEH1, RpTEH2, RpTEH3, RpTEH4 and RpTipE) in R. padi adults after RNAi of sodium channel genes RpNavH1 and RpNavH2 by microinjection of dsRpNavH1 and dsRpNavH2, respectively, were detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), the effects of RNAi of RpTipE on the expression levels of genes of sodium channels and their auxiliary subunits in R. padi adults and the susceptibility of these adults to LC50 of beta-cypermethrin were determined by qRT-PCR and insecticide bioassay, respectively, and the Na+ currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes evoked by the Drosophila sodium channel gene DmNav22 cRNA injected alone and DmNav22 cRNA co-injected with cRNAs of the sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes DmTipE of Drosophila, and RpTEH2, RpTEH3, RpTEH4 and RpTipE of R. padi, respectively, were detected by the two-electrode voltage clamp technology to analyze the function of sodium channel auxiliary subunits of R. padi. 【Results】 Knockdown of the sodium channel gene RpNavH1 of R. padi by RNAi significantly reduced the expression levels of four sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes (RpTEH1, RpTEH2, RpTEH3 and RpTipE) in R. padi adults, whereas showed no significant influence on the expression level of RpTEH4. Knockdown of the sodium channel gene RpNavH2  of R. padi by RNAi significantly reduced the expression levels of the sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes RpTEH1, RpTEH2, RpTEH3, RpTEH4 and RpTipE. The expression levels of the sodium channel genes RpNavH1 and RpNavH2 and the sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes RpTEH1, RpTEH2, RpTEH3 and RpTEH4 were significantly reduced after knockdown of the sodium channel auxiliary subunit gene RpTipE of R. padi by RNAi. The susceptibility of R. padi adults to LC50 of beta-cypermethrin was significantly decreased at 48 h after RNAi of RpTipE. The two-electrode voltage clamp recording showed that co-injection of DmNav22 cRNA with cRNAs of the sodium channel auxiliary subunit genes RpTEH2, RpTEH3, RpTEH4 and RpTipE of R. padi, respectively, in X. laevis oocytes increased the Na+ current of Drosophila sodium channel DmNav22. 【Conclusion】 Sodium channel auxiliary subunits may be involved in regulating the gating properties of sodium channels in R. padi.
    Effects of silicon amendment to rice plants on the activities of protective and detoxification enzymes in Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) adults feeding on the treated rice plants
    HAN Yong-Qiang, LI Dan-Dan, DENG Quan-Quan, HOU Mao-Lin
    2022, 65(11):  1469-1476.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.008
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (1296KB) ( 173 )   PDF(mobile) (1296KB) ( 16 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of silicon (Si) amendment to rice plants on the activities of protective and detoxification enzymes in the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) adults feeding on the treated rice plants, so as to provide evidence for the utilization of Si-mediated resistance in the management of insect pests in rice crops. 【Methods】 N. lugens adults feeding on susceptible rice plants (cultivar TN1) grown in nutrient solutions added with 112 mg Si/L sodium silicate (Na2SiO3·9H2O)(Si+) or without addition of sodium silicate (Si-). The activities of protective enzymes [catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide (SOD)] and detoxification enzymes [glutathione-S-transferase (GST), carboxylesterase (CarE) and mixedfunctional oxidase (MFO)] in N. lugens adults after feeding on the Si+ and Si- rice plants (hereafter referred as Si+ and Si- adults, respectively) for 24, 48, 72, and 96 h were measured by enzyme activity assay. 【Results】 In the Si+ adults at 24 and 48 h feeding on the rice plants the POD activities were significantly increased by 101.2% and 55.2%, respectively, and the SOD activity by 78.2% and 19.6%, respectively, as compared to those in the Si- adults. The activities of CAT and SOD in the Si+ adults at 72 h after feeding on the rice plants were significantly increased by 16.5% and 29.7%, respectively, as compared to those in the Si- adults. When the feeding duration was elongated to 96 h, the activities of CAT and POD in the Si+ adults declined slightly, and their SOD activity significantly decreased by 12.6%, as compared to those in the Si- adults. The addition of Si generally increased the activities of GST and MFO but decreased the CarE activity. In the Si+ adults, the GST activities increased significantly by 57.2%, 200.7%, 84.7% and 45.9%, respectively, at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after feeding, the MFO activities increased significantly by 70.2% and 28.3%, respectively, at 72 and 96 h after feeding, whereas the CarE activities significantly decreased by 38.1% and 32.0%, respectively, at 72 and 96 h after feeding, as compared to those in the Si- adults. 【Conclusion】 Si amendment to rice plants influences the activities of protective and detoxification enzymes in N. lugens adults feeding on the treated rice plants, which may in return affect the physiological metabolism of N. lugens.
