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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2011, Volume 54 Issue 2
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Immunological and stress response of the hemolymph of Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae to the injection of Escherichia coli
    FENG Cong-Jing, DONG Qiu-An, ZHAI Hui-Feng, CHEN Gen-Bao, YANG Jun-Ming, MIAO Jun-Ling
    2011, 54(2):  117-126. 
    Abstract ( 3968 )   PDF (5244KB) ( 1397 )     
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     In order to explore the mechanism of immunological and stress response of Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée larvae invaded by Escherichia coli, the numbers of total hemocytes, granular hemocytes and plasmatocytes in the 5th instar larvae of O. furnacalis injected with physiological saline, 3×103, 3×104, 3×105 and 3×106 cells/mL E. coli, respectively, were counted, and the activities of phenoloxidase (PO), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR) were determined. The content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) of the hemocytes was also analyzed by flow cytometry (FACS). The results showed that the numbers of total hemocytes, granular hemocytes and plasmatocytes in the 5th instar larvae of O. furnacalis increased significantly in 12 h post injection with 3×105 cells/mL and 3×106 cells/mL E. coli (P<0.01), compared with the control group. The content of ROS in hemocytes also increased at the same time. Injections with 3×104, 3×105 and 3×106 cells/mL E. coli triggered the enhancement of PO activity, and also induced the increase of the activities of GSH-px, GST, and GR in the serum. The results suggest that the abilities of cellular and humoral immunity of O. furnacalis larvae are significantly affected by the injection of E. coli, and the activities of GSH-px, GST and GR are also induced to scavenge the excessive ROS to prevent from the toxic effect of ROS.
    Cloning, expression and histolocalization of an intestinal mucin gene HM72 from Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LIU Xiao-Min, LI Jie, GUO Wei* , XU Da-Qing, ZHANG Xia
    2011, 54(2):  127-135. 
    Abstract ( 3714 )   PDF (4861KB) ( 1293 )     
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    Peritrophic membrane (PM) is an acellular semipermeable membrane secreted by midgut epithelial cells in most insects. The insect intestinal mucin is the most important component of PM. A full-length cDNA clone HM72 encoding an intestinal mucin HM72 was identified by screening Helicoverpa armigera midgut cDNA expression library with the polyclonal antiserum against H. armigera PM proteins. The full-length cDNA of HM72 is 2 888 bp in length (GenBank accession no. HM017910), containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 469 bp, followed by an AT-rich untranslated region and a putative polyadenylation signal (AATTAA) located at 19 bp upstream of the polyA tail. The deduced protein sequences show that the HM72 is an acidic protein, and is synthesized as a preprotein of 823 amino acid residues with a 16-amino acid signal peptide. After removal of the signal peptide, the secreted HM72 protein is predicted to have a molecular weight of 84.2 kDa and isoelectric point of 3.63. The secreted HM72 has five chitin binding domains, one mucin domain and two glycine-aspartic acid-rich domain. HM72 was recombined into pET21b vector, and expressed by IPTG induction. Western blot analysis revealed that HM72 was more abundant in the exuviae, fecal pellets, peritrophic membrane and the midgut of H. armigera, and was secreted by cells from whole midgut. HM72 was not found in the larval fat bodies, integument, malpighian tubules, salivary glands, midgut fluid and hemolymph. This study provides a foundation for the research of bio-control associated novel genes of H. armigera and the perfection of the insect peritrophic membrane theory.
    Effects of low temperature and photoperiod on diapause termination and developmental duration of the overwintering egg of Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    ZHUO De-Gan, LI Zhao-Hui, MEN Xing-Yuan, YU Yi, ZHANG An-Sheng, LI Li-Li, ZHANG Si-Cong
    2011, 54(2):  136-142. 
