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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 February 2013, Volume 56 Issue 2
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    Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a laccase-1 gene from Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    YANG Chun-Hong, PENG Lu, GUO Jian-Yang, YAN Ying, WAN Fang-Hao, WANG Jin-Jun
    2013, 56(2):  111-119. 
    Abstract ( 3573 )   PDF (2976KB) ( 1506 )     
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    Polyphenol oxidase is the predominant enzyme in saliva of piercing-sucking insects. It can interfere with the normal oxidation-reduction reaction in host plants of insects and make food source more acceptable for itself. Insect laccase-1 (lac-1) belongs to the polyphenol oxidase family, and it has been verified that it is involved in the iron homeostasis, immune defense and detoxification. But the function of lac-1 in Bemisia tabaci is not clear. To determine the function of lac-1 gene in different tissues of Bemisia tabaci Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), lac-1 gene in B. tabaci MEAM1 was cloned using RACE method and named Btlac-1 (GenBank accession no. JQ966215). Btlac-1 contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 733 bp encoding 910 amino acids, and the encoded protein has three typical Cu-oxidase domains in polyphenol oxidase family, suggesting that Btlac-1 belongs to blue copper-containing polyphenol oxidase family. Homology analysis showed that Btlac-1 shares 58% amino acid sequence identity with lac-1 genes from Nephotettix cincticeps and Acyrthosiphon pisum. Gene transcript analysis revealed that lac-1 could be expressed at every developmental stage, and the highest expression level was observed at the adult stage, suggesting that lac-1 might play an important role during the adult stage. In addition, the transcriptional level of Btlac-1 in the midgut was higher than those in cephalothorax and abdomen tissues. These results provide clues to further understanding the physiological role of lac-1 in feeding in B. tabaci, and also a basis for exploring the interaction mechanism between piercing-sucking insects and plants.
    Physiological and biochemical changes in naturally overwintering adults of Chrysoperla sinica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) during diapause termination under two different photoperiods
    CHEN Zhen-Zhen, ZHAO Nan, YIN Xiang-Chu, ZHANG Fan, XU Yong-Yu
    2013, 56(2):  120-130. 
    Abstract ( 2575 )   PDF (1782KB) ( 1286 )     
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     In order to clarify the effects of photoperiod on diapause termination and reproductive development of Chrysoperla sinica (Tjeder), the dry weight, supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and the water, protein and glycogen contents in overwintering adults of C. sinica were investigated under the long (15L∶9D) and short  (9L∶15D) photoperiods in the laboratory conditions. The results showed that the dry weight of female adults under the long photoperiod was higher than that under the short photoperiod, contrary to male adults. The water contents of the female and male adults showed an upward tendency under both photoperiods and increased significantly under the long photoperiod (P<0.05). SCP and FP of the female and male adults had no significant differences among the treatments under the short photoperiod, but decreased first and then increased significantly under the long photoperiod (P<0.05). The protein contents of the female adults treated for 15 d and the male adults treated for 10 d under the short photoperiod were significantly lower those under the long photoperiod (P<0.01). The glycogen contents of the male and female adults under the long photoperiod were significantly lower than those under short photoperiod (P<0.01). The univariate analysis showed that the photoperiod had significant effects on SCP, FP and glycogen content of adults during the termination of diapause, however, no significant effects on the dry weight, and water and protein contents. The treatment time had significant effects on the dry weight, SCP, FP, and the water, protein and glycogen contents (P<0.01). The sex only affected significantly the FP and the glycogen content (P<0.05). The interaction of the three factors had significant effects on SCP, FP, and the protein and glycogen contents. The analysis of biochemical compounds in the newly ovipositing adults under different photoperiods showed that the protein and glycogen contents in female and male adults under the long photoperiod were significantly lower than those under the short photoperiod (P<0.01), while the water content in male adults was significantly higher than that in female adults (P<0.01). The results suggest that the overwintering green lacewing could terminate diapause under both long and short photoperiods, with different physiological and biochemical responses during diapause termination.
    Detecting thermal hysteresis activity of the total protein in insects with differential scanning calorimetry
    CUI Ning-Ning, SONG Xi-Ming, ZOU Yuan-Ping, HAO Shu-Guang, XU Yong-Yu, WANG Xian-Hui
    2013, 56(2):  131-135. 
