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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2024, Volume 67 Issue 2
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Cloning, identification and functional analysis of the mucin-like protein EfMLP genes in Empoasca flavescens (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    HE Xue-Yi, LEI Yu-Huan, SONG Shi-Yue, XIA Lu-Xia, WANG Shi-Yu, MA Cheng-Wen, WEI Ke-Xin, WANG Meng-Xin, PAN Cheng, HAN Bao-Yu
    2024, 67(2):  151-162.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.001
    Abstract ( 128 )   PDF (1872KB) ( 232 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to investigate the molecular characteristics, expression patterns, and biological functions of the mucin-like protein EfMLP genes of Empoasca flavescens. 【Methods】Based on the transcriptome data of E. flavescens, the full-length cDNA sequences of four EfMLP genes were cloned by PCR and analyzed by bioinformatics. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of EfMLP genes across different developmental stages (egg, 1st-5th instar nymphs, and newly emerged female and male adults), and in different tissues (integument, fat body, salivary gland, gut, ovary, and testis) of the newly emerged adults. EfMLP2 and EfMLP4 in the 5th instar nymph were silenced by RNAi through feeding method, and the survival rates of E. flavescens after silencing the EfMLP genes by RNAi were determined by bioassay. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequences of four EfMLP genes of E. flavescens were obtained, and named EfMLP1, EfMLP2, EfMLP3 and EfMLP4 with the GenBank accession numbers of OR504428, OR504429, OR504430 and OR504431, respectively. The obtained four EfMLPs all contain highly repetitive tandem repeat sequences, which are rich in O-linked glycosylation sites, forming the mucin domain (MD). Among them, both EfMLP3 and EfMLP4 contain a conserved type-2 chitin binding domain (CBD). Phylogenetic analysis result revealed that EfMLPs were divided into two different branches belonging to two different MLP types, which showed no correlation with insect taxonomy, but might be considered to be related to their functions. EfMLP1 and EfMLP2 exhibited specifically high expression in the newly emerged female and male adults and the salivary glands of the newly emerged adults. In contrast, the expression of EfMLP3 and EfMLP4 was identified in various developmental stages, including egg, nymphal and adult stages, as well as in diverse tissues such as the fat body of the newly emerged adult. Inhibition of the expression of EfMLP2 and EfMLP4 in E. flavescens by feeding dsEfMLP2 and dsEfMLP4 significantly reduced the survival rate of E. flavescens compared with the control group fed with dsGFP. 【Conclusion】 EfMLPs play an important role in the feeding of E. flavescens and can be used as a potential target in control of this pest insect based on RNAi strategies.
    Effects of miR-263 interference on the life table parameters of the English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    WU Lin-Yuan, YAN Yi, WEI Guo-Hua, ZHU Xun, LI Xiang-Rui, ZHANG Yun-Hui
    2024, 67(2):  163-170.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.002
    Abstract ( 108 )   PDF (1340KB) ( 189 )     
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    【Aim】 The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae is a destructive pest in wheat production. This study aims to clarify the effects of miR-263 interference on the laboratory population of S. avenae, so as to provide a theoretical basis for the green prevention and control of wheat aphids. 【Methods】 The 1st instar nymphs of S. avenae were interfered with 400 nmol/L miR-263 agomir using nanomaterials as carriers, and the effects of miR-263 interference on the growth and development, reproduction, and population growth of S. avenae were evaluated using the two-sex life table. The water negative control (NCW) and nanomaterial negative control (NCS) were employed as the control groups. 【Results】 After miR-263 interference, the duration of both the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs of S. avenae was significantly longer than that of the NCW and NCS, that of the 3rd instar nymphs showed no significant difference from that of the NCW and NCS, and that of the 4th instar nymphs was significantly shorter than that of NCW. The entire nymphal duration was significantly extended after miR-263 interference. After miR-263 interference, the total developmental duration (25.42 d) was significantly longer than that of the NCS (23.73 d), but had no significant difference from that of the NCW (23.84 d). After miR-263 interference, the adult longevity and reproduction duration were slightly extended, and the number of offspring produced per female was increased, but showed no significant difference from those of the NCW and NCS. The pre-adult survival rate of S. avenae after miR-263 interference was significantly decreased to 43.33% as compared with those of the NCW and NCS (91.34% and 91.32%, respectively). The life table data showed that the intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) after miR-263 interference were significantly lower than those of the NCW and NCS. The mean generation time (T) after mir-263 interference was significantly prolonged as compared to that of the NCW and NCS. The population prediction results showed that the population size of S. avenae was approximately 80 000 at 60 d after miR-263 interference, significantly lower than the population sizes of 4.54 million of the NCS and 3.94 million of the NCW. 【Conclusion】 The miR-263 interference mainly affected the duration and survival rate of low instar nymphs, and had an inhibitory effect on the population growth of S. avenae. The results provide candidate genes for the development of RNAi-based biopesticides against S. avenae.
