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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 1998, Volume 41 Issue 4
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    DETECTION OF THE BINARY TOXIN GENES OF SEVERALBACILLUS SPHAERICUS STRAINS AND THEIR TOXICITIESAGAINST SUSCEPTIBLE AND RESISTANT CULEX PIPIENS
    Yuan Zhiming C. Nielsen-LeRoux N. Pasteur j. F. Charles R.frutos Charles R. Rrutos
    1998, 41(4):  337-342. 
    Abstract ( 2860 )   PDF (1730KB) ( 1038 )     
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    Using synthetic oligonucleotides designed on the basis of the binary toxin gene sequence of 2362, a 1.1 kilodalton DNA fragment has been prepared as a probe to study the toxin genes of several Bacillus sphaericus strains. The 3. 5kb Hind III DNA fragments of C3-41, IAB881, IAB872 and BS-197 as well as the 4.7kb Hind I DNA fragment of LP1-G are homologous to the probe. The 51.4 and 41.9 kilodalton binary toxin can be detected by SDS-PAGE and Western Blotting. The results of the bioassay showed that C3-41, IAB881, BS-197 and the reference strain 2362 have a high potency against susceptible Culex pipiens subsp, pipiens and no potency against the resistant mosquito larvae from France (SPHRAE). IAB872 and LP1-G have medium toxicity against the resistant larvae.
    THE DYNAMICS OF BIODIVERSITY AND THE COMPOSITION OF NUTRITION CLASSES AND DOMINANTGUILDS OF ARTHROPODA COMMUNITY IN PADDY FIELD
    Hao Shuguang Zhang Xiaoxi Chen Xianian Luo Yaojing Tian Xuezhi
    1998, 41(4):  343-353. 
    Abstract ( 3461 )   PDF (601KB) ( 1618 )     
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    In this study, the arthropod community in paddy field was divided intothree nutrient classes (top-species, intermediate-species and basal-species) and various guilds. The component structures and biodiversity of the arthropod community were investigated according to the species, guilds and nutrient classes. The results indicated that the guilds's biodiversity was similar to the species biodiversity. If the species wasreplaced by guilds in studying the structure and function of community, the complicated network relationship among species in the community would be simplified. The neutral insects in a paddy arthropod community play an important role in pest population dynamics. The function of natural enemy in the community should be evaluated on the numbers, the temporal and spatial niches of natural enemies, pests and neutral nsects.
    SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF DIFFERENT INSTARLARVAE OF HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA (HIJBNER) ON TRANSGENIC BT COTTON
    Zhao Jianzhou Lu Meiguang Fan Xianlin Xie Feizhou
    1998, 41(4):  354-358. 
    Abstract ( 2828 )   PDF (296KB) ( 1151 )     
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    Transgenic cotton line R93-4 expressing Bacillus thuringiensis CrylA genewas used for evaluating the effects of Bt cotton on the survival and growth of different instar larvae of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa arrnigera (Htibner). Significant insecticidal activity of Bt cotton leaves was observed only on the first instar larvae successively feeding for 3 days. No larva could survive to pupation when fed on Bt cotton leaves continuously starting at 1st, 2nd, 3rd or 4th instar. But started feeding on Bt cotton leaves at fifth instar, larvae could normally survive to pupae. The inhibition effect of Btcotton on the growth of larvae was more obvious than the lethal effect. The mortality and growth inhibition of larvae by Bt cotton were higher at 28℃ as compared with 25℃. The results are valuable for further research on the monitoring and management techniques of the pest resistance to Bt cotton.
    STUDIES ON INSECTICIDE SUSCEPTIBILITYOF LADY BIRDS
    Zhu Fuxing Wang Jinxin Liu Feng Mu Wei Zhang Xin
    1998, 41(4):  359-365. 
