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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 June 2014, Volume 57 Issue 6
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of rapid cold hardening in different intensities on the physiological indices related to cold tolerance in adults of Ophraella communa (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
    YUE Lei, ZHOU Zhong-Shi, LIU Zhi-Bang, GUO Jian-Ying, WAN Fang-Hao
    2014, 57(6):  631-638. 
    Abstract ( 1982 )   PDF (1541KB) ( 1169 )     
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    【Aim】 As an effective approach adapting to acute temperature fluctuation and short-term cold shock, rapid cold hardening (RCH) can enhance cold resistance of some insects in a very short period. We explored the physiological mechanisms responding to RCH in different intensities in Ophraella communa, which is a promising biological control agent for invasive Ambrosia artemisiifolia. 【Methods】 O. communaadults were subjected to different intensities of RCH, including being exposed to -4, 0, 4 and 8℃ for 4 h, or exposed to 0℃ for 1, 4, 8 and 16 h. The contents of cryprotectants and the activities of protective enzymes were measured. 【Results】 The supercooling point (SCP) of O. communa adults was significantly depressed by RCH (P<0.05), particularly at 0℃/4 h, with the exception of the groups of 8℃/4 h, 0℃/1 h and 0℃/8 h. With the augment of RCH intensity (decrease of the treated temperature or increase of the sustained time), the glycerol content and the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) changed notably, especially at 0℃/4 h, though water and sugar contents were not significantly changed by RCH. 【Conclusion】 There exist the threshold and the optimum induction intensity of RCH in O. communa adults, and excessive intensities may be harmful for enhancement of cold tolerance in O. communa adults. The results are helpful to better understanding the overwintering strategies of O. communaand the artificial cultivation of cold-tolerant population
    Effects of diapause-inducing thermoperiod on the physiological indices of diapause larvae of Carposina sasakii (Lepidoptera: Carposinidae)
    LI Rui, ZHAO Fei, PENG Yu, LIANG Li-Na, ZHANG Bo, HAN Ju-Cai, MA Chun-Sen
    2014, 57(6):  639-646. 
    Abstract ( 2087 )   PDF (1999KB) ( 1116 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the effects of autumn warming on cold tolerance of the peach fruit moth, Carposina sasakii Matsumura, a series of physiological parameters of larvae of the moth during diapause induction were investigated. 【Methods】 By using climatic chambers, the diapause of larvae of C. sasakii was induced under 9 alternating temperature regimes, i.e., 26-18, 26-20, 26-22, 28-18, 28-20, 28-22, 30-18, 30-20 and 30-22℃ (10 h high temperature, 14 h low temperature, RH 70%-80%, photoperiod 12L∶12D). The supercooling point (SCP), freezing point (FP), and the contents of water, fat and small molecular sugar alcohols in diapause larvae were investigated. 【Results】 The alternating temperature had no effect on diapause rates of larvaeunder suitable photoperiods, and all mature larvae from the fruit entered diapause. SCP and FP increased with daytime temperature increasing (SCP: F135, 2=23.83, P<0.001; FP: F135, 2=47.64, P<0.0001), and decreased significantly with the increase of nighttime temperature (SCP: F135, 2=52.88,P<0.0001; FP: F135, 2=33.34, P<0.0001). Water contents increased with nighttime and daytime temperature increasing (nighttime: F135,2=13.47, P<0.0001; daytime: F135, 2=10.39,P<0.0001), whereas the contents of fat decreased with nighttime increasing (F135, 2=40.91, P<0.0001) and increased with the increase of daytime temperature (F135, 2=161.18, P<0.0001). Contents of small molecular sugar alcohols varied with temperature (P<0.0001). The contents of trehalose, glucose and erythritol decreased with nighttime temperature increasing, but the contents of trehalose and erythritol increased with nighttime temperature increasing at daytime temperature 30℃, and the contents of glucose were not different. The glycerol contents increased with daytime temperature increasing and decreased with nighttime temperature increasing. The inositol and sorbitol contents were rotably different at different daytime or nighttime temperatures. 【Conclusion】 The SCP, FP, and the contents of water, fat and small molecular sugar alcohols in diapause larvae of C. sasakii are different at different diapause induction temperature. Diapause induction temperature plays an important role in diapause physiology of C. sasakii, and the initial physiological differences of diapause larvae may affect their overwintering.