    Identification and tissue expression profiling of the biogenic amine receptor genes of Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    CHEN Shu-Ting, WANG Kai, WANG Hui-Xin, XIE Gui-Ying, ZHAO Xin-Cheng, CHEN Wen-Bo
    2024, 67(2):  171-182.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.003
    Abstract ( 91 )   PDF (2769KB) ( 167 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the molecular characteristics and tissue expression properties of the biogenic amine receptor genes in Mythimna separata based on the adult brain transcriptome data of M. separata, so as to provide the basis for the functional research of the biogenic amine receptor genes of M. separata. 【Methods】 The biogenic amine receptor gene sequences were screened from the brain transcriptome database of adult M. separata. Gene mapping of the selected biogenic amine receptor genes was analyzed by mapping cDNA with the M. separata genome database. The phylogenetic analysis of the identified biogenic amine receptors was performed by using maximum likelihood method. The qRT-PCR was used to detect the expression levels of the identified biogenic amine receptor genes in the brain, antenna, labipalp, wing, leg, thorax and abdomen of female and male adults of M. separata.【Results】 A total of 17 biogenic amine receptor genes were identified from the transcriptome database of adult M. separata brain, including five dopamine receptor genes, five 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor genes, five octopamine receptor genes and two tyramine receptor genes. The 17 biogenic amine receptor genes were distributed on eight chromosomes, 7 of them were co-located on the chromosome 22. The identified biogenic amine receptors of M. separata had high homology with the biogenic amine receptors of Spodoptera litura, Bombyx mori and Manduca sexta. The dopamine receptor genes were highly expressed in the brain and antenna of female and male adults of M. separata, and the expression levels of MsepDop2, MsepDop3-1, MsepDop3-2 and MsepDopEcR were significantly higher in the female adult brain than those in the male adult brain. The octopamine receptor genes MsepOA1 and MsepOA2B2 were highly expressed in the thorax, and their expression levels in the thorax of female adults were significantly higher than those in the thorax of male adults. The expression levels of MsepOA3 and MsepOA2B1-3 were also higher in the olfactory tissues antenna and labipalp, with gender differences. The expression levels of tyramine receptor genes were high in the brain and antenna, and the expression level of MsepTA2 in the abdomen of female adults was significantly higher than that in the abdomen of male adults. The expression levels of Msep5-HT1 genes in the brain were significantly higher than those in the other tissues. The Msep5-HT2 genes had high expression levels in the brain, antenna, and labipalp.【Conclusion】 In this study, we obtained 17 biogenic amine receptor genes of M. separata, and clarified their expression profiles in different tissues of female and male adults of M. separata. Gender differences in the expression of some biogenic amine receptor genes in olfactory and reproductive tissues were revealed. This research provides a basis for further exploration on the physiological function of biogenic amine receptors in M. separata.
    Construction and annotation of the full-length transcriptome of the larval gut of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) workers
    SONG Yu-Xuan, LI Kun-Ze, ZANG He, JING Xin, FAN Xiao-Xue, ZOU Pei-Yuan, CHEN Da-Fu, FU Zhong-Min, GUO Rui
    2024, 67(2):  183-192.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.004
    Abstract ( 63 )   PDF (2051KB) ( 122 )     
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    【Aim】 To assemble and annotate the high-quality full-length transcriptome of the larval gut of Apis cerana cerana workers through nanopore sequencing technology. 【Methods】 The 3-day-old larvae of A. c. cerana workers were inoculated with Ascosphaera apis and the transcriptomes of the gut of the 4-, 5- and 6-day-old larvae (AcT4, AcT5 and AcT6, respectively) were sequenced by Nanopore PromethION system to identify the full-length transcript sequences. The previously identified full-length transcripts in the nanopore sequencing gut transcriptome data of the 4-, 5- and 6-day-old larvae of A. c. cerana workers uninoculated with A. apis were mixed with the above obtained full-length transcripts in this study to remove the redundant full-length transcripts. The identified non-redundant full-length transcripts were aligned to the Nr, KOG, eggNOG and GO databases for annotations. Four methods including CPC, CNCI, CPAT and Pfam were used to predict long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). 