    Electrophysiological and behavioral responses of Anoplophora chinensis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to the volatiles from Salix ohsidare
    WU Jia-Hao, WU Li-Ping, ZHENG Kai-Wen, GU Yu-Tong, FAN Jian-Ting
    2022, 65(11):  1477-1487.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.009
    Abstract ( 164 )   PDF (1837KB) ( 152 )   PDF(mobile) (1837KB) ( 13 )     
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     【Aim】 The objective of this study is to investigate the preference of Anoplophora chinensis to volatiles of Salix ohsidare in different physiological states, and to further explore the reasons for the difference in behavioral choice of A. chinensis between insect-infested and healthy S. ohsidare. 【Methods】 The volatiles of S. ohsidare twigs in the two physiological states (insect-infested and healthy S. ohsidare) were collected, respectively, by using the dynamic headspace adsorption method, and then the collected volatile samples were identified and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The electrophysiological and behavioral responses of A. chinensis to standard compounds of the main compounds identified from the volatile samples were analyzed by electroantennogram (EAG) and Y-tube olfactometer, respectively, and the trapping efficacies of single volatile compound and the two-component and three-component formulae of volatile compounds on A. chinensis adults were analyzed by large cage behavior experiment and field trapping test. 【Results】 We identified three main compounds from the volatiles of healthy S. ohsidare twigs, including α-pinene, 3-carene and camphor, and five main compounds from the volatiles of insect-infested S. ohsidare, including α-pinene, β-pinene, 3-carene, β-ocimene and camphor. In addition, the amphor content in the volatiles of insect-infested S. ohsidare twigs was significantly higher than that in the volatiles of healthy S. ohsidare twigs, the 3-carene contents in both the volatiles of insect-infested and healthy S. ohsidare twigs were not significantly different, while the α-pinene content in the volatiles of healthy S. ohsidare twigs was significantly higher than that in the volatiles of insect-infested S. ohsidare twigs. The EAG experiment showed that the relative EAG response value of A. chinensis adults to three compounds, α-pinene, 3-carene and β-ocimene, were relatively high, and gradually increased with the increase of the concentrations of these three compounds. The relative EAG response values of A. chinensis adults to β-pinene and camphor exhibited no significant difference, and the concentration changes of these two compounds had no significant effect on the relative EAG response value. The Y-tube olfactometer experiment showed that α-pinene, 3-carene and β-ocimene at the concentration of 1 mg/mL all attracted significantly more male adults of A. chinensis than the control group (paraffin oil), 1 mg/mL β-ocimene also attracted significantly more female adults than the control group, and 3-carene at the concentration of 10 mg/mL attracted significantly more male adults than the control group. The large cage behavior experiment exhibited that the insect-infested formula D of three components (α-pinene∶3-carene∶β-ocimene=42∶30∶103), α-pinene and β-ocimene attracted the largest number of A. chinensis adults, which was significantly higher than the numbers of A. chinensis adults attracted by the healthy formula H of two components (α-pinene∶3-carene=105∶38) and 3-carene. The field trapping test showed that α-pinene and the insect-infested formula D had the best trapping efficacies on A. chinensis adults, with the number of adults trapped significantly higher than those trapped by β-ocimene and the healthy formula H, while 3-carene and the blank control group did not trap any A. chinensis adults. 【Conclusion】 α-Pinene shared in the volatiles of insect-infested and healthy S. ohsidare twigs and β-ocimene specific in insect-infested S. ohsidare twigs are the two important host plant volatile compounds with the attractiveness to A. chinensis adults, while 3-carene inhibits the attractiveness of α-pinene to A. chinensis adults. We speculate that β-ocimene specific in the volatiles of insect-infested S. ohsidare is one of the causes that insect-infested S. ohsidare is more susceptible to the damage of A. chinensis than healthy S. ohsidare.
