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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2000, Volume 43 Issue 4
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
    Effect of selection of different instar larvae by fenvalerate on resistance development in Helicoverpa armigera
    LIU Jin, CHEN Chang-kun, HAN Zhao-jun, WANG Yin-chang
    2000, 43(4):  337-345. 
    Abstract ( 2880 )   PDF (372KB) ( 819 )     
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    A middleresistance strain (15.06 folds) of Helicoverpa armigera was used to study the influence of fenvalerate on resistance development of different instar larvae. Four selection lines SM1, SM2, SM3 and SM4 were generated by treating the strain with fenvalerate in successive generations on neonate, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar larvae respectively. After ten generations, the resistance of SM3 was found to develop most rapidly, followed by those of SM4 and SM2, while that of SM1 developed most slowly. The SM1 and SM3 were selected in succession for another 3 generations and the resistance level of the former line increased to about 9 folds, and that of the latter was about 70 folds. The realized population heritability of resistance to fenvalerate based on the selection data obtained in SM3 (0.4419) was higher than that in SM1 (0.2346). Further experiment showed that PBO, an inhibitor of MFO, gave greater synergic effect on fenvalerate in the high instar selection lines and higher instar larvae of the same selection line. But TPP, an inhibitor of esterase, made no significant effect. Knockdown experiment showed that knockdown resistance was the main resistance selected in the neonate stage. But in 3rd instar larvae,both knockdown and MFO metabolic resistances were selected.The result infers that applying the pesticide in neonate stage would benefit the prevention and postponement of resistance development.
    Synergism of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus in combinations with chemical insecticides and lecithin
    WAN Cheng-song, SUN Xiu-lian, ZHANG Guang-yu
    2000, 43(4):  346-355. 
    Abstract ( 4009 )   PDF (445KB) ( 1184 )     
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    Thirdinstar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera were fed on artificial diet mixed with combinations of H.armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HaNPV) and insecticides——cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, esfinualerate, mijinthrin, methomyl, phoxim, methylparathion and acephate respectively. Mortalities were observed,and LC50 values and the synergic ratio were determined. The activities of three enzymes (Mixedfunction oxidase, MFO; Carboxylesterase, CarE; Acetylcholinesterase, AChE) in relation to the pest resistance to insecticides were also detected. In addition,enhancement of HaNPV infectivity by soybean lecithin was revealed. The results showed that combination of HaNPV and each of the insecticides was more effective than HaNPV or insecticides alone, all the synergic ratios were mere than 1.0, especially synergic ratio of HaNPVmethylparathion treatment arrived at 3.53. The activities of MFO in resistant H.armigera larvae treated with mixtures of HaNPV and insecticides decreased 3~27 times as compared to insecticide treatments alone. The activities of CarE and AChE in the resistant larvae treated with the mixtures were lower than that with insecticides alone as well. NPV inhibited the increase of MFO and CarE activity induced by insecticides. Lecithin enhanced the infectivity of HaNPV against H.armigera larvae, the LT50 value of HaNPV was shorten when the lecithin was combined.
    Effects of ingredients of artificial diet on the yields of Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus
    LI Guang-hong, CHEN Qi-jin, PANG Yi
    2000, 43(4):  356-363. 
    Abstract ( 3049 )   PDF (336KB) ( 945 )     
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    Employing single factor experiment and orthogonal combination design, the effects of three main ingredients of the diet on the yields of Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus (SeNPV) had been studied. When late third instar larvae were reared on artificial diet only composed either of soybean or of brewers yeast or wheat bran, or composed of two of these three ingredients, the virus yields were not depended on the level of polyhedra per g dead larva. The yields were determined by the mortalities of infected larvae and the level of polyhedra per larva together. When the three ingredients were combined together, the yields significantly increased. However, the mortalities of infected larvae among these treatments were not obviously different. The virus yields were increased as the increase of brewers yeast and the other two ingredients, soybean powder and wheat bran in the diet. Whereas the virus yields were decreased when the levels of soybean powder and wheat bran in the diet were too high. The order in effectiveness of the three ingredients on the virus yield is brewers yeast, soybean powder and wheat bran. The optimum combination of the three main ingredients in diet giving a highest yield of SeNPV was that in every 120?g of artificial diet preparation the contents of brewers yeast, soybean powder and wheat bran were 7?g, 14?g and 6?g respectively. Additionally, the effect of four mineral salts and a nonprotein nitrogen component on the virus yields were also studied.