【Results】 From AcT4, AcT5 and AcT6, 14 474 634, 10 461 827 and 11 890 978 raw reads were obtained, including 11 898 582, 8 630 186 and 9 091 035 full-length transcripts, 27 815, 21 781 and 20 004 non-redundant full-length transcripts were identified after de-redundancy, the N50 lengths of the non-redundant full-length transcripts were 1 900, 1 961 and 2 294 bp with the average lengths of 1 534, 1 584 and 1 792 bp, and the longest read lengths of 10 855, 10 837 and 10 887 bp, respectively. A total of 40 562 non-redundant full-length transcripts were identified, and 35 415, 24 646, 34 054 and 23 053 transcripts could be annotated to the Nr, KOG, eggNOG, and GO databases, respectively. The species with the highest number and proportion of annotated full-length transcripts was A. cerana (20 310 transcripts, accounting for 57.35%), followed by A. mellifera (4 686 transcripts, accounting for 13.23%), A. dorsata (2 536 transcripts, accounting for 7.16%) and A. florea (2 079, accounting for 5.87%) in the Nr database. The non-redundant full-length transcripts were annotated to 25 functional categories such as unknown function and post-translational modification, protein turnover and molecular chaperones in the eggNOG database, 25 functional categories such as general function prediction only and signal transduction mechanisms in the KOG database, 50 functional terms relevant to three major categories of biological process, cellular component and molecular function in the GO database, and 196 pathways such as ribosome and RNA transduction in the KEGG database. A total of 2 301 lncRNAs with high confidence were identified, involving four types including sense lncRNA, anti-sense lncRNA, intronic lncRNA and intergenic lncRNA. 【Conclusion】 The first full-length transcriptome of the larval gut of A. c. cerana workers has been constructed and annotated, providing high-quality reference background and key foundation for study on molecular biology and omics of A. c. cerana and other subspecies of A. cerana.
    Low concentrations of imidacloprid weaken the olfactory recognition of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to cotton plant volatiles
    SE Chen-Chen, ZHANG Tao, DAI Chang-Chun, ZHANG Meng-Hao, YU Hong-Chun, LU Yan-Hui
    2024, 67(2):  193-202.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.005
    Abstract ( 99 )   PDF (1547KB) ( 177 )     
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     【Aim】To clarify the effects of low concentrations of imidacloprid on the olfactory behavior of Hippodamia variegata adults. 【Methods】The behavioral responses of H. variegata adults to healthy cotton plants and adult Aphis gossypii-infested cotton plants after ingestion of low concentrations (LC20 and LC50) of imidacloprid were evaluated by a Y-olfactometer, while the volatiles from healthy and adult A. gossypii-infested cotton plants were collected separately by solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer to identify the volatile components. In addition, the response of H. variegata adults to each volatile component was further tested. 【Results】In the absence of imidacloprid ingestion, H. variegata adults showed a significant positive preference for adult A. gossypii-infested cotton plants, but had no significant tendency to healthy cotton plants or clean air. Besides, H. variegata adults that ingested imidacloprid at low concentrations had no significant tendency to adult A. gossypii-infested cotton plants, healthy cotton plants, or clean air. We identified eight significantly increased volatile compounds from the volatiles of adult A. gossypii-infested cotton plants compared with healthy cotton plants, including myrcene, limonene, 1-decyne, 3-carene, (3E)-4, 8-dimethyl-1, 3, 7-nonatriene (DMNT), β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and (3E,7E)-4, 8, 12-trimethyltrideca-1, 3, 7, 11-tetraene (TMTT). The olfactory selection behavior of H. variegata adults to the above eight compounds measured with Y-olfactometer illustrated that H. variegata adults without imidacloprid ingestion had a significant positive tendency towards TMTT and no significant tendency to the other seven volatile compounds, while H. variegata adults that ingested imidacloprid at low concentrations had no significant positive preference for any of the eight volatile compounds. In the behavioral selection tests, the numbers of unselected individuals in H. variegata adults treated with low concentrations of imidacloprid to both volatiles from cotton plants and their single components were significantly higher than that of the control.【Conclusion】 Our results revealed that low concentrations of imidacloprid weakened the olfactory recognition of cotton plant volatiles by adult H. variegata, providing a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of H. variegata and the rational use of pesticides in Xinjiang cotton fields.