    Abstract ( 3965 )   PDF (4014KB) ( 1027 )     
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    To understand the effects of temperature and photoperiod on diapause termination and post-diapause development of the overwintering egg of Apolygus lucorum Meyer-Dür, the hatch rate and hatch time of the overwintering egg of A. lucorum at different temperature and different photoperiod were systematically investigated. The results showed that the overwintering eggs of A. lucorum were all diapause eggs, and their diapause termination could be influenced by low temperature and photoperiod. Low temperature (2℃) affected the diapause termination. The time of diapause termination was shortened with the increment of treatment time of low temperature in the 0 to 65 d treatments, and the T50 values of that without low temperature treatment and the treatment for 65 d by low temperature was 68.5 d and 12.5 d, respectively. The diapause termination of overwintering eggs was completed after 65 d of low temperature treatment. The hatch rate of the overwintering eggs increased with the treatment time of low temperature in the 0 to 40 d treatment. The hatch rate of overwintering eggs without low temperature treatment was 68.65% at 25℃ and full light, and 99.46% with low temperature treatment for 40 d. The developmental duration of post-diapause reduced with the increasing of temperature and photoperiod at 20-26℃. The results suggest that low temperature could increase the diapause termination rate of overwintering eggs but is not the necessary condition for diapause termination. Effects of low temperature and nature temperature on the diapause termination were similar. High temperature and long photoperiod may promote the diapause termination of overwintering eggs and reduce their developmental duration.
    Geographic variation in body weight and size of the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    TU Xiao-Yun, XIA Qin-Wen, CHEN Chao, CHEN Yuan-Sheng, KUANG Xian-Ju, XUE FangSen
    2011, 54(2):  143-148. 
    Abstract ( 3648 )   PDF (4572KB) ( 1609 )     
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    To understand geographic variation in body weight and body size in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis Guenée, we compared the body weight and body size of the Asian corn borer, O. furnacalis from four different latitudes: Ledong, Hainan (18.8°N, 109.2°E); Yangshuo, Guangxi (24.8°N, 110.5°E); Nanchang, Jiangxi (28.8°N, 115.9°E); Langfang, Hebei (39.5°N, 116.7°E). And then the relationship between body weight, body size and latitude was analyzed. The results indicated that egg weight of the Asian corn borer gradually increased with an increase in latitude that followed Bergmann’s law, whereas the pupal weight, body length, hind femur length and fore wing length for both female and male gradually decreased with an increase in latitude that followed Converse Bergmann’s law. Fore wing length of the female is significantly longer than that of the male in the four geographic populations and the sexual size dimorphism followed the Rensch’s rule, with the increment of the fore wing length of males relatively larger compared to that of females in populations with large body size. These results further suggest that the geographic variation in body weight and size may be different in different stage in the same species of insects
    Analysis of genetic diversity of different populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae) using microsatellite markers
    WU Zhong-Zheng, LI Hong-Mei, BIN Shu-Ying, SHEN Jian-Mei, HE Hua-Liang, LUO Mei, Ma Jun, LIN Jin-Tian
    2011, 54(2):  149-156. 
    Abstract ( 3442 )   PDF (3814KB) ( 1347 )     
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    To explore the genetic variation, the source of invasion and the dispersal of different geographical populations of Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), the genetic diversity and relationships of 30 B. dorsalis populations consisting of 180 individuals collected from 10 provinces of South China, Thailand, Hawaii, Philippines, and Laos were analyzed with 13 microsatellite loci. The analysis results with the softwares of Popgene32 and NTSYS-pc2.10e showed that the Nei’s genetic identity of 30 B. dorsalis populations was between 0.3599 and 0.9153. A relatively high level of genetic diversity was revealed: H=0.6464±0.1026, I=1.2845±0.2632. UPGMA cluster analysis indicated that the populations from Fujian and Hainan gathered separately into two different clades, the populations from Guangdong and Taiwan gathered into one clade, while the populations from Guangxi, Thailand, Hunan, Yunnan, Laos, Sichuan, Chongqing and Guizhou formed the other one. So it is inferred that the populations from Thailand and Laos were the earliest ones to invade China, Yunnan was the region to be invaded earliest, and Guangxi was probably also among the regions to be invaded early by this pest.