    Abstract ( 3871 )   PDF (366KB) ( 1271 )     
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    Susceptibility to four kinds of insecticides of CoccineUa septempunctata Linnaeus and Propylea japonica (Thunberg) collected from regions where insecticides appli cation levels were different was assayed. Differences of susceptibility of lady birds collected from the same region to different insecticides were remarkable. The order of toxicities was: eyhalothrin > methomyl>methamidophos>endosulfan. Toxicity of cyhalothrin to larvae of C. septempunctata was 8560 times higher than that of endosulfanand to adult was 617 times, higher. Differences of susceptibility of C. septempunctata to the same insecticide among populations from different regions were not obvious. But P.Japonica collected from Xiajin county where application level of insecticides was highshowed 30.6 times more resistant to cyhalothrin when compared with the population from Laiwu where the application level of insecticides was low. The selective toxicity of different insecticides to C. Septempunctata and resistant Aphis gossypii differed greatly.The order of selective toxicities was: endosulfan>methomyl>methamidophos>cyhalothrin. The selective toxicity index of endosulfan was 4. 9 where as the selective toxicity index of cyhalothrin was only 7. 3 × 10-6. Endosulfan is recommended to control the resistant A. Gossypii.
    INSECT ANTIFEEDING ACTIVITIES AND THEIR RELATIONSHIP WITH STRUCTURES OF CLERODANE DITERPENOIDS
    Xu Jianhua Shang Zhizhen Yang Shuhua Chen Huanming Min Zhida
    1998, 41(4):  366-370. 
    Abstract ( 2763 )   PDF (338KB) ( 1128 )     
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    Twenty five clerodane diterpenoids were tested for antifeeding activities against fifth instar larvae of Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), and the structure-activity relationships were analyzed. Experimental results suggest that stereochemstry is importantfor antifeeding activity while the side chain at C9 and acetyl group at C18 exhibit certain effects, but a spiroepoxide structure at C4 seems not important for the activity. The most potent antifeeding clerodane compound had an antifeeding ratio of 57.9% in choice test (250 μg/mL), and 43.2% in no-choice test (500 μg/mL).
    EFFECTS OF EXOGENOUS HORMONES ON WING DIMORPHISM OF THE BROWN PLANTHOPPER, NILAPARVATA LUGENS (STAL)
    Wang Jian Wu Zhenting Zhang Yijiu Chen Cexiang Xu Guihua
    1998, 41(4):  371-375. 
    Abstract ( 3279 )   PDF (293KB) ( 1236 )     
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    The influence of exogenous hormones on wing dimorphism of Nilaparvatalugens was studied. It was found that when the nymphs of 3rd and 4th instar were treated with juvenile hormone analog (JHA 734- II ), the numbers of brachypterous adults were increased by about 70% and 30% respectively as compared with the control. However, when the last (5th) instar nymphs were treated, the percentage of brachypterous adults did not increase. It seems that juvenile hormone could play an important role in the differentiation of wing dimorphism in N. lugens and this effect occurs at a critical stage—4th instar,The esterase activity, the contents of soluble sugar and free amino acids in the 3rd and 4th instar nymphs were raised by about 13%-14%, 24h after topical treatment with 4 /μg/mL ecdysterone (ED), but were reduced when treated with 0.31/μg/mL JHA. When the nymphs were treated with a mixture of ED and JHA, the result was similar to that with JHA solely. It is suggested that ED could promote the development of imaginal disc, which might be partly suppressed by JHA.
    POLYETHISM IN RETICULITERMES FUKIENENSIS : A PRELIMINARY STUDY
    Zhang Jianhua
    1998, 41(4):  376-381. 
    Abstract ( 2479 )   PDF (319KB) ( 1124 )     
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    This paper deals with the polyethism in Reticulitermes fukienensis Light.Experiment showed that the older workers undertake the scouting behavior even whensoldiers are absent, and foraging polyethism exists inside the termite colonies. After observing the gut contents of the larvae and workers it was found there is no semi-soliddark brown materials inside the larva's gut parts and a large amount of semi-solid dark brown materials inside the gut parts of workers, it can be inferred that larvae feed themselves on liquid foods through trophallaxis and sucking and workers feed themselves on fiber materials. On the aspect of the gut structure for larvae and workers, their paunches have undergone developmental change, from slender tubular gut to expanding sac.Age seems to play a role in the polyethism in R. fukienensis.
    INFESTATION LEVELS OF DIURAPHIS NOXIAMORDVILKO RESPONSE TO PRECIPITATION AND IRRIGATION
    Liang Hongbin Zhang Runzhi Zhang Guangxue Wen Yonglin Wang Guoping
    1998, 41(4):  382-388. 