    Comparative analysis of the copy numbers of hsp70 and hsp90 in Trialeurodes vaporariorum and three cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    WEI Jiao, Lü Zhi-Chuang, WANG Ren, WAN Fang-Hao
    2014, 57(6):  647-655. 
    Abstract ( 2413 )   PDF (1127KB) ( 1116 )     
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    【Aim Insects’ ability to adapt to new environment is closely related to their tolerance to different temperatures. Heat shock proteins HSP70 and HSP90 play important roles in improving stress resistance in insects, especially the thermo tolerance. Different whitefly species and different cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci complex show different tolerance to temperature stress, which may be related to the difference in the copy numbers of the Hsp genes of these species. 【Methods】 The copy numbers of hsp70 and hsp90 in Trialeurodes vaporariorum and three cryptic species (two invasive species MED and MEAM1, and one native species Asia Ⅱ 1) of B. tabaci complex were detected by using absolute real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The results showed that there was great difference in the copy numbers of both hsp70 and hsp90 among different species. The copy numbers of hsp70 and hsp90in MED and MEAM1 cryptic species were much higher than those in T. vaporariorum and Asia Ⅱ 1, and those in Asia Ⅱ 1 were the lowest. Moreover, for the same species the copy numbers of hsp70 and hsp90 in female whiteflies were 2-fold as high as those in male adults. 【Conclusion】 There is a relationship between the copy numbers of Hsp genes and thermal tolerance in B. tabaci cryptic species and T. vaporariorum. The results provide further information in understanding the mechanisms of different heat tolerance for different species or different sexes of whiteflies
    Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of cytochrome P450 gene CYP4C62 from Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    SUN Hai-Xia, CHEN Jun, YANG Zhi-Fan
    2014, 57(6):  656-662. 
    Abstract ( 2949 )   PDF (1854KB) ( 1184 )     
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    【Aim】 The cytochrome P450s are important metabolic enzymes in insects because of their involvement in the growth and development of insects and their adaptation to environments. 【Methods】 In this study, we cloned the open reading frame (ORF, excluding the coding sequence for the N-terminal signal peptide) of Nilaparvata lugens P450 gene CYP4C62 and expressed it in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein was purified by Ni-NTA agarose gel affinity system. Polyclonal antibody of CYP4C62 was then generated by immunization of the Japanese white male rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with the purified protein. The antibody titer was monitored by indirect ELISA. The immune specificity of the antibody was determined by Western blot hybridization. 【Results】 The results showed that the relative molecular weight of the recombinant CYP4C62 protein is about 56 kD. The antibody titer was estimated as high as 1∶100 000 dilution ratio detected by indirect ELISA. Western blotting analysis showed that the antibody could bind specifically both the heterogeneously expressed CYP4C62 protein and the endogenous CYP4C62 from N. lugens. 【Conclusion】 This study lays a foundation for further investigation of CYP4C62 expression levels in various tissues of N. lugens, localization of the protein at tissue, cellular and subcellular levels by immunohistochemisty, and ultimately revealing its biological function.
    Identification and bioinformatics analysis of genes of the CYP6Y subfamily in Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae)
    TANG Yao, QIAO Liang, ZHANG Yu-Juan, CHE Yan-Fei, HONG Rui, CHEN Bin
    2014, 57(6):  663-672. 
