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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 December 1999, Volume 42 Issue -1
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    NATURAL CONTROL OF INSECT PESTS IN AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY
    Zhang Guang-xue
    1999, 42(-1):  1-5. 
    Abstract ( 2587 )   PDF (231KB) ( 835 )     
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    Human beings have to be facing many problems including the environmental pollution and insect pest disasters. How to treat them? The author suggests a way that human learn to coexist with various abiotic things and millions of species of organisms including numerous insects. Many insects are useful to human being in pest control as natural enemies, in plant pollination as media, in daily life as delicious foods, in medicine as drugs, and in industry as materials. Therefore, rational utilization of insect resources is very important. Agro-forestry pests should be controlled by natural factors, such as plant resistance, natural enemies, growth regulators, pheromones, sterilizing techniques, plant insecticides, or combination of them. The use of chemical insecticides should be selected for considering their effects on natural control factors and environmental pollution.
    MUTUALISTIC PLANT PROTECTION AND PEST MANAGEMENT
    Zhang Run-zhi,Zhang Guang-xue
    1999, 42(-1):  6-10. 
    Abstract ( 2965 )   PDF (242KB) ( 1118 )     
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    Pest management methods should be durable, ecologically stable, flexible and feasible for meeting the demands from the idea of sustainable development of agriculture and forestry. Herein the authors suggest a new way of pest management——a strategy of using mutual plants to regulate the interactions of biotic factors around the environment of the target plant, i.e. mutualistic plant protection (MPP). MPP means that a plant could produce a most output by the regulations of plants, animals, microorganisms, and other associated factors in the adjacent areas to maintain pest populations in a long-term stable status. The principle of feasibility of these regulation methods is the law of the mutual relationship of all organisms including plants and pests in the natural world. The conception of MPP could be a trend in the future plant protection.
    RESEARCHES ON RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID, DIURAPHIS NOXIA (MORDVILKO), IN CHINAAN OVERVIEW
    Zhang Run-zhi, Liang Hong-bin, Zhang Guang-xue, Liu Yan-liang, Du Bingren
    1999, 42(-1):  11-17. 
    Abstract ( 2706 )   PDF (335KB) ( 1015 )     
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    The present paper outlines investigation results on the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), in China, including its morphology, related species, distribution, infestation, biological and ecological characteristics, natural enemies, occurrence forecast and control measures.
    SPECIES OF DIURAPHIS AIZENBERG (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE)AND THEIR GEOGRAPGIC DISTRIBUTION
    Zhang Run-zhi, Liang Hong-bin, Zhang Guang-xue, Du Bing-ren, Liu Yan-liang
    1999, 42(-1):  18-25. 
    Abstract ( 3037 )   PDF (334KB) ( 1000 )     
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    Diuraphis Aizenberg including 13 species distributes mainly in Palaearctic and Neoarctic realms. Based on the abundance of species and the endemic species, it is proposed that Euroasia is the primary distribution center of the genus and North America comes secondary. The geographic distribution of Diuraphis in the world is mapped out and a key to these species is given based on morphological characteristics of adults of apterous viviparous female. Seven species identified from collections in the northwest and north regions of China, Diuraphis noxia, D. nociva, D. (Holcaphis) holci, D. (Holcaphis) agropyronophaga, D. (Holcaphis) frequens, D. (Holcaphis) bromicola and D. (Holcaphis) elymophila, are briefly diagnosed. They distribute mainly in Meng-Xin region (Xinjiang, Gansu, Qinghai, and Inner Mongolia) in northwestern China.
    IDENTIFICATION OF DIFFERENT INSTARS AND ADULT OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID
    Zhang Run-zhi, Zhang Jun, Du Bing-ren
    1999, 42(-1):  26-30. 
    Abstract ( 3069 )   PDF (183KB) ( 1004 )     
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    Under condition of 20~25℃, (80±10)% (RH) and 16∶8 (D∶L), the body length, body width, head width, siphunculus width, cauda length, supracauda length, antenna length, and third antennal segment length were significantly different among various instars and adult of the Russian wheat aphid. A key to different instars was given according to wing, wing bud, antennal segments, cauda shape, supracaudal morphs, and ratio of length to basal width of supracauda.