    Morphological adaptation of aphid species on different host plant leaves
    FANG Yan, QIAO Ge-Xia, ZHANG Guang-Xue
    2011, 54(2):  157-178. 
    Abstract ( 5621 )   PDF (26724KB) ( 1705 )     
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     Morphological adaptation of insects to their host plants is an important part of the relationship between the two types of organisms. This paper dealt with herbivorous aphids to study their morphological adaptation on different host plant leaves. Twenty-six aphid species which feed on the leaves of 7 genera host plants belonging to 4 families (Poaceae, Salicaceae, Fagaceae, and Pinaceae) were studied. Based on alate viviparous females and apterous viviparous females, 37 morphological characters were compared and measured by using light microscope. Then the characters were statistically analysed. Based on the clone means, with the variables such as ultimate rostral segments, tarsi and claws which are related to aphid feeding behavior and adhesion on the surfaces of plants, three clustering dendrogram (alate viviparous female, apterous viviparous female, all morph) were output and mapped with host plant families and genera. The results indicated that some characters of the aphids, such as body, siphunculi and antennae, were different among different aphid families, but some of them, such as the ultimate rostral segments, tarsal segments Ⅰ, tarsal segments Ⅱ and claws, varied among different host plant families. The variations of morphologies within species were within a range with their CV (coefficient of variation) between 1.89% and 26.08%. The clustering analysis showed that the aphids were divided into the clusters which were corresponding to certain host plant family/genera; and the positions of Doraphis populi, Epipemphigus imaicus and Pemphigus matsumurai were special, because the first is the secondary host-plant morph and the latter two are the gall makers. The results suggest that the distinct separation of the aphid species with respectively different morphological character variations is corresponding to different host plants whose surface structures are diverse. These prove morphological adaptation of aphids to host plants.
    A taxonomic study of the genus Coptacra Stål, 1873 (Orthoptera: Acridoidea: Catantopidae) from
    YIN Xiang-Chu, YE Bao-Hua, YIN Zhan
    2011, 54(2):  179-183. 
    Abstract ( 3858 )   PDF (2708KB) ( 1089 )     
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    This paper deals with a taxonomic study of Coptacra Stål, 1873 from China, with a description of a new species Coptacra xiai sp. nov. The new species is similar to C. yunnanensis Zhang et Yin, 2002, but the frontal ridge contracted under median ocellus; vertical diameter of eye 2.2 times its horizontal diameter; median vein area of tegmen wider than cubital area; upper ovipositor valves narrow, long and smooth. A key to the known species of the genus Coptacra from China is given. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Hebei University (MHU), China.
    Construction and testing of Automated Fruit Fly Identification System-Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    ZHANG Lei, CHEN Xiao-Lin*, HOU Xin-Wen, LIU Cheng-Lin, FAN Li-Min, WANG Xing-Jian
    2011, 54(2):  184-196. 
    Abstract ( 3972 )   PDF (16828KB) ( 1150 )     
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    Based on Local Binary Pattern (LBP) features of wing and scutum images and the improved Adaboost algorithm, we developed“Automated Fruit Fly Identification System-Bactrocera, AFIS-B” for automatic identification of Bactrocera Macquart (Diptera: Tephritidae). The system consists of seven modules, which includes image acquisition, image cropping, image preprocessing, feature extraction, classifier design, taxa identification and outcome display. The results showed that LBP features are effective to the automatic identification of fruit flies. The AFIS-B system has good accuracy and robustness by identifying 8 Bactrocera spp., and the average recognition rate is more than 80%. We also did preliminary experiments under different conditions, such as inhomogeneous illumination, distorted posture, specimen partly damaged and different sample sizes. The results showed that the system has good robustness for the first three conditions, and the recognition rate usually positively relate to numbers of training sets for each species and negatively relate to the total species numbers. This research provides the theoratical, method and data foundation for the construction and practice of automated identification system of fruit fly, and it also gives a reference to the research and construction of other insects automated identification systems. 