    Abstract ( 2006 )   PDF (5465KB) ( 1741 )     
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    【Aim】 To identify genes of the CYP6Y subfamily in Anopheles sinensis, analyze their structure and characteristics, and deduce their possible functions. 【Method】 The CYP6Ys cDNA transcripts were retrieved and identified by two ways of Blasts using An. gambiae CYP6Y1 as query sequence against the transcriptome data of An. sinensis. The structure, characteristics and possible functions of the CYP6Y genes identified were analyzed using bioinformatics methods. 【Results】 Two genes of the CYP6Y subfamily were identified from An. sinensis transcriptome sequencing data, and named as AsCYP6Y1 (GenBank accession number: KF709397) and AsCYP6Y2 (GenBank accession number: KF709398) , respectively. Sequence analysis showed that AsCYP6Y1 and AsCYP6Y2 are 1 713 bp and 1 815 bp in length, encoding 502 and 526 amino acids, respectively. Gene structure analysis showed that the genes of this subfamily only contain one phase “1” intron and form a conserved synteny with other P450 genes. Protein structure prediction showed that the encoded proteins of these two genes contain five P450 characteristic sequences and six specific substrate binding sites, but have no signal peptide sequence, and are localized in cytoplasm. The 3D structural prediction showed that AsCYP6Y1 has 18 α-helix and 13 anti-parallel β-strands, while AsCYP6Y2 has 19 αhelix and 11 antiparallel βstrands. Two CYP6Y genes were also identified in An. darlingi using the same method. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AsCYP6Y1 and AsCYP6Y2 are grouped with CYP6Y1 and CYP6Y2 of other Anopheles species, respectively, with the bootstrap values greater than 90%. The Ka/Ks ratio analysis showed that the Ka/Ks ratio of AsCYP6Y1 and AsCYP6Y2 compared with CYP6Y1 and CYP6Y2 of other Anopheles species were all less than 1. The relative evolutionary rate test showed that the rates of subfamilies CYP6Y and CYP6M were significantly higher than those of the subfamily CYP6P in An. sinensis, while no significant difference between subfamilies CYP6Y and CYP6M was observed. 【Conclusion】 Two genes of the CYP6Y subfamily have been identified and characterized in An. sinensis and An. darlingi, which had earlier been found in two other Anopheles species (An. gambiae and An. funestus), suggesting the wide and specific existence of the genes of the CYP6Y subfamily in Anopheles.
    Cloning and developmental expression analysis of an apoptosis gene hid in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    CAI Yu-Yin, WU Qiang, LIU Gui-Qing, Lü Zhi-Chuang, LI Jian-Wei, ZHANG Gui-Fen, WAN Fang-Hao
    2014, 57(6):  673-680. 
    Abstract ( 2520 )   PDF (2406KB) ( 1190 )     
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    【Aim】 Apoptosis is an active process that cells kill themselves automatically, and it is also referred to as programmed cell death (PCD). Head involution defective (hid) belongs to the RHG gene family whose members are primary regulators of PCD in insects due to their antagonistic effect on inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs).The aim of this study was to explore the expression pattern of hid in the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis at different developmental stages. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of hid was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE from B. dorsalis. The transcriptional level was analyzed by realtime quantitative PCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA sequence of hid from B. dorsalis was cloned, which was named as Bdhid (GenBank accession number: KJ461670), with a 1 029 bp open reading frame encoding 342 amino acids. It has the N-terminal IAP-binding-motif (IBM) and the C-terminal Grim Helix 3 motif (GH3) in its amino acid sequence, exhibiting high conservation with the known hid genes from other dipterans. The mRNA expression level of Bdhid was low in larvae and relatively higher in pupae and adults. 【Conclusion】 The results provide a foundation for further research of hid in insect apoptosis and for the development of conditional lethality strains by transgenic approaches.
    Morphology, type and distribution of the labial-palp pit organ and its sensilla in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    DONG Jun-Feng, LIU Hui, TANG Qing-Bo, LIU Yang, ZHAO Xin-Cheng, WANG Gui-Rong
    2014, 57(6):  681-687. 
    Abstract ( 2145 )   PDF (2046KB) ( 1140 )     
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    【Aim】 To characterize the morphology of the labial palp and the labial-palp pit organ (LPO), including the morphology, type and distribution of LPO sensilla in the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata Walker. 【Methods】 Light and scanning electron microscopy was used to observe the labial palp, the LPO and the LPO sensilla of M. separata adults. 【Results】 The results showed that the labial palp of M. separata adult is a cylindrical appendage with three segments. Each segment varies in length and the 2nd one is the longest. The labial palp shows sexual dimorphism, and in females its length is 2 463.50±143.65 μm, while in males its length is 2 566.11±70.28 μm (t=2.722, df=34, P=0.012). The pit organ located on the 3rd segment of the labial palp is about 280 μm deep, 50 μm wide at the opening and 32 μm wide inside the pit, with no significant differences between females and males. Two sensillum types were found in both sexes, i.e., hair-shaped and club-shaped sensilla, which are located on the upper and lower of the pit, respectively. The hair-shaped sensilla are significantly shorter in females (18.20±0.84 μm) than in males (21.24 ± 0.34 μm) (t=3.335, df=30, P=0.003). The other main type, the club-shaped sensilla, on the other hand, are significantly longer in females (14.69±0.48 μm) than in males (12.31±0.49 μm) (t=3.452, df=21, P=0.002). 【Conclusion】 The LPO sensilla of M. separata belong to two morphological types, both showing sexual dimorphism in length. The results of this study about the morphological properties of the LPO sensilla provide basic knowledge for further investigation on their physiology and function. 