    MICROSTRUCTURE OF SENSORY ORGANS OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID
    Zhang Guangxue Zhang Jun Zhang Runzhi Wei Guo Ji Rongren
    1999, 42(-1):  31-34. 
    Abstract ( 2626 )   PDF (3050KB) ( 1023 )     
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    Major configurations of the primary sensorium, secondary sensorium, compound eye, rostral hairs, tarsal segment of front leg and abdomen tip of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), were investigated under scanning electron microscope. The sensory function of these organs was discussed in relation to their structures.
    DEVELOPMENT, SURVIVAL AND REPRODUCTION OF THE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURES
    Zhang Run-zhi, Liang Hong-bin, Zhang Jun, Qiu Zhuo
    1999, 42(-1):  35-39. 
    Abstract ( 2817 )   PDF (201KB) ( 974 )     
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    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), was reared at 9 constant temperatures from 4.5℃ to 33℃ respectively to examine effects of temperature on its development, survival and fecundity. The low temperature threshold for nymphal development was estimated to be 3.27℃, with an effective temperature accumulation of 152.55 day-degrees. The optimal temperatures for its development ranged from 15℃ to 20℃ and the high lethal temperature was 33℃. The aphid survival rates at 7.5℃, 10℃ and 15℃ were higher than that at other temperatures. Survival rates of the first and second instar nymphs were generally lower than that of latter instars. Adult aphids showed greater fecundity at temperatures from 15℃ to 24℃.
    NICHES OF WHEAT APHIDS IN XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION
    Zhang Run-zhi, Zhang Jun,Wei Zheng-ming, Geng Shou-guang, Qiu Zhuo
    1999, 42(-1):  40-44. 
    Abstract ( 3383 )   PDF (189KB) ( 954 )     
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    The niche breadth and overlap of the four wheat aphids, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), Schizaphis graminum (Rondani.), Sitobion avenae (F.) and Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), were measured based on the survey data in Tacheng and Ili, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. D. noxia and R. padi occupied longest temporal niche in Tacheng and Ili wheat field respectively. S. graminum had the greatest spatial and tempo-spatial niche breadths in Ili. Temporal niche of D. noxia overlapped mostly with that of S. graminum in Tacheng. However, in Ili, S. avenae and D. noxia overlapped mostly in their temporal niches. S. avenae and S. graminum heavily overlapped in both spatial and tempo-spatial niches.
    NICHES OF NATURAL ENEMIES OF WHEAT APHIDS INXINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION, CHINA
    Zhang Run-zhi, Zhang Jun, Wei Zheng-ming, Geng Shou-guang
    1999, 42(-1):  45-49. 
    Abstract ( 3145 )   PDF (233KB) ( 1061 )     
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    The niche breadths of natural enemies of the wheat aphids in wheat, barley and oat fields in Tacheng and Ili, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region were estimated on the basis of investigation in 1990. Coccinellids had the longest temporal niche in wheat fields in both Tacheng and Ili. Syrphids and coccinellids in Tacheng wheat field showed greatest overlap in their temporal niches, indicating the existence of a keen competition. In wheat fields in Ili, syrphids had the greatest spatial niche, coccinellids had the largest tempo-spatial niche, Leucopis spp. And coccinellids had the largest niche overlap in spatial dimensions, and aphelinids and Leucopis spp. Showed the maximum overlap in their spatial and tempo-spatial niches. Moreover, niches of natural enemies of wheat aphids in barley and oat fields were also discussed.
    TIME-SPECIFIC LIFE TABLE OF NATURAL POPULATI0N OF THE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID
    Zhang Run-zhi,Zhang Jun,Cao Yan, Qiu Zhuo
    1999, 42(-1):  50-54. 