    Effects of supplemental nutrition and trace elements on the parasitic ability of Aphidius gifuensis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and growth and development-related enzymes
    LAI Rong-Quan, HAN Meng, GU Gang, ZHOU Ting, ZHANG Bang, LAI Yu-Fei, YANG Chen
    2024, 67(2):  203-212.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.006
    Abstract ( 74 )   PDF (1527KB) ( 168 )     
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    【Aim】 Aphidius gifuensis, as a dominant parasitic wasp of Myzus persicae, has been widely used in production. However, during the propagation of A. gifuensis on a large scale, many problems such as reduced parasitic ability and smaller body size often occur after multiple generations of breeding. The purpose of this study is to screen the best rejuvenation methods by detecting and analyzing the effects of supplementing different concentrations of nutrients and trace elements on the parasitism rates and offspring adult size of A. gifuensis adults on M. persicae, and the contents and activities of growth and development-related enzymes in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis. 【Methods】 A. gifuensis adults of the degenerated population after being reared in laboratory for 10 generations were fed with solutions of different concentrations (5%, 10% and 20%) of nutrients (honey, glucose and sucrose), and different concentrations (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L) of trace elements including Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn and Co, the parasitism rate and offspring adult size, and the contents and activities of carboxylesterase(CarE)and phenoloxidase (PO) in adults of the offspring were determined. 【Results】 In supplemental nutrition experiments, 10% honey solution had the best rejuvenation effect on A. gifuensis, causing the parasitism rate to increase by 28.00% compared with the control (purified water), but had no significant effect on the offspring adult size. In the group fed with 10% glucose, the CarE content in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis was the highest, which was 38.00% higher than that in the control group. The CarE activity in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis in the group fed with 10% sucrose was the highest, which was 3-fold as high as that in the control group. In the group fed with 10% sucrose, the phenoloxidase content in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis was the highest, which was 56.00% higher than that in the control group. The highest phenoloxidase activity in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis was found in the group fed with 10% glucose, being 1.3-fold as high as that in the control group. In supplemental trace element experiments, the supplementation of 1 mg/L Fe had the best rejuvenation effect on A. gifuensis, resulting in the parasitism rate to increase by 25.33% compared with the control group, but had no significant effect on the offspring adult size. The CarE content in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis in the group fed with 1 mg/L Fe was the highest, which was increased by 50.00% as compared with that in the control group. The CarE activities in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis in groups fed with various trace elements were lower than that in the control group. In the group fed with 1 mg/L Zn, the PO content in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis was the highest, increased by 29.31% as compared with that in the control group. In the group fed with 1 mg/L Mn, the PO activity in adults of the offspring of A. gifuensis was the highest, which was 1.51-fold as high as that in the control group. 【Conclusion】 In production, feeding 10% honey solution or supplementing 1 mg/L Fe can be used to improve the parasitic ability of A. gifuensis on M. persicae, so as to restore or regulate the degenerated population of A. gifuensis.
    Evaluation of resistance of four wolfberry varieties to Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae) by electrical penetration graph technology
    MA Yin-Xiang, WANG Xin-Pu
    2024, 67(2):  213-222.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.007
    Abstract ( 57 )   PDF (1456KB) ( 109 )     
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    【Aim】To clarify the resistance differences of four wolfberry varieties to Aphis gossypii, so as to ascertain the anti-aphid factor and insect resistance site, and select the aphid-resistant wolfberry varieties. 【Methods】Electrical penetration graph technology (EPG) was used to record the feeding behaviors of A. gossypii adults on four wolfberry varieties (Ningqi No.1, Ningqi No.5, Ningqi No.7 and Ningqi No.10), and the indoor aphid resistance identification combined with cluster analysis was used to comprehensively evaluate the resistance of different wolfberry varieties to A. gossypii adults. 【Results】A. gossypii adults feeding on four wolfberry varieties showed eight kinds of waveforms, including Np, A, G, B, C, Pd, E and F waveforms. During the feeding of A. gossypii adults, the duration of E1 waveform on Ningqi No.1 was the longest, followed by that on Ningqi No.5 and Ningqi No.7, and that on Ningqi No.10 was the shortest. The duration of E2 waveform on Ningqi No.10 was the longest, and that on Ningqi No.1 was the shortest. The duration of F waveform on Ningqi No.1 was the longest, that on Ningqi No.10 was the shortest, and that on Ningqi 5 and Ningqi 7 was that between on Ningqi No.1 and on Ningqi No.10, suggesting that Ningqi No.1 has strong mechanical resistance and Ningqi No.10 has weak mechanical resistance. Through identification of aphid resistance and cluster analysis, four wolfberry varieties were classified into 3 categories: Ningqi No.1 in category Ⅰ was a highly aphid-resistant variety, Ningqi No.5 and Ningqi No.7 in category Ⅱ were aphid-resistant varieties, and Ningqi No.10 in category Ⅲ was a aphid-susceptible variety. 【Conclusion】The feeding behaviors of A. gossypii adults on four wolfberry varieties are different, and there are differences in the insect resistance mechanism and resistance site in the four wolberry varieties. The wolfberry variety Ningqi No.1 shows resistance to A. gossypii adults at the levels of leaf epidermis, mesophyll and phloem, with the strongest aphid resistance, and is a highly aphid-resistant variety. Ningqi No.5 and Ningqi No.7 show resistance to A. gossypii adults at the levels of mesophyll and phloem, with weak aphid resistance, and are aphid-resistant varieties. A. gossypii adults can sting and fed for a long time on Ningqi No.10, which shows the weakest resistance to A. gossypii adults and is a aphid-susceptible variety.