    Effects of photoperiod, temperature and humidity on the parasitic ability and reproduction of Aphidius gifuensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae)
    WU Ke-Ke, GU Gang, LAI Rong-Quan, ZHOU Ting, HAN Meng
    2022, 65(11):  1488-1497.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.010
    Abstract ( 202 )   PDF (1899KB) ( 351 )   PDF(mobile) (1899KB) ( 29 )     
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    【Aim】 The parasitism rate of Aphidius gifuensis on Myzus persicae is quite high. Therefore, it is widely used for A. gifuensis to control M. persicae in tobacco. However, in the process of artificial propagation of A. gifuensis certain environmental factors may have influences on its growth and development. This study aims to make clear of the effects of photoperiod, humidity and temperature on the parasitism of A. gifuensis on M. persicae. 【Methods】 The parasitism rates on M. persicae nymphs and the emergence rates, longevity, sex ratios (proportions of females) and metathoracic tibial lengths of A. gifuensis adults under the conditions of the temperature of 25℃ and the relative humidity of 70% combined with four photoperiods (9L∶15D, 12L∶12D, 14L∶10D and 19L∶5D), under the conditions of the temperature of 25℃ and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D combined with four relative humidity levels (65%, 70%, 75% and 80%), and under the conditions of the relative humidity of 70% and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D combined with four temperatures (10℃, 15℃, 25℃ and 35℃), respectively, were investigated in the laboratory. 【Results】 The results showed that the growth and development of A. gifuensis were negatively affected by too long or too short photophase. Under the temperature of 25℃ and the relative humidity of 70%, the body size of A. gifuensis adults under the photoperiod of 14L∶10D was the largest, with their metathoracic tibial length under this photoperiod the longest (0.439 mm), while their body size under the photoperiod of 12L∶12D was the smallest, with their metathoracic tibial length the shortest (0.345 mm). Under the temperature of 25℃ and the relative humidity of 70%, A. gifuensis adults under the photoperiod of 14L∶10D had the highest parasitism rate and longevity on M. persicae nymphs, which were 42.61% and 42.33 h, respectively. Under the temperature of 25℃ and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D, the parasitism rates of A. gifuensis adults on M. persicae nymphs increased at first and then decreased with the increase of relative humidity. Under the temperature of 25℃ and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D, the parasitism rate of A. gifuensis adults on M. persicae nymphs under the relative humidity of 75% was the highest (54.44%), while that under the relative humidity of 65% was the lowest (only 21.67%), the longevity and metathoracic tibial length of A. gifuensis adults under the relative humidity of 70% were the longest (42.33 h and 0.439 mm, respectively), while their longevity under the relative humidity of 75% was the shortest (only 20.42 h), and their metathoracic tibial length under the relative humidity of 65% was the smallest (only 0.373 mm). Under the relative humidity of 70% and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D, the temperature of 25℃ was more beneficial to the growth and development of A. gifuensis adults than 10℃ or 15℃, and the parasitism rate of A. gifuensis adults on M. persicae nymphs, and the proportion of females and metathoracic tibial length of A. gifuensis adults at 25℃ were 42.61%, 39.04% and 0.439 mm, respectively, higher than those at 10℃ and 15℃. However, the high temperature of 35℃ was not conducive to the parasitic behavior of A. gifuensis adults on M. persicae nymphs: Under this high temperature, no mummy aphid was found, and even the host aphids were all killed. 【Conclusion】 Under the temperature of 25℃ and the relative humidity of 70%, the photoperiod of 14L∶10D is more beneficial to improve the parasitism rate, body size and longevity of A. gifuensis adults. Under the temperature of 25℃ and the photoperiod of 14L∶10D, the humidity of 75% is more beneficial to improve the parasitism rate of A. gifuensis adults, while the humidity of 70% is more beneficial to the increase of their longevity and body size. Under the photoperiod of 14L∶10D and the relative humidity of 70%, the temperature of 25℃ is more conducive to the increase of their parasitism rate, body size and proportion of females, while the low temperature of 10℃ is more beneficial to prolong their longevity. The results of this study provide scientific references for the artificial propagation and rejuvenation of A. gifuensis in field greenhouses or indoor sheds.