    Abstract ( 2796 )   PDF (224KB) ( 1145 )     
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    Hughes' analytical approach was used for constructing time-specific life tables of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA),Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),to examine effects of different factors on its population dynamics in wheat,barley and oat plots in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China. It showed that the predatory enemies played leading role in suppressing population growth of the aphid in early season in wheat field. Both predators and parasitoids were basic factors controlling the RWA population in the middle and late season in wheat,barley and oat plots. The alatae emigration as a self-regulating factor within the population was also important when the aphid density increased to certain level.
    PREDICTION OF SUITABLE AREAS FOR RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID SURVIVAL IN CHINA
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi,Zhang Guang-xue
    1999, 42(-1):  55-61. 
    Abstract ( 3118 )   PDF (331KB) ( 1108 )     
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    Having estimated certain parameters of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA),Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,the CLIMEX model was modified to predict the suitability of different areas in China for RWA occurrence. The results showed that 18 out of the 20 selected sites in Xinjiang were in accordance with the actual distribution status of the aphid. Certain areas in Yunnan,Xinjiang,Heilongjiang,Qinghai,Xizang,Jilin,Liaoning,Gansu,Ningxia,Inner Mongolia,Shanxi and Shandong Provinces and Autonomous Regions were also favorable for RWA existence. When the duration of absence of host plants for RWA,i.e. the non-wheat growing period was taken into consideration and incorporated as a parameter in the model,all the winter wheat areas being predicted above as favorable places became unsuitable for RWA while the suitability of the spring wheat areas for the existence of RWA was reduced by 50% to 75%.
    POPULATION DYNAMICS OF THE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES ON SPRING WHEAT AND WILD HOSTS
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi, Wen Yong-lin,Fu Zheng-sheng,Yan Ping
    1999, 42(-1):  62-67. 
    Abstract ( 3103 )   PDF (265KB) ( 945 )     
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    Densities of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA),Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),and its natural enemies were surveyed at 5~10 day intervals in the summer of 1996 on spring wheat and wild hosts in Tacheng,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region,China. The aphid was more abundant on spring wheat than on secale,Secale cereale L. and wild oat,Avena fatua L. and reached its peaks earlier on spring wheat and oat than on secale. Number of coccinellids in spring wheat field increased up to 516 per 100 tillers. The parasitized rates of D. noxia by Diaeretiella rapae and Aphelinus albipodus were up to 31.6% and 12.9% respectively. On the secale plants,42.9% of the aphids were parasitized by A. albipodus,and the predator Leucopis annulipes found as up to 16 larvae per 100 tillers. On the oat plants,62.3% and 31.8% of the aphids were parasitized by D. rapae and A.albipodus respectively. D. rapae and most coccinellids appeared in earlier stage of RWA infestation,whereas A. albipodus and L. annulipes occurred lately.
    OCCURRENCE LEVELS OF THE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHIDIN RELATION TO CLIMATIC FACTORS
    Zhang Run-zhi,Liang Hong-bin, Wang Guo-ping
    1999, 42(-1):  68-71. 
    Abstract ( 2579 )   PDF (178KB) ( 1080 )     
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    A model for predicting abundance of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA),Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),was derived from regression analysis between the actual occurrence of RWA observed and the 16 weather parameters,1989-1996 in Tacheng,with screening of the parameters step by step. The model can be expressed as: logY=8.41-0.1033RH5 - 0.0253R5,where Y is the number of RWA on 100 wheat tillers,RH5 and R5 are the relative humidity (%) and rainfall (mm) in May respectively in the year to be predicted. The model is simple and practical,and showed reliability to certain extent when used to predict occurring levels of RWA in 1997 and 1998.
    ALTERNATE HOSTS OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID AND ITS SEASONAL TRANSFER
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi, Fang De-li,Zhang Li, Wen Yong-lin
    1999, 42(-1):  72-77. 