    Progress and application prospect of transgenic silkworm
    ZHOU Qi-Sheng, YU Qi, LIU Qing-Xin
    2011, 54(2):  197-210. 
    Abstract ( 4097 )   PDF (6148KB) ( 2023 )     
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    Methods of insect image segmentation and their application
    WANG Jiang-Ning, JI Li-Qiang
    2011, 54(2):  211-217. 
    Abstract ( 3600 )   PDF (6535KB) ( 1656 )     
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    Automatic identification on insect images is a rapid identification method, and image segmentation is a key process in insect image automatic identification. Based on searching and sorting the recent references on insect image segmentation, we found that the researches on insect image segmentation are increasing rapidly. With the development of image processing technology, all kinds of segmentation methods such as level set, edge-flow and JSEG (a segmentation method integrating shape, color and texture information of images) had been tested in insect image segmentation. Although these methods performed well on their own test sets, there is no sharing image dataset or rules to evaluate these methods. It is necessary to build a system to evaluate the increasing insect image segmentation methods. In this review, we suggest creating some standard datasets and doing researches on evaluation of segmentation methods which are desiderated in insect image segmentation.
    Cloning and quantitative competitive PCR assay of HSP70 gene in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)
    SU Li-Juan, DONG Xiao-Hui, YIN Xin-Ming
    2011, 54(2):  218-223. 
    Abstract ( 3413 )   PDF (5542KB) ( 1324 )     
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     To study the expression changes of heat shock protein 70 (a highly conserved protein) in Tribolium castaneum after exposure to heat stress, a fragment of 681 bp encoding for HSP70 was amplified and sequenced from T. castaneum. The fragment encoded 227 amino acid residues with the GenBank accession no. HM345948. The result of homology analysis showed that this fragment shared 97% identity with hsp70 from L. decemlineata (AF322911.1). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of HSP70 in T. castaneum with those in Leptinotarsa decemlineata, Mamestra brassicae, Drosophila melanogaster and Liriomyza sativae indicated that they shared more than 94% identity. The internal competitor used in quantitative competitive PCR was obtained by RT-PCR. The detection system of hsp70 was constructed by PCR amplification using the same quantity of target cDNA and a series of diluted internal competitor as template. The linear equation of standard curve was Y=1.032X-1.618 (r2=0.975). This study provides a very convenient method for the quantitation of the hsp70 expression changes in T. castaneum and offers the basic data for the prevention and control of pests using thermal control technology.
    TSS identification and cDNA cloning of a cuticular protein gene apd-like from the Western oneybee (Apis mellifera)
    SUN Liang-Xian, HUANG Zhou-Ying, ZHENG Hua-Jun, YOU Yan-Lin
    2011, 54(2):  224-231. 
    Abstract ( 3628 )   PDF (11897KB) ( 1454 )     
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    The apidermin (APD) family, named after three cuticular proteins (apidermin 1-3, APD 1-3) in the Western honeybee, Apis mellifera, is a novel insect structural cuticular protein family. A hypothetical gene locus (LOC727145) was found to be located at the upstream of the reported apd gene cluster in the honeybee genomic sequence. In order to characterize this gene, we mapped its transcription start sites (TSSs) by a group of 5′ LongSAGE tag sequences, and subsequently cloned its cDNA sequences through RT-PCR by using three different 5′LongSAGE tag sequences as the up-stream primers. The cloned cDNA sequences were submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers GU358197, GU358198 and GU358199. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the genomic DNA sequence LOC727145 contains two exons and one intron, where the boundary conforms to the GU/AG rule. The cDNA sequence is extremely GC-rich (70%), and the deduced protein is highly hydrophobic. Five amino acids (Ala, Gly, Pro, Leu and Val) account for 77% of the deduced polypeptide sequence,  and Ala is the most abundant residue (29%). These characters are comparative to APD 1-3. Moreover, the deduced polypeptide sequence has 50% identity with APD-1 protein, and both possess a similar predicted hydrophobic signal peptide at the N-terminal. These results suggest that LOC727145 encodes a novel APD protein. The mapping result of 5′ LongSAGE tag sequences on genome sequence showed that LOC727145 was highly expressed in drone head, and RNA PolⅡ initiated transcription of this gene at six alternative TSSs with different efficiency, and 90% of the mRNA molecules came from a dominant TSS. This research identified a novel apidermin protein, named apidermin-like (apd-like).