    Effects of high temperature treatment on the growth, development and reproduction of Coccinella septempunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinidae)
    WU Xing-Long, YU Jia-Min, LIU Guo, LIU Dong-Yang, JIANG Lian-Qiang, GUO Shi-Ping, LI Bin, XIAO Ke-Jun, LIU Hong-Ling, YANG Ming-Lu, PU De-Qiang
    2024, 67(2):  223-234.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.008
    Abstract ( 102 )   PDF (2176KB) ( 181 )     
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     【Aim】 To clarify the effects of high temperature treatment on the growth, development and reproduction of the seven-spot ladybird, Coccinella septempunctata. 【Methods】 Based on the high temperature status of the two representative areas (plant cover and plant upper surface) in the facility environment, the artificial climate chamber was used to simulate the above high temperature environment, and the effects of different high temperatures (37 and 42 ℃) (constant temperatures) and their combinations (variable temperatures) on the growth, development and reproduction of C. septempunctata were determined, and the data of life table parameters such as growth and development, fertility and survival rate were analyzed and processed using software such as the age-stage, two-sex life table TWOSEX-MSChart. 【Results】 The higher the temperature and the longer the duration of the high temperature, the faster the development of C. septempunctata, the shorter the longevity, and the lower the fecudity. Under the constant temperature 42 ℃ and variable temperatures 25-42 ℃, C. septempunctata could not complete development, and its longevity was 3.43 and 4.70 d, respectively; under the constant temperature 37 ℃, C. septempunctata could complete development, but the fecudity was 0, the immature duration was 11.67 d, the adult longevity was 7.75 d, and the body weight of the newly emerged adult was 0.0207 g, which were significantly lower than the corresponding indicators of the control (under the constant temperature 25 ℃) (the immature duration was 17.64 d, the adult longevity was 51.51 d, and the body weight of the newly emerged adult was 0.0277 g, respectively). Under the variable temperatures 25-37 ℃, C. septempunctata could develop and reproduce, but the hatching rate of eggs was 0, the immature duration was 15.16 d, the adult longevity was 22.84 d, the oviposition period was 4.57 d, the fecundity was 41.86 grains/female, the body weight of the newly emerged adult was 0.0220 g, the gross reproductive rate (GRR) was 17.213, the intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.072 d-1, the finite rate of increase (λ) was 1.075 d-1, the net reproductive rate (R0) was 5.749, and the mean generation time (T) was 21.188 d, all of which were significantly lower than the corresponding indicators of the control, which were 28.28 d, 1 410.52 grains/female, 0.0277 g, 708.110, 0.256 d-1, 1.293 d-1, 673.205, and 25.304 d, respectively. In particular, under the variable temperatures 25-37 ℃, the 3rd instar larval duration of C. septempunctata (2.19 d) was significantly longer than that of the control (1.89 d), while that under the constant temperature 37 ℃ (1.15 d) was significantly shorter than that of the control; the adult pre-oviposition period (APOP) under the variable temperatures 25-37 ℃ was longer than that of the control, but there was no significant difference between them. 【Conclusion】C. septempunctata can’t adapt to the constant temperature 42 ℃ and variable temperatures 25-42 ℃ conditions, can adapt to the constant temperature 37 ℃ and variable temperatures 25-37 ℃ conditions, but it can’t reproduce under the constant temperature 37 ℃ condition, the number of eggs laid is significantly reduced and the eggs can’t hatch under the variable temperatures 25-37 ℃. The results suggest that high temperature can have a significant impact on the reproductive development and reproduction of C. septempunctata, and it is feasible to apply C. septempunctata for pest control under facility conditions, but it is more suitable for use in spring and autumn than in summer.