    Abstract ( 3031 )   PDF (4524KB) ( 1395 )     
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     Producing antifreeze proteins is one of the most important mechanisms underlying insect cold tolerance. However, detecting the activity of antifreeze proteins still has some difficulties, especially when only a few of insect samples are available from fields. In order to explore if differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) can be used to detect thermal hysteresis activity (THA) of the total protein in insects, the THA of the total protein and hemolymph from Tenebrio molitor larvae was detected by DSC. The results showed that the THA of the total protein (0.49-0.98℃) is lower than that of hemolymph (2.54-4.34℃) in T. molitor. In addition, we collected three overwintering insect species (Lymantria dispar larvae, Yponomeuta evonymallus eggs and Ips subelongatus adults) in the Daxing’anling Forest Region in Inner Mongolia, and then prepared their total protein. Using DSC, the THA of the total protein from the three insect species were respectively analyzed. The results showed that each of them had thermal hysteresis activity, and the THA was 0.34-0.43℃ for L. dispar, 0.35-0.42℃ for Y. evonymallus and 0.37-0.40℃ for I. subelongatus, suggesting that the three insect species can improve their cold tolerance through producing antifreeze proteins. This study indicates that the differential scanning calorimetry is feasible to identify whether one insect species contains antifreeze proteins through detecting thermal hysteresis activity of the total protein.
    Effects of four fungicides on phenoloxidase activity in Trichogramma ostriniae (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae)
    JIN Hua-Chao, YIN Xiao-Hu, ZHU Guo-Nian
    2013, 56(2):  136-144. 
    Abstract ( 2687 )   PDF (3675KB) ( 1384 )     
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     In this study, the acute toxicity of four fungicides, i.e., triadimefon, trifloxystrobin, prochloraz and phenazino-1-carboxylic acid, to newly emerged adults of Trichogramma ostriniae and their effects on PO activity in these wasps were determined. The results showed that triadimefon had the highest toxicity to this wasp with the LC50 value of 3.27 mg/L, followed by prochloraz, trifloxystrobin and phenazino-1-carboxylic acid with the LC50 values of 6.46, 4.06 and 9.72 mg/L, respectively, and their safety factors are 0.07, 0.10, 0.20 and 1.47, respectively. Phenazino-1-carboxylic acid is so evaluated as with moderate risk, while others are as with high risk to this wasp. PO activities were measured in adults that were previously treated with the four fungicides (in vivo test) and in the crude extracts that were obtained from the untreated adults and treated in vitro with the fungicides (in vitro test), respectively. At sublethal concentrations, these fungicides induced remarkably higher PO activities in vivo than in vitro, showing the obvious dosage effect. At the tested concentrations, triadimefon displayed a much more evident dosage-effect on PO activity than the other three fungicides. The results provide a basis for further exploring PO-based immune mechanisms in parasitoid wasps exposed to fungicides.
    Photoperiod and temperature influence significantly diapause intensity of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuida)
    CHEN Yuan-Sheng, CHEN Chao, LIU Xing-Ping, XUE Fang-Sen
    2013, 56(2):  145-152. 
    Abstract ( 2814 )   PDF (3031KB) ( 1458 )     
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     To understand the geographic adaptation and geographic variation of diapause intensity in different geographic populations of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, the effects of photoperiod and temperature (daylengths of 11-16 h, constant temperatures of 20, 22, 25, 28 and 31℃, and thermoperiod) on diapause intensity of H. armigera from 4 different geographic populations (Guangzhou population, Yongxiu population, Tai’an population, and Kazuo population) were investigated. The results indicated that the photoperiods for diapause induction ranged from 11 to 14 h, and the daylength had a significant influence on diapause intensity. The duration of diapause in the four different geographic populations gradually prolonged with the daylength increasing. The diapause intensity was also affected by the thermoperiod for diapause induction. When the photophase temperature was the same, Guangzhuo population from low latitude showed longer diapause duration at thermoperiod than at constant temperature; there were no significant differences in the duration of diapause between the thermoperiod and constant temperature in Yongxiu population from mid-latitude; on the contrary, the diapause duration induced at thermoperiod temperature was shorter than that at constant temperature in northern Kazuo and Tai’an populations. Temperature during diapause significantly affected diapause duration, at 20-31℃, and the duration of diapause was significantly shortened with the temperature increasing. However, the duration of diapause was also affected by the temperature for diapause induction. Higher constant temperature induced a stronger diapause in northern Kazuo and Tai’an populations.
    Behavioral responses of Hippodamia variegata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to volatiles from plants infested by Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphidae) and analysis of volatile components
    LI Yan-Yan, ZHOU Xiao-Rong, PANG Bao-Ping, HAN Hai-Bin, YAN Feng
    2013, 56(2):  153-160. 