    Prediction of the potential distribution areas of Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) under climate change
    WEI Jiu-Feng, CAI Bo, LU Yun-Yun, ZHANG Hu-Fang, ZHAO Qing
    2022, 65(11):  1498-1511.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.011
    Abstract ( 170 )   PDF (11605KB) ( 141 )   PDF(mobile) (11605KB) ( 23 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to analyze the potential distribution areas of landscape plant pest Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli in the world today and in the future, reveal the distribution dynamics of P. cockerelli under future climate change, and clarify the effects of climate and environmental factors on its potential distribution. 【Methods】 Taking P. cockerelli as the research target, based on 118 effective geographical distribution records and 19 environmental variables of P. cockerelli in the world, and using the optimized MaxEnt model and ArcGIS software, we speculated the potential distribution pattern of P. cockerelli in the current, 2050 and 2070, determined the suitable intervals of environmental variables with the response curves and quantified the potential geographic distribution dynamics of P. cockerelli under future climatic conditions. 【Results】 The average value of area under the curve (AUC) of MaxEnt model operation was 0.7182, indicating that the prediction accuracy of this prediction model was relatively high. The total area of potential geographic distribution of P. cockerelli in the current is about 2.73×107 km2, of which the area of highly suitable habitat is about 4.37×106 km2, accounting for 16% of the total area of potential invasion, being mainly located in the southwest coastal region of the United States and Brazil, the western region and western coastal region of India, Bangladesh, most of northern Vietnam, most of southwest, east and central China, and southern regions of Japan. Under future climatic conditions, the predicted highly suitable area for P. cockerelli will increase significantly along with the increase of CO2 concentration. The main environmental variables affecting the potential geographic distribution of P. cockerelli are the mean diurnal range, the diurnal temperature difference to annual temperature difference ratio, the mean temperature of the wettest season and the precipitation seasonality, with the contribution of the diurnal temperature difference to annual temperature difference ratio the highest, reaching 38.8%. 【Conclusion】 The results of this study suggest that the suitable habitat for P. cockerelli is mainly influenced by the mean diurnal range and the diurnal temperature difference to annual temperature difference ratio. This study provides an important basis and data support for the integrated control of P. cockerelli.