    Abstract ( 3008 )   PDF (231KB) ( 911 )     
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    Several species of grasses were regularly surveyed for the existence of the Russian wheat aphid,Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko),during 1994~1998 in Tacheng and Hami,Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Avena fatua,Secale cereale,Elytrigia repens and volunteering wheat served as the important alternate hosts for the aphid after crop harvest. In Tacheng,early-sown winter wheat provided for RWA an overwintering refuge from where the aphids transferred to spring wheat or the alternate hosts in spring,and came back in fall.
    DISTRIBUTION OF THE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHIDAND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES AT DIFFERENT ELEVATIONS
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi, Yan Ping Wen Yong-lin,Ahaihan
    1999, 42(-1):  78-85. 
    Abstract ( 2769 )   PDF (302KB) ( 972 )     
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    In Tacheng of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, winter and spring wheat fields at elevations from 500 m to 1 200 m were surveyed for the occurrence of the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), and its natural enemies for 3 years. The aphid mainly distributed in spring wheat fields at 600~800 m above sea level and in winter wheat fields at 700~800 m. Their densities in winter wheat fields were significantly correlated to those in spring wheat fields at the same elevation (r=0.91, P<0.01). The second or third survey on spring wheat showed a larger increase in number of the aphid at higher elevations than lower ones. The natural enemies of RWA such as aphidiids, aphelinids, Leucopis annulipes mainly distributed in spring wheat at 500~600 m elevation and in winter wheat fields at 600~800 m above sea level. Their distribution areas and densities became wider and higher as the wheat grew.
    IMPACT OF NATURAL ENEMIES ON RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID IN XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi,Wang Guo-ping,Wen Yong-lin,Yan Ping
    1999, 42(-1):  86-91. 
    Abstract ( 2714 )   PDF (250KB) ( 895 )     
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    The natural enemies were evaluated for their effects on the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), in spring wheat field in Tacheng and Hami, Xinjiang Uygure Autonomous Region. The aphid number increased 4.4~8.3 times in the caged spring wheat seedlings compared with that in the uncaged plants in July. In Tacheng spring wheat field, Leucopis annulipes and Aphelinus albipodus showed greater suppressive effects on the increase rates of RWA than other natural enemies did in 1994 according to correlation and path analyses. Spiders and coccinellids, however, played more important role in controlling the aphid in 1996.
    FUNCTIONAL RESPONSES OF NATURAL ENEMIES TOTHE RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID
    Zhang Run-zhi,Zhang Jun, Chu Meng-lin,Bao Xiu-lan,Chai Feng-ying
    1999, 42(-1):  92-96. 
    Abstract ( 2855 )   PDF (191KB) ( 977 )     
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    The functional responses of four species of natural enemies to the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), were examined in laboratory in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The responses of Aphelinus sp. And Coccinella septempunctata to RWA was showed to be the Holling I type and could be fitted by Na=0.6060N-3.4700 (n≤100) and Na=0.6020N+5.9000 (n≤250) respectively, where Na is number of the aphids attacked and N, the initial number of the aphids. The predation of Hippodamia variegata and Leucopis annulipes on the aphid could be well described by Holling II type, with the models as 1/Na=1.2550/N+0.0046 and 1/Na=1.3280/N+0.0071 respectively.
    INFLUENCE OF WHEAT PLANTING TIME ON INCIDENCE OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID
    Liang Hong-bin,Zhang Run-zhi, Jia Yu-long,Gao Fang-wu
    1999, 42(-1):  97-101. 
    Abstract ( 3061 )   PDF (211KB) ( 974 )     
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    Incidences of Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), in relation to wheat planting date were investigated in Ili and Tacheng, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Ragion. The winter wheat planted early (Aug. 21~29) was attacked more seriously by RWA and with a higher infested rate. It was reduced by 40%~70% with the delay of planting date at every 10-day. The early planted (April 1~7) spring wheat, however, suffered lower infestation of the aphid and its infested rate was increased by 30%~88% with the delay of planting date at every 10-day.
    GREY CORRELATION ANALYSES AMONG RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID AND ITS ASSOCIATED FACTORS IN WHEAT FIELDS
    Zhang Jun,Zhang Run-zhi, Wei Zheng-ming, Duo Li-kong, Duan Jin-fu
    1999, 42(-1):  102-110. 