    Abstract ( 2705 )   PDF (1080KB) ( 1430 )     
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    In order to investigate the roles of volatiles from host plants in the process of Hippodamia variegata (Goeze) searching for preys, the behavioral responses of the lady beetle adults to volatiles from Aphis gossypii Glover, intact plants, aphidplant complex and aphidinfested plants were observed with a Y-tube olfactometer. The results showed that the adults were significantly attracted to volatiles from high-density (≥700 individuals/L) aphids, aphid-plant complex, and aphid-infested Cucumis sativus plants (aphid density≥400 individuals/pot) and Cucurbita pepo var. medullosa plants (aphid density≥200 individuals/pot), while not to volatiles from low-density (≤500 individuals/L) aphids and the intact plants. Dynamic headspace collection was used to extract volatiles from the intact plants, aphid-plant complex and aphid-infested plants, respectively, and the extracted volatiles were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight, twelve and eighteen components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. sativus, respectively. The main components include 1-octadecene, [E]-5-eicosene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are p-xylene, 1,2-dimethy-benzene, tridecane, 1-tetradecene, α-farnesene, cedrol, octadecane, hexacosane and other seven unknown components. Eleven, eighteen and twenty components were identified from the extracts of the intact plants, aphid-infested plants and aphid-plant complex of C. pepo var. medullosa, respectively. The main components include α-caryophyllene, 1-octadecene, hexadecane and heptadecane, and aphid-induced components are ethylbenzene, p-xylene, m-xylene, α-pinene, tetradecane, longifolene, α-caryophyllene and other two unknown components. The results lay a necessary foundation for further research on the effective components to attract lady beetles.
    Preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae (Diptera: Tephritidae) to different colors: a quantitative investigation using virtual wavelength (In English)
    XUE Huang-Wa, WU Wei-Jian
    2013, 56(2):  161-166. 
    Abstract ( 3471 )   PDF (15817KB) ( 1772 )     
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     Various colors have been used as visual cues to trap insect pests. For example, yellow traps for monitoring and controlling of the fruit flies have been used for a very long time. However, the chromatic cue of using color traps has never been quantitatively investigated. To reveal which wavelengths are most attractive to the fly, experiments were conducted to evaluate the preferences of Bactrocera cucurbitae to different colors. In this study, RGB values and virtual wavelengths were converted each other based on Dan Bruton’s wavelength to RGB function. Eight color papers were printed by color printer based on RGB values [(0, 213, 255), (0, 255, 146), (54, 255, 0), (129, 255, 0), (195, 255, 0), (255, 255, 0), (255, 190, 0) and (255, 119, 0)] and were chosen to test the color preference of the melon fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae in an octagon maze, and their equivalent wavelengths were 480 nm, 500 nm, 520 nm, 540 nm, 560 nm, 580 nm, 560 nm, and 600 nm, respectively. The color papers with the spectrum between 520-560 nm showed higher attractiveness than the others, and that with the spectrum of 540 nm (chartreuse green, with RGB values of 129, 255, 0) showed the highest attractive rate. In addition, field preference experiment was done to confirm the effect of the chartreuse green color. The results suggest that chartreuse green stimuli (spectrum 540 nm) should be a crucial cue to attract B. cucurbitae, and chartreuse green sticky traps could be a useful device for monitoring and managing B. cucurbitae.
    Biological and morphological observations on Oryctes rhinoceros (Coleoptera: Dynastidae) in the laboratory
    ZHONG Bao-Zhu, Lü Chao-Jun, WANG Dong-Ming, QIN Wei-Quan, LI Hong, WANG Zhi
    2013, 56(2):  167-172. 
    Abstract ( 4459 )   PDF (3553KB) ( 1297 )     
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     【Aim】 To observe systematically the biological and morphological characteristics of Oryctes rhinoceros in the laboratory. 【Methods】 The morphological characteristics and development process of O. rhinoceros fed by the mixture of cow dung and dust (4∶1, m/m) under the laboratory conditions of 26±1℃, RH 75%-95%, and photoperiod 10L∶14D were recorded every 6 hours. and the body length, body width and body weight at different developmental stages were measured. 【Results】 O. rhinoceros is an insect that undergoes complete metamorphosis, and has four developmental stages in the whole life, i.e., egg, larva, pupa and adult. The average egg period, the whole larval period, the pre-pupal and pupal periods of O. rhinoceros were 8.88, 156.82, 9.45, and 33.75 d, respectively, and the generation period was 326 to 455 d. The body length and weight of the 1st instar larvae were 4.16 mm and 0.64 g, those of the 3rd instar larvae were 65.66 mm and 12.14 g, and those of pupae were 51.62 mm and 9.72 g, respectively. Adults emerged at the early stage were larger in body size than those emerged at the late stage. The significant difference was manifested (P≤0.05) in morphological characteristics, such as body length, body width, horn length and weight of adults at different emergence time. O. rhinoceros adults showed sexual dimorphism, and the sex ratio (female to male) of the offsprings was 1.23∶1. 【Conclusion】 O. rhinoceros is an important pest of coconut palm plants, and its biological and morphological studies are the basis of selecting pest prevention and control technologies. The results of this study may provide a theoretical foundation for O. rhinoceros control.