    Differences in rapid thermotolerance among geographical populations of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae) and Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    CHEN Ming-Ye, LIU Jian-Ze, ZHAO Jiu-Jia, LIU Yu-Feng
    2024, 67(2):  235-245.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.009
    Abstract ( 70 )   PDF (1584KB) ( 212 )     
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    【Aim】 Peach fruit moth (Carposina sasakii) and oriental fruit moth (Grapholita molesta) are two kinds of fruit tree pests worldwide. Climate warming has many important impacts on their geographical populations. The objective of this research is to identify the differences in the rapid heat tolerance and heat tolerance plasticity among the geographical populations of C. sasakii and G. molesta, so as to provide a basis for their forecast and integrated management. 【Methods】 By measuring the knockdown time (KDT) at the constant temperature 42.5 ℃ and the critical thermal maximum (CTMax) under basal (non-subjected to pretreatment) or heat hardening (subjected to pretreatment at 35 ℃ for 2 h) conditions, we systematically compared the similartities and differences in the rapid heat tolerance and heat tolerance plasticity of adults among different geographical populations of C. sasakii (Jilin population, Zhengzhou population and laboratory population) and G. molesta (Jilin population, Zhengzhou population, Nanchang population and laboratory population). 【Results】 The changes of KDT of adults in different geographical populations of C. sasakii and G. molesta were consistent. There was no significant difference in KDT among geographical populations and between genders of the adults of C. sasakii and G. molesta. Heat hardening significantly increased the KDT of C. sasakii and G. molesta by 14.63 and 55.12 s, respectively. There was no significant interaction between or among populations, genders and heat hardening factors as for KDT of the both two fruit moth species. The responses of the adults of C. sasakii and G. molesta populations to CTMax were different. There were significant differences in the CTMax among the adult populations of C. sasakii, which was ranked in a descending order of Jilin population [(38.57±1.61) ℃], Zhengzhou population [(37.60±1.32) ℃] and laboratory population [(37.24±1.46) ℃]. Heat hardening had a significant effect on the CTMax of C. sasakii adults, and there was an interaction between the adult populations and heat hardening factors as for C. sasakii. It was mainly reflected that heat hardening significantly enhanced the CTMax of Jilin population and Zhengzhou populations by 2.05 and 1.34 ℃, respectively, while there was no significant difference in the CTMax between the basal and heat-hardened laboratory populations. There were significant differences in the CTMax among the adult populations of G. molesta, which was ranked in a descending order of Nanchang population (39.20±1.81) ℃, Jilin population (38.63±1.42) ℃, Zhengzhou population (38.27±1.32) ℃, and laboratory population (38.15±1.51) ℃. Heat hardening had a significant effect on the CTMax of G. molesta adults, and there was an interaction between the adult population and heat hardening factors as for G. molesta. It was mainly reflected that heat hardening significantly increased the CTMax of the Zhengzhou population [basal: (38.18±1.34) ℃; heat-hardened: (39.17±0.60) ℃], but not significantly increased the CTMax of the Jilin population, Nanchang population and laboratory population. Gender factor, and its interaction with population or heat hardening, and the interaction of the three factors showed no significant effects on the CTMax of the adults of C. sasakii and G. molesta. 【Conclusion】 The northern population of C. sasakii had a stronger rapid heat tolerance than the central population, but the southern population of G. molesta had the strongest rapid heat tolerance compared with the central population and northern population. Laboratory acclimation could reduce the rapid heat tolerance of both species, and heat hardening could improve the rapid heat tolerance of the both two fruit moth species, but the heat tolerance plasticity was not consistent among different populations between the two fruit moth species. The above conclusions may be due to the different evolutionary mechanisms of thermal adaptation between the two fruit moth species and the differences in living environment among geographical populations. It is of great significance to clarify the similarities and differences of rapid heat tolerance and its plasticity among geographical populations of C. sekakii and G. molesta for insect heat adaptation research and fruit safety production in the condition of climate warming.