    Acute toxicity and risk assessment of triazole fungicides to adult wasps of threeTrichogramma species (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammidae)
    ZHU Xiao-Xiang, CANG Tao, WANG Yan-Hua, WU Chang-Xing, ZHAO Xue-Ping, WANG Qiang
    2014, 57(6):  688-695. 
    Abstract ( 2442 )   PDF (870KB) ( 976 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the side effects of triazole fungicides to trichogrammatid wasps. 【Methods】 Acute toxicities of triazoles to adult Trichogramma japonicum Ashmead, T. ostriniae Pang et Chen and T. confusum Viggiani were determined by using the dry film residue method under laboratory conditions, and the safety of these fungicides was also evaluated. 【Results】 Among the triazoles tested, epoxiconazle showed the highest intrinsic toxicity, with the LC50 values of 12.38 (11.34-13.60), 12.34 (10.34-15.07) and 41.12 (37.75-45.05) mg a.i/L against adult wasps of T. japonicum, T. confusum and T. ostriniae, respectively. Difenoconazole and ipconazole had the less toxicity, with the LC50 values ranging from 507.14 (464.79-556.48) to 2 246.93 (1 866.65-2 755.12) mg a.i/L. Cyproconazole, hexaconazole and tebuconazole exhibited the least toxicity, with the LC50 values ranging from 5 970.03 (5 062.21-7 093.93) to 11 712.34 (9 941.23-14 026.12) mg a.i/L. The results of risk assessment showed that epoxiconazole was classified as high risk to adult wasps of the three Trichogramma species with the safety factors of 0.10-0.34. Difenoconazole was ranked as moderate risk to adult wasps of T. confusum with the safety factor of 3.96, while this fungicide was classified as low risk to adult wasps of T. japonicum and T. ostriniae with the safety factors of 8.13 and 7.69, respectively. Cyproconazole, hexaconazole and tebuconazole to adult wasps of the three Trichogramma species were ranked as low risk with the safety factors of 7.31-107.74. 【Conclusion】 Some triazole fungicides have the potential risk of acute toxicity to tvichogrammatid wasps, so the use of triazoles, especially epoxiconazole, should be evaluated carefully in integrated pest management (IPM) programs in order to avoid serious damages to triching ogrammatid wasps.
    Impact of short-term high temperature on adult survival and fitness of the oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) (In English)
    CHEN Hao, FANG Cheng, XU XiangLi, WU Jun-Xiang
    2014, 57(6):  696-702. 
    Abstract ( 2529 )   PDF (1238KB) ( 898 )     
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    【Aim】 The oriental fruit moth,Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a worldwide fruit pest, causing serious loss to fruit productivity. Our study aims to explore the thermal tolerance and adaptability of G. molesta adults after exposure to short-term high temperature. 【Methods】 The survival rate of G. molesta adults exposed to various temperatures (36, 38, 40, 42, 44 and 46℃) for different time durations (0.5, 1, 2, 4 and 8 h), and the effects of shortterm high temperature exposure (heat hardening at 38 or 40℃ for 1 h) on their thermal tolerance, longevity, fecundity, and egg hatchability were investigated. 【Results】 The results showed that the survival rate of G. molesta adults was reduced with the increase of exposure duration to high temperature. The survival rate of G. molesta adults at 42℃ was significantly improved after adults were subjected to heat hardening at 38℃ or 42℃ for 1 h (P<0.05). After treatment at 41℃ for 1 h, G. molesta adults were heat shocked, with longer life span and less fecundity. The further study confirmed that the male adults were greatly affected by high temperature, resulting in the reduction of eggs laid by female adults paired. Nevertheless, there was no remarkable difference in egg hatchability in different treatments though their parents underwent thermal stress. 【Conclusion】 These results suggest that high temperature exceeding 41℃ for 1 h causes negative effects to G. molesta adults, but G. molesta adults have a relatively high thermal tolerance and the potential to adapt to high temperatures.