    Plantation management history and coarse woody debris characteristics influence the diversity of saproxylic beetles associated with Chinese cedar in Tianmushan, Zhejiang, East China(In English)
    WU Jie, PAN Hui, YANG Shu-Zhen, NIU Xiao-Ling
    2013, 56(2):  173-185. 
    Abstract ( 2848 )   PDF (6458KB) ( 1314 )     
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    Unreasonable forest management has been proposed as an important causation for the decline of saproxylic beetle diversity. In subtropical regions of China, plantation forests have been widely established to replace natural forests with high diversity. However, our knowledge about the impact of these plantation forests on saproxylic beetle diversity is still very poor. In this study, we compared the composition and diversity of saproxylic beetle assemblages associated with snags of Chinese cedar (Cryptomeria fortunei) in young cedar plantation (YPF) (30-40 year), mature cedar plantation (MPF) (80-100 year), and semi-natural mixed forests (SNMF) (>200 year) in Tianmushan Nature Reserve, Zhejiang province. The results showed that the number of saproxylic beetle individuals was significantly higher in SNMF (97.4±66.7) (mean±SD) than in YPF (39.9±16.3) and MPF (21.9±5.9). However, no significant difference in species richness was found between SNMF (27.9±11.2) and YPF (24.1±3.7). In contrast, the numbers of species and individuals were significantly higher in YPF than in MPF (P<0.05). Both species richness and abundance were significantly related to the volume of coarse woody debris (CWD) in surveyed plots (P<0.05). The canonical correspondence analysis and multi-response permutation procedure analysis confirmed that the saproxylic beetle assemblages were significantly different between forest types (P<0.001). The diameter of sampled snags, CWD diameter and amount, and canopy cover in plots had significant effects on species composition (P<0.05). Analysis of trophic composition also indicated that mycetophagous species were significantly more abundant in SNMF than in plantation forests (P<0.001). The results suggest that improving quantity and quality of CWD habitats in cedar plantations may increase species richness of saproxylic beetles, but the diversity of saproxylic beetles in these plantations may decline in later succession stage. Furthermore, saproxylic beetle assemblages in cedar plantations may remain distinct from those in natural forests.
    Identification of nine cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from China by using the mtCOI PCR-RFLP technique
    QIN Li, WANG Jia, BING Xiao-Li, LIU Shu-Sheng
    2013, 56(2):  186-194. 
    Abstract ( 3530 )   PDF (4514KB) ( 1399 )     
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    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is a species complex containing over 31 cryptic species, some of which are worldwide invasive insect pests. At present, two invasive cryptic species and 13 indigenous cryptic species have been recorded from China. Rapid and efficient methods for identifying cryptic species are important for investigating the population abundance of various cryptic species in the field and development of management strategies. However, apart from the method of sequencing mtCOI and gene sequence BLAST search, an efficient method for indentifying multiple species is still lacking at present. In this study, we adopted the PCR-RFLP technique, using one or more of the five restriction enzymes, namely TaqI, VspI, Van91I, NcoI and FokI, to identify nine whitefly cryptic species from China. The results showed that two cryptic species MEAM1 and China 1 could be identified through digestion with only TaqI, two cryptic species MED and Asia 1 could be identified through sequential digestion with TaqI+NcoI, two cryptic species Asia II 3 and Asia II 9 could be identified through sequential digestion with TaqI+Van91I, and three cryptic species Asia II 1, Asia II 6 and Asia II 7 could be identified through sequential digestion with TaqI+VspI+FokI. This study provides an efficient method for identifying nine cryptic species of B. tabaci from China.
    Detection and phylogenetic analysis of Wolbachia in wheat and soybean aphids in China
    2013, 56(2):  195-200. 
    Abstract ( 3080 )   PDF (1653KB) ( 1252 )     
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     Wolbachia is a group of intracellular symbionts ubiquitous in arthropods. To investigate the Wolbachia infection in Chinese aphids, we amplified the wsp gene of Wolbachia in different geographical populations of three wheat aphids (Sitobion miscanthi, Schizaphis graminum and Rhopalosiphum padi) and one soybean aphid (Aphis glycines) in this study. The results showed that Wolbachia was not detected in the three wheat aphids. In A. glycines, Wolbachia was only detected in two geographical populations of Beijing and Hangzhou, with the infection rates of 95.8% and 22.9%, respectively. Moreover, the sequenced samples were infected with single Wolbachia strain. The Blastn search results showed that wsp gene sequences are similar among Wolbachia strains isolated from A. glycines and from some distantly related host insect species. The wsp gene phylogeny revealed that Wolbachia strains isolated from A. glycines belong to Wolbachia B supergroup, CauB group. This study provides the data for further investigation on host range and strain diversity of Wolbachia in Chinese aphid species.