    Life table of Xestia c-nigrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) population at different temperatures and the dynamics of field adults captured in light trap in Korla, Xinjiang, Northwest China
    CHU Shi-Jiao, LIU Bing, WANG Pei-Ling, LU Yan-Hui
    2024, 67(2):  246-254.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.010
    Abstract ( 47 )   PDF (1351KB) ( 210 )     
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    【Aim】 To assess the effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of Xestia c-nigrum in Korla, Xinjiang, Northwest China, and to explore its adaptability to environmental temperature. 【Methods】 The egg hatching rates, larval survival rates, pupation rates, eclosion rates, developmental duration and fecundity of X. c-nigrum at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃ were compared by using two-sex life table method, and the effects of different temperatures on the life table parameters of the population were analyzed. The developmental threshold temperatures and effective accumulated temperatures of X. c-nigrum at different developmental stages were also determined. During 2020-2022, the relationship between the population dynamics of X. c-nigrum by light-trapping and the daily average temperature change in Korla, Xinjiang was analyzed. 【Results】 At 15 ℃, the larval survival rate, pupation rate, and eclosion rate of X. c-nigrum were lower than 30%. At 30 ℃, the larval survival rate and pupation rate were lower than 10%, and the pupa could not normally emerge. At 35 ℃, the larvae could not survive. The duration of different developmental stages of X. c-nigrum shortened as the temperature rose, and the egg duration was 15.52, 7.40, 5.47, 4.88 and 3.88 d at 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 ℃, respectively. The larval duration was 109.43, 40.53, 26.47 and 24.55 d at 15, 20, 25 and 30 ℃, respectively. The pupal duration was 41.43, 18.00 and 12.54 d at 15, 20 and 25 ℃, respectively. The pupal duration was 41.4, 18.0 and 12.5 d at 15, 20 and 25 ℃, respectively. The population showed negative growth at 15 ℃, and positive growth at 20 and 25 ℃, with the highest intrinsic rate of increase (rm) at 25 ℃. The developmental threshold temperatures of egg, 1st-6th instar larvae and pupa were 9.81, 8.43, 9.95, 10.26, 12.52, 13.58, 12.60 and 10.81 ℃, respectively, and the effective accumulated temperatures were 79.62, 92.17, 56.09, 57.03, 39.35, 38.16, 80.72 and 172.39 degree.days, respectively. The monitored data from light.trapping during 2020-2022 showed that X. c.nigrum had three generations per year in Korla, Xinjiang, and the adult peak periods were in mid-May, late July and early September, with the average daily temperature range of 19.5-26.5 ℃. 【Conclusion】The population of X. c-nigrum shows negative growth when the temperature is lower than 15 ℃, and cannot complete its life cycle at over 30 ℃, moreover, 20-25 ℃ is more suitable for its growth and reproduction. This study provides a scientific basis for clarifying the temperature adaptability and its occurrence and dynamics of X. c-nigrum in Korla, Xinjiang.
    Study on the pollination network and pollination service values of insects to main pollinating crops in Nanchong City, Sichuan Province, Southwest China
    HU Dan, LI Xiu-Shan, CHANG Xue-Mei, XU Xun-Lu, ZENG Gui, WANG Qiong
    2024, 67(2):  255-269.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.011
    Abstract ( 46 )   PDF (6466KB) ( 74 )     
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    【Aim】 To identify the pollinating insect resources in Nanchong City, Sichuan Province, Southwest China, study the local plant-insect pollination network, and assess the pollination service values provided by pollinating insects to major pollinating crops in the city and their contribution to agricultural productions.【Methods】Random net collection and sampling were used to investigate pollinating insect resources and construct pollination network during 2021-2022. The dependence degree of crops on insect pollination was determined through bagging isolation test, and the pollination service value and economic contribution rate of pollinating insects were evaluated based on relevant agricultural and forestry economic data of Nanchong City in 2020.【Results】 During 2021-2022, 79 species of pollinating insects belonging to 18 families and 50 genera, 59 species of pollinating crops and wild nectar plants belonging to 20 families and 50 genera were investigated in Nanchong City. The pollination network was characterized by low connectivity, medium nesting and low network specialization. In 2020, the pollination service value of pollinating insects in Nanchong City was about 3 325 017 600-5 072 791 200 Yuan RMB accounting for about 8.45%-12.88% of the gross value of agricultural production of that year. 【Conclusion】 Abundant pollinating insect resources in Nanchong City can provide sufficient pollination service for the production of vegetables, fruits and oil crops in Nanchong City. The characteristics of crop pollination network in Nanchong City are obvious. Pollinating insects could maintain the stability of ecosystem and plant species diversity. Major pollinating crops are highly dependent on insect pollination and there is a close relationship between agricultural production and pollinating insects. Protecting pollinating insect resources helps to ensure agricultural production and maintain the stability of wild plant communities in Nanchong City.