    Abstract ( 2571 )   PDF (422KB) ( 1101 )     
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    The relationships among the Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), other wheat aphids, natural enemies and abiotic factors were investigated in wheat, barley and oat fields in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China, using theory of grey control system. The results indicated that competition of other wheat aphids with RWA and predation of natural enemies were the leading factors controlling the RWA population. Abiotic factors played secondary effect, among which precipitation and relative humidity in air were important relatively. The most important natural enemy of RWA was coccinellids in both wheat field in Tacheng and oat field in Ili. However, aphelinids and Leucopis spp. Were the most important enemies in wheat and barley fields in Ili respectively.
    A PRELIMINARY OBSERVATION ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF WHEAT VARIETIES TO RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID, DIURAPHIS NOXIA (MORDVILKO)
    Zhang Runzhi Geng Shouguang Gao Zhen Zhao Yongsheng Mamuti Maimaitijiang
    1999, 42(-1):  111-119. 
    Abstract ( 2745 )   PDF (328KB) ( 999 )     
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    During the investigation period in Ili Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 195 and 36 wheat varieties were accessed for their susceptibility to Russian wheat aphid (RWA), (Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko)) in 1993 and 1994 respectively. Comparison of infestation grades among 36 wheat varieties by RWA in the two years showed that half of them were within the same grade. The aphid hardly attacked the “Onekernel wheat”, Triticum monococcum. 13, 2 and 2 of these varieties consistently showed low (<20%), middle (between 20% and 40%) and high (>60%) infestation rates by RWA respectively. However, there are 18 other varieties displayed obvious change in their infestation grades. In addition, the varieties “Spring Wheat 901” and “Shiyin1 of Beer Barley” being introduced into Tacheng were seriously infested by RWA in 1996.
    TOLERANCE AND YIELD LOSS RATES OF WHEAT VARIETIES TO RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID, DIURAPHIS NOXIA (MORDVILKO)
    Zhang Run-zhi, Liu Yan-liang, Geng Shou-guang, Mamuti Maimaiti
    1999, 42(-1):  120-124. 
    Abstract ( 2916 )   PDF (187KB) ( 1134 )     
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    In Ili Prefecture, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, 36 wheat varieties were tested in fields for their tolerance and yield losses to Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Eleven varieties including One-kernel Wheat, Moyu Daosui, Aiyinkang, Xiaoyan95, Mg8349, Duanmang Heibianhong, Yichun4, Xiaoheimai12, Funaer, Maodatou and T1008 exhibited higher tolerance with thousand-kernel weight reduction lower than 10%. Considering the natural infestation rate and thousand-kernel weight reduction, the yield losses of the tested varieties ranged from zero to 10.56%. Under 2% of yield loss were there 14 varieties: One-kernel Wheat, Aiyinkang, Mg8349, Mg8786, Funaer, Duanmang Heibianhong, T1008, Moyu Daosui, Xiaoheimai12, Guangyin74, Mg4521, Yellow Kuerban, Mg8816 and Xiaoyan95.
    OCCURRENCE AND CONTROL OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID, DIURAPHIS NOXIA (MORDVILKO), IN TACHENG, CHINA
    Wen Yong-lin, Wang Guo-ping, Yan Ping, Fu Zhen-sheng, Wei Zheng-ming
    1999, 42(-1):  125-129. 
    Abstract ( 3235 )   PDF (179KB) ( 1004 )     
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    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), distributed in five of the seven counties in Tacheng, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The aphid could cause great damage to wheat in some areas in certain years. The economic thresholds (RWA infestation rate) ranged from 2.8% to 11.9% for winter wheat and from 1.0% to 6.2% for spring wheat depending on their growing stages and incidence of the aphid. In most years, the aphid was controlled under natural regulators, especially its natural enemies and no insecticide application was needed.