    Efficacy of nine isolates of Beauveria bassiana against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) (In English
    Hediyeh GOLSHAN, Moosa SABER, Farzad MAJIDI-SHILSAR, Farrokh KARIMI
    2013, 56(2):  201-206. 
    Abstract ( 2688 )   PDF (753KB) ( 2610 )     
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     Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin is one of the most important entomopathogenic fungi and has been widely used for many insect pests all over the world. In this study, the pathogenicity of nine isolates of B. bassiana was evaluated against adults of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). Fifteen adults of the pest were submerged into the four suspensions (1×106, 1×107, 1×108 and 1×109 conidia/mL) of different isolates of B. bassiana for 20 s, and the mortality was recorded daily for 14 d. Results showed that IRAN 440C and IRAN 187C isolates had the lowest (5.04×107 conidia/mL) and highest (5.05×108 conidia/mL) LC50, and DEBI 005 and DEBI 014 isolates had the shortest (2.88 d) and longest (4.96 d) LT50, respectively. According to the LC50 and LT50 values and the mortality, IRAN 440C is a perfect isolate for using in controlling the pest.
    Isolation and identification of cyanogenic glycosides from larval secretions of Achelura yunnanensis (Lepidoptera: Zygaenidae) and the bioactivity against Tapinoma melanocephalum (Hymenoptera: Fromicidae)
    HUANG Sheng-Zhuo1, GONG Wei-Chang, MA Qing-Yun, NIU Yang, MEI Wen-Li, CHEN Gao, ZHAO You-Xing
    2013, 56(2):  207-211. 
    Abstract ( 3650 )   PDF (4694KB) ( 1235 )     
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     In order to research the chemical defence strategies of Achelura yunnanensis larvae, two toxic cyanogenic glycosides, i.e., linamarin and lotaustralin, were isolated and characterized from the secretions of A. yuenanensis larvae by using the chromatography technique including LC and HPLC, and spectroscopy technology. Feeding test showed that linamarin had the antifeedant activity against Tapinoma melanocephalum. We inferred that cyanogenic glycosides in the secretions of A. yuenanensis larvae are derived from the host plants Prunus cerasoides and P. majestic, and are accumulated in glands for chemical defence against natural enemies. The results of this study provide basic chemical clues for studying the coevolution of Achelura moths and their host plants.
    SEM observation on external morphology of Caloglyphus berlesei (Acari: Astigmata: Acaridae) at different developmental stages
    2013, 56(2):  212-218. 
    Abstract ( 3201 )   PDF (3977KB) ( 1238 )     
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     【Aim】 To observe the morphological changes of the live Caloglyphus berlesei and the ultra-structure under scanning electron microscope (SEM) at different developmental stages. 【Methods】 C. berlesei specimens were isolated from the bed feedsduff in an Eupolyphaga sinensis breeding farm, and rinsed with double distilled water. One portion of the isolations were used for slide preparation in the conventional manner and immediately observed under light microscope, and the other was fixed with 2.5% glutaraldehyde solution and washed once again with 75% alcohol. By critical-point drying, the specimens were observed under SEM for the ultrastructure characteristics at different developmental stages including egg, larva, nymph and adult. 【Results】 Morphological variations of C. berlesei, including its legs, setae, external genitalia and accessories, are clearly identified under SEM. The larva has three pairs of legs, without leaf-like setae, yet its coxal rod is well-developed. By nymphal stage, four pairs of legs and the 4th dorsal seta arise, whereas the genital area looks still under-developed. At hypopus, the claws and tarsules are well-built, and leaf-like setae, setae of tibia and setae of genu are seen. One pair of suckers and setas are located on both sides of the genital plates which are ossified obviously. There are 4 pairs of suckers, single sucker and 2 pairs of round-like bulge in sucker plate. The genital sense organ of adults exhibits itself with cordiform external aspect and typical ossification texture, wherease the male is dissimilar with the female regarding seta number on the genital sense organ. 【Conclusion】 Description of the morphology and ultrastructure of C. berlesei provides important information for the taxonomy and further study of its life history as well as basis for controlling the allergic disorders due to infection of this pest.