    Locomotive behavior and damaging mechanism of adult Apopestes spectrum (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on mural surface in a simulated cave of Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang
    WANG Wan-Fu, JI Ai-Hong, WU Fa-Si, YAN Jun-Feng, ZHAO Lin-Yi, ZHANG Guo-Bin, LIN Chuang-Ye
    2014, 57(6):  703-709. 
    Abstract ( 2092 )   PDF (1698KB) ( 1044 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to elucidate the creeping behavior on simulated murals of Apopestes spectrum (Esper), a dominant insect pest in Mogao Grottoes, Dunhuang, so to reveal the damage process and mechanism caused by insects to wall paintings. 【Methods】 The simulated murals were made according to the technology of ancient Dunhuang murals. The scanning electronic microscope was used to observe the microscopic morphology of A. spectrum adult crawling tarsus, the quantitative analysis was used to determine the adult wing scales and degree of pollution to murals, and the observation platform was used to record the dynamics of A. spectrum adult crawling vertically on the simulated murals. Moreover, the relationship between creeping parameters and surface roughness of murals was analyzed. 【Results】 The results showed that thoracic legs of the moth could adhere and move on mural surface by the coordination of claws, arolium, unguitractor and microtrichia, and had strong ability to creep on vertical surfaces. A. spectrum adults could creep stably on mural surface by adjusting their locomotive gait pattern. Furthermore, the roughness of murals determined whether the wing flapping was necessary for A. spectrum adults, which increased the motivation forces to make them creep stably on vertical simulated mural surfaces. 【Conclusion】 Both contact shock of claws and wings flutter of A. spectrum adults can cause damages to murals, which present more risks for wall paintings with diseases such as flaking, disruption and falling off.
    Molecular phylogenetic study of the higher taxa of the superfamily Cerambycoidea (Insecta: Coleoptera) based on the combined analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences
    WEI Zi-Han, YIN Xin-Ming, AN Shi-Heng, SU Li-Juan, LI Jing, ZHANG Hong-Fei
    2014, 57(6):  710-720. 
    Abstract ( 2370 )   PDF (4141KB) ( 1341 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the molecular phylogeny of higher taxa of the superfamily Cerambycoidea by using the combined analysis of ribosomal DNA sequences. 【Methods】 Ribosomal 28S rDNA (D2 and D3 region) and 18S rDNA (V4 and V7 region) sequences from total 63 species representing six subfamilies and two families of Cerambycoidea were chosen as the molecular markers and further sequenced. Phylogenetic trees for the two families and six subfamilies of Cerambycoidea were constructed using Neighbor-Jointing (NJ), Maximum-Likelihood (ML) and Bayesian-Inference (BI) methods. 【Results】 Sequence analysis results indicated that 1 404 sites after alignment consisted of 446 variable sites (32.0%) and 958 conserved sites (68.0%). The transition versus transversion ratio (R value) was 1.73. Saturation plot indicated that combined analysis had better linear relation than the single gene analysis, suggesting that the base mutations have not reached saturation. Phylogenetic trees based on NJ, ML and BI methods showed similar topology, suggesting that Lamiinae, Cerambycinae and Lepturinae were all monophyletic group, which was consistent with the results of the traditional morphology. Our results supported the subfamilial placement of Philinae. 【Conclusion】 We successfully reconstructed the phylogenetic trees of higher taxa of Cerambycoidea based on 28S rDNA (D2 and D3 region) and 18S rDNA (V4 and V7 region) sequences. This study confirms that the combined analysis of sequences is an effective method for studying the higher taxonomy of longicorn beetles.
    Three new species and a key to species of the genus Sinopodisma Chang, 1940 (Orthoptra, Acridoidea, Catantopidae, Podisminae) from Taiwan, China  (In English)
    YIN Xiang-Chu, YE Bao-Hua, YIN Zhan
    2014, 57(6):  721-728. 