    Morphological and biological characteristics of Trigonotylus coelestialium (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    ZHANG Qi, ZHAO Man, LUO Quan, MIAO Lin-Lin, YUAN Xing-Xing, LI Han, LI Wei-Zheng, ZHANG Li-Juan, GUO Xian-Ru
    2022, 65(11):  1512-1523.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.012
    Abstract ( 525 )   PDF (9689KB) ( 135 )   PDF(mobile) (9689KB) ( 20 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the morphological and biological characteristics including developmental duration and adult fecundity of Trigonotylus coelestialium, so as to provide a theoretical basis for its prediction and scientific control. 【Methods】 T. coelestialium was bred with corn grains at the filling stage as the food under the indoor natural variable temperature (22.0-28.1℃) and the constant temperature of 25℃, respectively, in Zhengzhou, Henan Province, central China during September-October, 2021, and the morphological characteristics of T. coelestialium at different developmental stages were observed and recorded. The biological indexes including the duration of different developmental stages, survival rate, adult longevity and female oviposition quantity were measured. 【Results】 The egg mass of T. coelestialium is deposited in the inner glume of corn grain. The egg is cylindrical and slightly curved to one side. The antennae of the 1st instar nymphs are reddish, and the red color becomes obvious with the increase of nymphal instar. At the 5th instar nymphal stage, three clearly visible red longitudinal lines appear on the 1st segment of antennae. The 3rd instar nymphs have evident wing buds. The ovipositor of the female adult is long valvular and lies flat in the groove of genital segments. Under the indoor natural variable temperature, the egg duration of T. coelestialium was 6.27 d with the egg hatching rate of 89.90%, the 1st-5th instar nymphal duration was 2.80, 2.33, 2.70, 2.77 and 3.90 d, respectively, and the total nymphal duration was 14.50 d with the total nymplal survival rate of 85.97%. The pre-oviposition period of female adult was 4.43 d, the oviposition duration was 13.93 d, and a total of 82.55 eggs in 19.47 egg masses were produced by a single female under the indoor natural variable temperature. Under the constant temperature of 25℃, the egg duration of T. coelestialium was 7.73 d with the egg hatching rate of 81.13%, the 1st-5th instar nymphal duration was 2.17, 1.90, 1.77, 1.90 and 2.93 d, respectively, and the total nymphal duration of T. coelestialium was 10.67 d with the total nymphal survival rate of 71.84%. The pre-oviposition period of female adult was 4.17 d, the oviposition duration was 11.27 d, and a single female laid 72.22 eggs in 21.17 egg masses under the constant temperature of 25℃. 【Conclusion】 The morphological characteristics of the 1st antennal segment of the 5th instar nymph and adult of T. coelestialium can be used to distinguish it from other species of Trigonotylus. The developmental characteristics of the wing bud of T. coelestialium can be used to distinguish its nymphal stage. Variable temperature prolongs the nymphal duration and adult longevity of T. coelestialium, and increases its egg laying capacity and egg hatching rate.
    Observation of the embryonic development of Reticulitermes aculabialis (Blattaria: Rhinotermidae) with a laser confocal scanning microscope
    SUN Yi-Lin, WANG Jing-Yi, LU Di, ZHANG Qi
    2022, 65(11):  1524-1537.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.013
    Abstract ( 141 )   PDF (32165KB) ( 155 )   PDF(mobile) (32165KB) ( 14 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the characteristics of embryonic development of the termite Reticulitermes aculabialis during different developmental stages. 【Methods】 We daily collected eggs of R. aculabialis, fixed their embryonic development status, stained the embryos with DAPI dye, and observed and recorded the morphological characteristics of the embryos at different developmental stages with a laser confocal scanning microscope. 【Results】 Under 25℃, the embryonic developmental process of R. aculabialis takes 25-30 d. The developmental stages of R. aculabialis embryo can be divided into 12 stages according to the developmental characteristics. In the early stage of embryonic development, the yolk cells are evenly distributed in the egg, and cell nuclei are concentrated towards the center of the egg. When cells reach the posterior end of the egg, the concentrated blastocyst cells form the embryonic disc. In the middle stage of embryonic development, the embryo begins “reverse” blastocyst movement with the head along with the anterior and posterior axis reversed from the posterior pole to the anterior pole, and then the germ band shows an obvious “double band” structure. In the middle-late stages of embryonic development, the embryo widens, and the internal organs begin to develop gradually with obvious elongation and segmentation. In the late stage of embryonic development, appendages develop obviously, and the internal organs mature. 【Conclusion】 The embryonic development of R. aculabialis experiences 12 stages, and the germ band of R. aculabialis belongs to the short germ-band type. The germ band has a “double band” structure, and experiences two reversals of blastocyst in the middle stage of embryonic development. This study provides morphological and biological evidence for studying embryonic development of eusocial termites.