    RESEARCH ADVANCES OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE): DISTRIBUTION, ECONOMICAL IMPACT AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS
    Zhang Runzhi Liang Hongbin Zhang Guangxue
    1999, 42(-1):  130-140. 
    Abstract ( 2751 )   PDF (548KB) ( 922 )     
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    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), has become a worldwide cereal pest with its dispersion to over 30 countries in this century. According to the natural history of its occurrence around the world, it is postulated RWA originated from western or central Asia. The aphid dispersed gradually to Europe and northern Africa, but its big jump across the ocean to North America is still a mystery. There are two overwintering strategies in RWA. The anholocyclic biotype, often reproducing earlier and more offsprings than the holocyclic one, has greater impact on crops in South Africa and United States. According to the experiments on its thermal response, RWA could withstand temperatures below -20℃, while temperatures above 30℃ would be harmful to its survival. The preference to colder condition may determine its distribution on the world. RWA has made great damages to cereal crops worldwide. It caused loss in crop yield by directly feeding on plant nutrition and disturbing the plant metabolism. But its status as plant virus transporter is open to question. By now, the aphid is still a serious pest in many countries and its invasion to more countries and areas maybe continues. Therefore, the research on its biological characteristics as well as its dispersion apparently needs to be enhanced in the future.
    RESEARCH ADVANCES OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE): CONTROL MEASURES AND STRATEGIES
    Liang Hongbin Zhang Runzhi Zhang Guangxue
    1999, 42(-1):  141-154. 
    Abstract ( 2380 )   PDF (769KB) ( 932 )     
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    The Russian wheat aphid (RWA), Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), was a worldwide cereal pest. The control measures to this pest were reviewed, emphasizing on natural enemies and plant resistance. First, spring wheat with earlier planting dates had higher yield and could resist RWA infestation to a more extent, while winter wheat with laterplanting dates could escape infestation of Russian wheat aphid with very few exceptions. So, manipulation of wheat planting dates was suggested in worldwide scale for the aphid control. Second, the natural enemies were considered as the most important factor to reduced the pest status. Introduced and native natural enemies were evaluated for their potential as biological agents in South Africa, United States, and Australia. In South Africa, an introduced parasitoid and a predator were selected for releasing. In the United States, the project on exploring and releasing the natural enemies was unprecedented in biological control history. The endeavor in USA has been proved primarily successful today and will be afterward. The RWA control in Chile was considered most successful, partly because of their introduction of natural enemies before the aphid arrival. The native enemies together with other factors in central Asia and Europe apparently suppressed the aphids to a low level. The screen for resistant wheat was another important research project in fighting with RWA. In South Africa and USA, resistant wheat and barley were bred, and some of them had been put in commercial use for RWA control. The overwhelming mechanisms in resistant wheat varieties were antibiosis, tolerance or their combination. Though chemical insecticide spraying was proved as an effective method for aphid control, more and more research has switched from this method to nonchemical control measures as required by IPM. Future research should put more emphasis on augmentation of the natural enemies, revealing the relationship between RWA and agricultural ecosystem and integration of all effective measures.
    IMPACT OF INSECTICIDES ON RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID AND ITS NATURAL ENEMIES IN TACHENG, CHINA
    Liang Hongbin Wang GuopingA haihan
    1999, 42(-1):  155-158. 
    Abstract ( 2003 )   PDF (132KB) ( 886 )     
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    OCCURRENCE OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID, DIURAPHIS NOXIA (MORDVILKO) IN HAMI
    Fang Deli Liang Hongbin Ren Li
    1999, 42(-1):  159-162. 
    Abstract ( 2146 )   PDF (114KB) ( 1008 )     
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    CHEMICAL CONTROL EXPERIMENTS OF RUSSIAN WHEAT APHID IN XINJIANG UYGUR AUTONOMOUS REGION
    Liang Hongbin Jia Yulong Gao Fangwu Gao Zhen Wang Wenhe
    1999, 42(-1):  163-166. 
    Abstract ( 2073 )   PDF (179KB) ( 927 )     
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