    Expression of c-fos-like protein in the gonad of reproductives and workers of Reticulitermes aculabialis (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae)
    SU Xiao-Hong, WEI Yan-Hong, LIU Xiao, CUI Wen-Hao,ZHU Rong
    2011, 54(2):  232-237. 
    Abstract ( 3597 )   PDF (4374KB) ( 1165 )     
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    Proto-oncogene product c-fos protein(Fos) plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth and differentiation.The role of Fos in the regulation of germ cell progression during spermatogenesis and oogenesis has been studied in vertebrates, but little is known about the expression and role of Fos during spermatogenesis and oogenesis in insects. In order to identify c-fos proto-oncogene in different gonad of termites and the difference of germ cell development between non-reproductive and reproductive caste, the expression of Fos was examined in gonads of termite Reticulitermes aculabialis with immunocytochemical localization method. The results showed that c-fos-like protein (Fos-like) existed in the nucleus of oocytes and follicle cells at the growth stage of oogenesis in the last instar nymphs, but its expression was not detected during the oogenesis in workers.During the spermatogenesis of the termite, Fos-like immunopositive substance was localized in spermatogonial nuclei of reproductive adults, no immunoreactivity for Fos-like was detected in spermatogenesis of workers. The results suggest that Fos-like activity exerts a regulatory role in the spermatogenesis and oogenesis of the termite. The spermatogenesis is affected by Fos-like which directly regulates spermatogonial proliferation to form sufficient spermatozoa for fertilization, and Fos-like is also required in follicle cells for oocyte growth. Therefore, the absence of c-fos expression in the germ cells of worker may be one of reasons that the worker caste is curtailed in fertility to functional or complete sterility.
    Behavioral responses of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) to cruciferous vegetables
    GUO Xiang-Ling, HE Yu-Rong, WANG De-Sen, PAN Fei
    2011, 54(2):  238-245. 
    Abstract ( 3986 )   PDF (5095KB) ( 1294 )     
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    In order to clarify the effects of different volatiles of cruciferous vegetables on the host parasitoid searching behavior of Trichogrammatoidea bactrae Nagaraja, the olfactory behavioral responses of T. bactrae to six common species of host plants (Brassica oleracea, Brassica alboglabra, Brassica juncea, Brassica parachinensis, Raphanus sativus and Nasturtium officinale) of Plutella xylostella L. and four varieties of Brassica oleracea plants were investigated with Y-tube olfactometer in the laboratory, and the chemical compositions of six intact vegetable volatiles were analyzed by GC-MS. The results indicated that olfactory responses of T. bactrae were influenced not only by the species of cruciferous vegetables, but also by different varieties of the same vegetable. Female wasps were attracted to six intact plants, and the degree of attraction to different species of plants was significantly different (P<0.05). The female wasps showed the strongest attraction to N. officinale, less attraction to B. oleracea, B. parachinensis and B. juncea, and the least attraction to R. sativus and B. alboglabra. Attractiveness of the undamaged plants of Yashilü variety of B. oleracea to parasitoid was significantly stronger than that of Japan chunxiaqiu variety (P<0.01). GC-MS results showed that the majority of the six plant volatiles were alkane compounds, the next were alkenes, and others included aldehydes, alcohols, esters, acids, ketones and thiazoles compounds. Five aldehydes compounds (2,3-dimethyl-benzaldehyde, octanal, nonanal, undecanal, and dodecanal) accounting for 4.90% of the total volatiles were the unique components from N. officinale. The contents of alkanes (33 kinds) and alcohols (6 kinds) in N. officinale were 47.42% and 5.66%,respectively, higher than those in other vegetables. Of the six species of vegetables, B. oleracea had the highest contents of alkenes (9 kinds, 5.52%) and acids (4 kinds, 12.20%). The research may provide a theoretical basis for the reasonable layout of vegetable varieties and screening attractants of parasitic wasps.