    Embryonic development and morphological changes during the nymphal stage of Cryptotympana atrata (Hemiptera: Cicadidae)
    ZHOU Jin-Rui, WEI Cong
    2024, 67(2):  270-283.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.012
    Abstract ( 65 )   PDF (70135KB) ( 120 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the embryonic development process of the cicada Cryptotympana atrata and the distribution of symbionts in the embryo, determine the number of instars of nymphs, and clarify the morphogenetic process of related organs and the correlation between the morphological changes (differentiation) of nymphs and the habitat as well as the nutrient supply conditions of host plants. 【Methods】 By field collecting and laboratory artificial breeding, samples of various developmental stages of C. atrata were obtained, and the embryonic development was observed and the morphological changes of nymphs at different instars were measured and analyzed using optical microscopy and electron microscopy. 【Results】 The eggs of C. atrata are elongated with reticulated stripes on the chorion, and the micropyle is located about a quarter the distance of the egg length from the posterior pole. At the early stage of embryonic development, the symbiont Candidatus Sulcia muelleri (Sulcia) and the yeast-like fungal symbionts (YLS) gathered to form a “symbiont ball” near the posterior pole of the egg. At ~72 h after oviposition, the newly formed germ band gradually merged into the yolk, and the symbiont ball gradually moved to the anterior pole and finally entered the nearby host cells, which finally colonized the dorsal region of the 6th-8th abdominal segments. At ~55 d after oviposition, the embryo entered diapause for overwintering, and the diapause period was about 130 d. During the early stage of embryonic development, the labral appendages gradually fused basally, and eventually fused with the anteclypeus. The appendages of the mandible segment extended continuously, and modified to form the mandibular stylets. The maxillary appendages differentiated into the lateral and medial prominences, which further developed into the proximal maxillary plate (eventually disappeared) and the distal maxillary stylet, respectively. The labial appendages appeared in pairs at the early stage of embryonic development, but gradually fused to form the rostrum to contain the mandibular and maxillary stylets. At ~200 d after oviposition, the pleuropodium formed at the first abdominal segment, which gradually degenerated by the time of dorsal closure at ~210 d after oviposition. The pronymph had no tooth on the head but possessed massive tooth-bulge on the thorax and abdomen, which could help the insect to crawl out from the egg shell. At ~245 d after oviposition, some of the embryos began to hatch. The nymphs had five instars, which exhibited a series of morphological changes in the compound eyes, antennae, wing buds, thoracic legs and reproductive segments, along with the increase in body size. Particularly, the three pairs of thoracic legs showed significantly morphological/functional differentiation during the nymphal stage: the mesothoracic and metathoracic legs were slender and suitable for supporting and balancing the body; the prothoracic legs were thick and strong, with femoral comb gradually developed on the flattened femur, and an apical tooth and a blade formed on the sickle-like tibia, which are suitable for digging tunnels and fixing the body on the root of host plants for feeding. The 1st-4th instar nymphs morphologically differentiated into two types: individuals of Type Ⅰpossessed a swollen abdomen, and individuals of Type Ⅱ possessed an unswollen abdomen. In contrast, the 5th instar nymphs showed no obviously morphological differentiation. In addition, the differentiation of the 1st instar nymphs feeding on vigorous host plants appeared earlier than those feeding on weak host plants; the 1st instar nymphs with an unswollen abdomen entered the 2nd instar earlier than those with a swollen abdomen; and all the nymphs initially entered the 2nd instar with an unswollen abdomen. 【Conclusion】 During the embryonic development process of C. atrata, the symbiont ball consisting of Sulcia and YLS migrates from the posterior pole to the anterior pole of the egg, and finally colonizes the 6th-8th abdominal segments. The mandiblular stylets are coxognathic and the maxillary stylets telognathic in origin. The nymphs of C. atrata have five instars, and the morphological/functional specialization of the nymphs are closely associated with the very long, subterranean pre-adult stage and the niche shift between the nymphal and the adult stages, as well as the nutrient supply of the host plants.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Research progress of the insect secretion-mediated interaction between insects and plants
    CAI Xiang-Yun, WANG Ya-Ru, YAO Yang, WANG Jin-Da, HOU You-Ming
    2024, 67(2):  284-306.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2024.02.013
    Abstract ( 114 )   PDF (24782KB) ( 168 )     
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    Insects and plants are important components of biological community in nature and have evolved complex interactions during the long-term evolution process. For example, plants have evolved complex defense strategies to resist insect damage, meanwhile, insects have also evolved more adaptive ways to get more resources for survival. Therefore, studies that focus on the mutual adaptation between insects and host plants are important for effective pest control and cultivation of insect-resistant plants. In the study of the interactions between insects and host plants, the effective components of the oral secretions from herbivorous insects such as saliva or regurgitant liquid, egg secretions, intestinal compounds and microorganisms as the intermediate media to connect insects and plants not only play important roles in inducing or enhancing plant defense, but also have some functions of inhibiting or weakening plant defense. Therefore, according to the role played by the effective components, the oral secretions from herbivorous insects can be divided into elicitors and effectors. In this review article, we introduced the main types of insect effectors including calciumbinding proteins, enzymes and venom proteins, and elicitors including fatty acid amino acid conjugates, polypeptides and enzymes, and the main ways of mediating plant defense from the perspective of insect secretion, clarified the different strategies of herbivorous insects adapting to plant defense, which not only contribute to the in-depth analysis of the interaction mechanism between insects and plants, but also provide new ideas for green and effective pest control and breeding of plant resistant varieties.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 67 Issue 2
    2024, 67(2):  307-307. 
    Abstract ( 42 )   PDF (496KB) ( 114 )     
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