    Abstract ( 2879 )   PDF (3905KB) ( 850 )     
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    Three new species of the genus Sinopodisma Chang, 1940 from Taiwan, China are described in this paper. The new species Sinopodisma huangi sp. nov. is similar to Sinopodisma shirakii (Tinkham, 1936), but differs from the latter by the postocular black band with oblong tape in pronotum and body larger, ♂21.3-21.6 mm, ♀ 29.3 mm. The new species Sinopodisma xui sp. nov. is allied to Sinopodisma huangi sp. nov., but differs from the latter by pronotum without black longitudinal stripe along median keel, hind margin of pronotum with hollow slightly in the middle, black postocular band with twill tape in pronotum and length of interspace of mesosternum equal to the narrowest. The new species Sinopodisma yangi sp. nov. is allied to Sinopodisma formosana  (Shirakii, 1910), but differs from the latter by body slender, postocular band black with oblong tape in pronotum, backward extending to the end of abdomen and length of interspace of mesosternum 1.2 times the narrowest. A key to eight species of the genus from Taiwan is given. Type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung, Taiwan, China and the Institute of Entomology, Taiwan University, Taibei, Taiwan, China, respectively. 
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    ATP-binding cassette transporters and their mediated resistance to insecticides in arthropods
    QI Wei-Ping, MA Xiao-Li, HE Wei-Yi, CHEN Wei, DONG Ren-Fu, YOU Min-Sheng
    2014, 57(6):  729-736. 
    Abstract ( 2149 )   PDF (692KB) ( 1279 )     
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    ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are a recently documented family of detoxification-involved enzymes following cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and carboxylesterases (COEs). Over the last few years, these enzymes have been getting broad recognition and receiving extensive attention because of their important functions in the detoxification of insecticides. The ABC transporter is one of the major transmembrane protein families, which comprises four core domains with two highly conserved domains or nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and two highly hydrophobic transmembrane domains (TMDs). In arthropods, the ABC transporter gene family can be divided into eight subfamilies (ABCA-ABCH), which vary in the number of members and their functions, based on the similarity of amino acid sequences and the conserved domains. These proteins are distributed in all living organisms on earth, and exhibit many vital roles including substrate transporters, signal transduction, cell-surface receptor, and special roles in DNA repair, translation and regulation of gene expression. In addition, recent advances in this area have shown that the mutation and/or overexpression of ABC transporters in arthropods are associated with the resistance of both pesticides and Bt toxins. In fact, they may potentially threaten the sustainability of Bt crops. This article presents an overview on the molecular structure and ATP-driven functions of the ABC transporters, and also the classification, molecular structure and physiological functions of the ABC-transporter subfamilies. We also described the research progress made on insecticide resistance mechanisms mediated by the ABC transporters in hoping to provide some basis for improving monitoring and management strategies of the insecticides used for pest control in agroecosystems.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Observations on the external morphology of different developmental stages of Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Sarcoptiformes: Chotoglyphidae) 
    LIU Ting, JIN Dao-Chao
    2014, 57(6):  737-744. 
    Abstract ( 2480 )   PDF (3517KB) ( 1074 )     
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    【Aim】 To observe and understand the main morphological characteristics and ultrastructure of different developmental stages of Chortoglyphus arcuatus. 【Methods】 Pure experimental population of C. arcuatus was fed with brewer’s yeast powder. Then, morphological characteristics of the mites at different developmental stages were observed in detail under the stereomicroscope, optical microscope and scanning electron microscope, respectively. 【Results】 Body color is bright pale red brown in adult stage, while milky white in other developmental stages. The idiosoma is firm with oval outline. The dorsal transverse groove is absent between the propodosoma and the hysterosoma. The chelicera is well developed with shears-shaped chela bearing distinct tooth and striae. The basal region of venter of gnathosoma has fine transverse striae. External vertical setae are clearly pectinate. All the body setae are short and smooth. The genital opening of the female is covered by paired and sclerotized genital plates between coxae Ⅲ and Ⅳ, of which posterior margins are smooth and bowlike curved. The penis of the male is long, curved and tube-liked, and located between coxaeⅠand Ⅱ. Anal suckers are funnel-shaped. Tarsal suckers are present. 【Conclusion】 Some characteristics or features, such as body color at egg, larval and nymphal stage, decoration on dorsal chelicerae and ventral gnathosoma, of C. arcuatus observed are the important additions to what described in early literatures and helpful for fast identification and taxonomic study of the mite and its relatives.
    CONTENTS
    Content of Volume 57 Issue 6
    2014, 57(6):  745. 
    Abstract ( 1340 )   PDF (454KB) ( 798 )     
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