    Bionomics of mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on cotton
    ZHU Yi-Yong, HUANG Fang, LU Yao-Bin*
    2011, 54(2):  246-252. 
    Abstract ( 4825 )   PDF (11590KB) ( 1581 )     
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    A serious invasive exotic mealybug pest, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, has been recently found in China, with a great potential threat to cotton production. In the laboratory, we studied the developmental duration, reproduction and morphology of the mealybug on cotton. The results showed that there are five stages (egg, 1st, 2nd and 3rd instar nymph and adult) in the life cycle of female, while in the male there are six stages (egg, 1st and 2nd instar nymph, pre-pupa, pupa and adult). The egg stage was short; the nymphal stage of the female lasted 15-20 days and the total life span of the female was about 47-59 days, while in the male the nymphal and pupal stage together lasted about 17-22 days and the total life span of the male was about 20-26 days. The longevity of the female was much longer than the male. P. solenopsis has strong fecundity with an egg laying amount per female adult ranging from 200 to 862 (average 458 eggs). Egg, elongate-oval in shape, orange in colour and slightly transparent. First instar nymph, yellowish green in colour, and moves very fast. Second instar nymph, the protuberances on marginal surface of body become visible, anal lobes protrudent; male and female can be differentiated by the dark spots on body surface in late-2nd instar stage. Third instar female nymph, similar to adult female, covered by a thin layer of white waxy powder, with dark dorsomedial bare spots on intersegmental areas of thorax and abdomen from 1st to 4th segment, these areas forming 1 pair of dark longitudinal lines on dorsum. Adult female, oval in shape, covered with a thick layer of white waxy powder; several pairs of dark spots present under the waxy powder on thorax and abdomen, with 18 pairs of lateral wax filaments, posterior 2-3 pairs longer. Male pupa covered in loose white silky cocoon. Adult male, small and blackish brown in colour; antennae long and thin; one pair of transparent fore wings with hind wings degenerated into poiser; and two pairs of abdominal filaments present at the terminal part of the body. The results of this study are the base for the further studies and sustainable control of this serious pest.
    Behavioral and morphological adaptation of Philotrypesis (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Agaonidae) to cavity size of fig fruits
    DOU Lei, ZHOU Mei-Jiao, HU Hao-Yuan, NIU Li-Ming, HUANG Da-Wei
    2011, 54(2):  253-258. 
    Abstract ( 3535 )   PDF (7571KB) ( 1070 )     
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    Most males of fig wasps are restricted to the cavity of fig fruits for the whole life. There are remarkable differences in fig fruit cavities. These differences can constrain the movement of males. It has been shown that the size of cavities of different fig fruits could influence male fighting behavior. We ask whether the size of cavities of fig fruits can constrain the leg morphology and scramble behavior of the male wasps. Thus we collected fig fruits from five fig species in the field during June, 2008 to October, 2009. We investigated leg morphology and scrambling behavior of Philotrypesis spp. inhabited in those fig fruits. Two morphological types were identified according to hindleg tarsi among the males collected from different fig species: type Ⅰ: the basal two hindleg tarsi are close to each other and hindleg middle tarsi are not robustious; type Ⅱ: the basal two hindleg tarsi are separated widely and hindleg middle tarsi are robustious. The results of GLM indicated the differences were remarkable in the ratio of length and width of foreleg femur of the males collected from different fig species (F8, 81=94.86, P<0.001). Males in big fig fruits had slighter foreleg femur and males in small fig fruits, except that M7#c-ben had robustious one. Males scrambled for mating in the fig fruit through robustious forelegs or flexible hindlegs. The results suggest that the size of fig fruit cavity can constrain the movement of Philotrypesis males and influence morphological adaptation of their legs.