    Abstract ( 2998 )   PDF (405KB) ( 1119 )     
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    The infestation levels of Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko were investigated in correlation to the amount of rainfall in 1989-1996 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The effects of simulated rainfall on aphid population were observed both in the field and in the lab. D. noacia was sampled from fields at different irrigation levels. Theresults indicated that aphid infestation was negatively correlated to the amount of rainfall in April and May (r=-0.92), but positively correlated to the amount of rainfall inlate July of previous years (r=0.67). The amount of rainfall (X) in April and May was regressed with aphid population (Y) as Y= 4. 9-0.048X. The aphid population was significantly suppressed by stimulated rainfall in field and in lab experiments. Droughtstressed plants were infested with more aphids than drought-free plants. The percentage of D. Noxia parasitized by Diaeretieua rapae M'Intosh was greater on drought-freeplants than that on drought-stressed plants. (Tacheng Plant Protection Station, Tacheng 834700)Abstract The infestation levels of Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko were investigated in correlation to the amount of rainfall in 1989-1996 in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The effects of simulated rainfall on aphid population were observed both in the field and in the lab. D. noacia was sampled from fields at different irrigation levels. Theresults indicated that aphid infestation was negatively correlated to the amount of rainfall in April and May (r=-0.92), but positively correlated to the amount of rainfall in late July of previous years (r=0.67). The amount of rainfall (X) in April and May wasregressed with aphid population (Y) as Y= 4. 9-0.048X. The aphid population was significantly suppressed by stimulated rainfall in field and in lab experiments. Drought-stressed plants were infested with more aphids than drought-free plants. The percentageof D. Noxia parasitized by DiaeretieUa rapae M'Intosh was greater on drought-free plants than that on drought-stressed plants.
    BIONOMICS OF DIADROMUS COLLARIS (HYMENOPTERA.ICHNEUMOMONIDAE), A MAJOR PUPAL PARASITOID OF PLUTELLA XYLOSTELLA
    Wang Xingeng Liu Shusheng
    1998, 41(4):  389-395. 
    Abstract ( 3296 )   PDF (449KB) ( 1063 )     
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    Diadromus collaris is a major pupal parasitoid of PluteUa xylosteua in Hangzhou, China. This paper reports the observations of several aspects of its biology and the effect of several insecticides on its adults. At 25℃, adult females started ovipo-sition on 1-2 d after emergence and reached their oviposition peak on 3-7 d. On average, the total number of pupae parasitized by a mated female was 43.8 and the oviposition period was 11.5 d. The parasitoid had five larval instars. At 25℃, the development durations for egg and each larval instar were 1-2 d, and 5-6 d for the pupa respectively. The mean development periods from egg to adult at 15℃, 17.5℃, 20.0, 22.5℃,25.0℃, 27.5℃, 30.0℃ and 32. 5℃ were 30.6, 22.5, 17.8, 14.5, 12.1, 11.1, 10.3and 10.2 d respectively. There was no significant difference in the developmental time between male and female. The temperature threshold and the summation of effectivetemperature for the development of whole immature stage were 7.4℃ and 225.1 day degrees. A temperature range of 17℃ to 30℃ was favorable for the development, survival and reproduction of the parasitoid. The adults could be stored for 20-30 d at 15℃.Phoxim, methomyl and shachongshuang caused quick and high mortality to the adults,fenvalerate was moderately toxic, Bt, chlorfluazuron and abamectin appeared harmless to the adults.
    THE YEARLY DYNAMICS RELATIONSHIP BETWEENBURROW TRACK FLEA INDEX AND POPULATIONOF CITELLUS DAURICUS
    Li Zhonglai Zhang Yaoxing
    1998, 41(4):  396-400. 
    Abstract ( 3401 )   PDF (319KB) ( 1127 )     
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    According to the fluctuation of population of CiteUus dauricus and its burrow track flea index in Wuningbatu Sumu, Zhengxiangbai Banner, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region during 1981-1993, the authors have found that there are nine flea species with CiteUophilus tesquorurn mongolicus (66.%) as the most dominant member,and Frontopsylla luculenta (25.0 %) the second. Neopsylla abagaitui and N. bidentati formis are only of common occurrence whereas the other species are rather scare. The correlation between the burrow host population and its burrow track flea index is significant (P<0.03), I. E. , burrow track flea index=0.249170.0596 host population. But the correlation between the burrow track flea index and its infecting flea rate is not signifi-cant (0.05<0.10), and the diversity and evenness of flea species are influenced sig nificantly by the proportion of C. t. mongolicus in the flea population. Furthermore, the relationship between the burrow track flea index and body flea index is significant (P<0.05 ), I. E. , burrow track flea index= 0.27097+0.0504 body flea index, and that between the burrow track flea index and burrow nest flea index is also significant (P<0.07), I.E. , burrow track flea index=0.276570.0035 burrow nest flea index. Finally, the correlation among the three kinds of flea index is approximately as following: (burrow nest flea index): (body flea index): (burrow track flea index) =100'10:1.