    Insecticidal activities of Daphne tangutica extracts on Pieris rapae larvae
    XU Han-hong1, CHEN Li1, ZHAO Shan-huan1, SUN Hong-fa2, JI Lan-ju2
    2000, 43(4):  364-372. 
    Abstract ( 3261 )   PDF (2022KB) ( 1016 )     
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    Bioassays of the methanol extract of Daphne tangutica, a local endemic plant in QinghaiTebet Plateau, for insecticidal effects on the imported cabbage worm, Pieris rapae, were carried out. The results showed that the extract possessed high effects of antifeedant and stomach poison. Fraction 9 of Silica gel column chromatography proved to be the most active fraction among those partitioned from the methanol extract by bioassaydriven separation. The larvae fed on leaf discs treated with fraction 9 grew slowly, and their bodies were smaller than those of the control. Histological study indicated that the tissue of midgut was destroyed and fatbody became to fade out by autolysis. The preliminary physiological reaction studies showed that fraction 9 could reduce the content of protein in haemolymph and inhibited the activity of esterase in midgut significantly.
    Influence of temperatures on the activity of host recognition kairomone of Telenomus theophilae
    GAO Qi-kang, HU Cui
    2000, 43(4):  373-379. 
    Abstract ( 3088 )   PDF (287KB) ( 914 )     
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    Kairomone activities of crude extract from female accessory glands of Bombyx mori after being treated for 30 min at 25℃, 60℃ and 100℃ were determined. The results showed that the extracted substance had strong attractive activity to Telenomus theophilae for all the 3 temperature treatments. The main grade of response at 60℃ or 100℃ showed no significant different from that at 25℃. This meant that the active substance was resistant to high temperature. At low temperature (4℃,0℃,-20℃or-70℃) the substance kept active for eliciting T. theophilae, but these temperatures could cause deposition of the active component. The amount of deposit at 0℃ was larger than that at 4℃. At -20℃ the active component amounted to 13.1% of the control according to HPLC analysis. This finding of sensitivity to low temperature is very importance for simplifying methods for isolation and purification of the kairomone.
    Impact of temperature and humidity combinations on development of mycosis in Myzus persicae with the entomophthoralean fungus, Zoophthora anhuiensis
    LIU Cai-ling,FENG Ming-guang
    2000, 43(4):  380-387. 
    Abstract ( 3016 )   PDF (353KB) ( 860 )     
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    The development of the mycosis of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), caused by the entomophthoralean fungus, Zoophthora anhuiensis (Li) Humber, at a dosage of 79~90 conidia/mm2, was investigated at regimes of various temperature constant (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30℃) or fluctuating(1.5~16.6℃and 8.5~20.2℃) and relative humidities (50, 65, 80, 90, 95,100% RH).Each of the 42 batches of aphids exposed to spore shower consisted of 30~60.7dayold nymphs and was placed in an incubator at a given regime after being maintained at 20℃ with nearly saturated humidity for 24 h for initiation of infection. During a 19d period of observation, death of aphids caused by Z. anhuiensis occurred at all regimes and the cumulative mortalities differed greatly among the regimes of temperature (F=7.46, P<0.01) or relative humidity (F=12.54, P<0.01). The optimal temperature for the development of mycosis was 20℃ constant or 8.5~20.2℃ fluctuating daily (12.4℃ on average),at which the mortality increased with relative humidity.Among the regimes of 10~25℃ with 100% RH,the increase in temperature had little effect on the cumulative mortality of aphids but greatly affected the developmental rate of mycosis with LT50s being 8.4,7.1,4.0,and 3.4 days at 10,15,20,and 25℃,respectively.Linear regression of 1/LT50 against temperature suggests a threshold temperature of 1.65℃ for the mycosis development.Production of conidia from aphid cadavers required80% RH at 10~15℃ and at the two temperature-fluctuating conditions,and 90% RH at 20~30℃.Resting spores of the fungus were not found in aphid cadavers from any group of the 42 regimes tested.
    A preliminary study on the constitution and succession of insect community on pig carcase in Hangzhou District
    MA Yu-kun1, HU Cui1, MIN Jian-xiong2
    2000, 43(4):  388-393. 
    Abstract ( 3181 )   PDF (263KB) ( 1004 )     
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    A preliminary study on the decomposition and insect community succession of pig carcase was carried out in Hangzhou District. The results showed that the decomposition of pig carcase put on outdoor ground could be distinguished into 5 continuous stages, I. E. fresh, bloated, decayed, dried and remains stages. Thirtythree common insect species of 19 families from 3 orders were found on the pig carcases. Among them, Aldrichina grahami, Lucilia sericata, Lucilia bazini, Chrysomya megacephala, and Parasarcophaga crassipalpis were the dominant ones. A distinct timerelated succession of insect community was observed during the decomposing of pig carcase. There was a distinct correlation between the appearing time of many insect groups and the decomposition stage of pig carcase. This correlation might be used as a foundation for the estimation of postmortem interval in forensic medicine.