    Ultramorphology of Ornithodoros lahorensis (Ixodida: Argasidae) nymphs of different instars
    WEI Li-Ting, LIU Dan-Dan, FAN Shi-Long, WANG Jin-Ming, LU Xing, LI Si-Yuan, LIU Ming-Ming, CHEN Song-Qin, LIU Yi-Fan, GUO Qing-Yong, BAYIN Chahan, ZHANG Wei
    2022, 65(11):  1538-1546.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.014
    Abstract ( 150 )   PDF (22530KB) ( 64 )   PDF(mobile) (22530KB) ( 11 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the ultramorphology and developmental characteristics of different instar nymphs of Ornithodoros lahorensis, the dominant species in Xinjiang, northwestern China, so as to provide a morphological basis for the study of morphological characteristics and age division of soft ticks. 【Methods】 The 1st-5th instar nymphs of O. lahorensis were cultured under laboratory conditions, and their morphological characteristics were observed in detail under stereo microscope and scanning electronic microscope (SEM). 【Results】 Under stereo microscope, the body of the 1st-5th instar nymphs of O. lahorensis is oval in shape, with the narrow front end and the wide back end, pale yellow or yellowish brown, and with four pairs of legs. Under scanning electronic microscope, the 1st-5th instar nymphs have the following common characteristics: the cuticle is wrinkled with humps, their Haller’s organs show transverse fissure, their hypostomes are spear-shaped, their spiracles are semicircled, and their anus is visible as an oval structure composed of leaf-like petals and without transverse postanal groove. The differential characteristics between the 1st-5th instar nymphs are as follows: the 1st instar nymphs have long and thick setae, but have no humps, their hypostomes have obvious notched and pointed apexes and the dental formula is 2|2, without spiracular plate. The 2nd instar nymphs have no obvious humps, their hypostomes have slightly notched pointed apexes and the dental formula is 3|3, with a spiracular plate. The 3rd instar nymphs have obvious humps. The 4th instar nymphs have six pairs of anal setae. The 5th instar nymphs have seven pairs of anal setae. 【Conclusion】 The morphological structures of the 1st-5th instar nymphs of O. lahoernsis observed under stereo microscope are basically similar. The morphological characteristics of setae, humps, hypostome, dental formula, spiracles, spiracular plate, anal setae, medium postanal grooves, and preanal grooves observed under SEM can be used as the identification features of the 1st-5th instar nymphs of O. lahoernsis. This study presents the first detail descriptions of the morphological structure of different instar nymphs of O. lahoernsis, providing the basis for the instar division and life history study of soft ticks.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Insect humoral immune system, a new direction in the research of Bt resistance mechanisms in insect pests
    LIAO Wen-Yu, LÜ Zhuo-Hong, ZHANG You-Jun, YANG Zhong-Xia
    2022, 65(11):  1547-1564.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2022.11.015
    Abstract ( 273 )   PDF (3974KB) ( 276 )   PDF(mobile) (3974KB) ( 50 )     
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     As the most successful biological pesticide, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticide has been used to control pests in agricultural production for about 80 years. The wide and successful use of Bt insecticide due to its specificity, safety and efficiency has greatly reduced the application rate of chemical pesticides, making a huge contribution to environmental protection. However, due to long-term application, some target insect pests have gradually developed resistance to Bt. In this article, the research advances in insect humoral immunity and the mechanisms of Bt resistance in insects were summarized. Previous studies suggested that the blockage of toxin activation and/or the mutation or reduction of toxin receptor are the main causes of the development of Bt resistance in insect pests. However, in recent years, more and more studies have shown that Bt resistance in insects is also associated to their immune system, especially to humoral immune pathways such as Toll, IMD and proPO-AS. Therefore, we reviewed and inferred the main pathways in which the humoral immune system is involved in the development of Bt resistance in insects. The IMD immune pathway may be involved in regulating Bt resistance in insects through the MAPK signaling pathway, or insects may counteract sepsis caused by the destruction of midgut tissue by Bt through multiple immune responses and promote midgut tissue healing through the JNK signaling pathway, thereby increasing their resistance to Bt. Research with the humoral immune system as the breakthrough point could be a new direction for further exploring the mechanisms of Bt resistance in insects.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 65 Issue 11
    2022, 65(11):  1565-1565. 
    Abstract ( 69 )   PDF (509KB) ( 156 )   PDF(mobile) (509KB) ( 1 )     
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