    A STUDY ON THE CHINESE SCHIZAPHIS BORNER, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE)
    Zhang Guangxue Chen Xiaolin Qiao Gexia
    1998, 41(4):  401-408. 
    Abstract ( 3210 )   PDF (414KB) ( 1080 )     
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    This paper deals with six species of Schizaphis Borner, 1931, from China, ineluding three new species: Schizaphis (Schizaphis) chaenometicola Zhang, sp. Nov. , S. (S.)hierochlophaga Zhang et Chen, sp. Nov. , and S. (S.) longituberclata Zhang et Qiao, ap.Nov.. Descriptions of new species and a key to all Chinese species are given. All the specimens including the types are deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica.
    THREE NEW SPECIES OF THE PHYLLOCOPTINAE EROM CHINA(ACARI:ERIOPHYOIDEA)
    Kuang Haiyuan
    1998, 41(4):  409-413. 
    Abstract ( 2598 )   PDF (227KB) ( 1217 )     
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    This paper reports three new species of Phyllocoptinae.The lenhth unit is in micron. All type specimens are deposited in the Nanjing Agricultural University.
    A NEW SPECIES OF MECONEMATIDAE (ORTHOPTERA. TETTIGONIOIDEA) FROM SICHUAN
    Chang Yanlin Zheng Zhemin Wang Hongyi
    1998, 41(4):  414-416. 
    Abstract ( 2989 )   PDF (124KB) ( 1004 )     
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    This paper deals with a new species of Meconematidae from Sichuan. Typespecimen is deposited in the Institute of Zoology, Shaanxi Normal University.Pseudokuzicus longidentatus sp. Nov. (Figs. 1) This new species is different from Pseudokuzicus pieli (Tinkham, 1943) in the 10thabdominal tergite, The cerci and The subgenital plate in male.Female unknown.Holotype , Gulin, Sichuan. July 21, 1993, collected by Shi Fuming.Length of body 7.5 mm; Length of pronotum 3.5 mm; Length of tegmen6.5 mm; Length of hind femur 7.5 mm.
    PROGRESS IN TARGET-INSENSITIVE MECHANISM OF INSECT RESISTANCE TO INSECTICIDES
    Li Xianchun Wang Yinchang
    1998, 41(4):  417-425. 
    Abstract ( 2510 )   PDF (609KB) ( 1157 )     
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    This paper reviews the current progress of target-insensitive mechanisms (ACHE, sodium channel, GABA receptor) of insect resistance to insecticides. The resis-tant mechanism of AChE to organophosphates and carbamates is a multiple-point muta-tion in AChE structure gene, resulting in several insensitive AChE isoenzymes. Similarly, the resistant mechanism of GABA receptor to γ-BHC and cyclodiene insectide is one conservative point mutation in receptor structure gene involving a serine to alanine substitution (302), resulting in an insensitive receptor. As for Na+ channel, a point mutation in structure gene has been found, but whether is it universal and is the gene expression of Na+channel involved in pyrethroids and DDT resistance remain to be clarified.
    MEASUREMENT AND ELECTROPHORESIS PATTERNS OF HEMOLYMPH PROTEIN FROM DIAPAUSE-ANDNON-DIAPAUSE-DESTINED HELICOVERPA ARMIGERA
    Wang Fanghai Gong He Qin Junde
    1998, 41(4):  426-430. 
    Abstract ( 2486 )   PDF (1446KB) ( 1141 )     
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    A STUDY ON THE BLONOMICS OF ASPONGOPUS CHINENSIS DALLAS
    Xiao Tieguang Chen Yongnian You Lanshao Pan Tong
    1998, 41(4):  431-434. 
    Abstract ( 2557 )   PDF (192KB) ( 1131 )     
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