    New records and new species of fresh water springtails from China (Collembola)
    YUE Qiao-yun1,FU Rong-shu2
    2000, 43(4):  394-402. 
    Abstract ( 3183 )   PDF (299KB) ( 974 )     
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    Five species including one new species of the fresh water springtails collected from a pond in Shanghai Botanical Garden have been described: Podura aquatica, Hypogastrura yinae sp. Nov., Isotomurus palustris, Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata. Sminthurides aquaticus and Pseudobourletiella spinata are recorded from China for the first time. All the specimens examined are deposited in the Museum of Shanghai Institute of Entomology, the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    A taxonomic study on Kolla from China (Homoptera:Cicadellidae)
    YANG Mao-fa,Li Zi-zhong
    2000, 43(4):  403-412. 
    Abstract ( 3248 )   PDF (409KB) ( 855 )     
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    The paper deals with thirteen species of the genus Kolla Distant from China,of which three are new to science:K.pentistigma sp.nov.,K.nigrifascia sp.nov.,and K.rhabdoma sp.nov..A key to species is given.The type specimens are deposited in Institute of Entomology,Guizhou University.
    Two new species of the genus Midoria Kato from China (Homoptera:Cicadellidae:Ledrinae)
    CAI Ping,JIANG Jia-fu
    2000, 43(4):  413-416. 
    Abstract ( 3085 )   PDF (154KB) ( 845 )     
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    This paper deals with two new species of the genus Midoria Kato,M.hei sp.nov.from Yunnan and M.annulata sp.nov.from Guizhou of China.A key to species is provided.Type specimens are deposited in the Insect Collection of Anhui Agricultural University.
    Two new species of the Coenosia albicornis group from China (Diptera: Muscidae)
    XUE Wan-qi1,YANG Ming1,FENG Yan2
    2000, 43(4):  417-420. 
    Abstract ( 2957 )   PDF (162KB) ( 854 )     
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    This paper describes two new species of Coenosia from China,namely C. unpunctata sp.nov. and C.unguligentilis sp.nov.,both of them belonging to the C.albicornisgroup in sharing the following characters:antenna short,male epiphallus weak,cerci and surstyli slender and longer. Type specimens are kept in Shenyang Normal College.
    A phylogenetic analysis of the family Caligonellidae (Acari: Prostigmata) with descriptions of two new species
    FAN Qing-hai
    2000, 43(4):  421-428. 
    Abstract ( 2537 )   PDF (302KB) ( 1415 )     
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    The phylogenetic relationship of the family Caligonellidae Grandjean is studied. The homonym Sinognathus Fan and Li is replaced with Paraneognathus. The position of four species formerly belonging to the genusNeognathus is discussed. Two new species, Caligonella tunica sp. Nov. and Coptocheles shaowuensis sp. Nov. from Fujian are described.
    Research progress on biosynthesis of sex pheromones in moths
    ZHAO Cheng-hua
    2000, 43(4):  429-439. 
    Abstract ( 3228 )   PDF (587KB) ( 1180 )     
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    This review describes various biosynthetic pathways of femaleproduced moth pheromones based on their chemical structural types. Most of moths produce a variety of unsaturated acetate, aldehyde and alcohol pheromones by a speciesspecific combination of Δ11 or other desaturations, chain shortening reactions, reductions and acetylations or oxidations from endogenous fatty acids. Δ11 desaturase, that plays a predominant role in introduction of a double bond in many pheromones, oxidase and acetyltransferase have been respectively characterized in several moth species, while chain shortening enzyme and reductase have not been characterized. In contrast to above biosynthetic type, other moths biosynthesize their hydrocarbon or it's monoepoxy derivative pheromones by a speciesspecific combination of chain elongations, reductive decarboxylations and epoxydations from exogenous fatty acids. Many moths use a specific ratio of geometric or positional isomers in their pheromones. It has been demonstrated that it is the substrate specificities of one or more key biosynthetic enzymes responsible for the production of specific ratio of pheromone components in several species. Furthermore, the similarities and differences of some key biosynthetic enzymes in different species or genetic strains are compared in order to elucidate the important role of these enzymes in moth evolution.