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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2014, Volume 57 Issue 9
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    Molecular characterization and expression analysis of metal responsive transcription factor-1 gene OcMTF-1 from Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)
    REN Li-Xian, YU Zhi-Tao, LIU Xiao-Jian, ZHANG Jian-Zhen, MA En-Bo, GUO Ya-Ping
    2014, 57(9):  1001-1007. 
    Abstract ( 2284 )   PDF (6383KB) ( 1046 )     
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    【Aim】 The metal responsive transcription factor-1 (MTF-1) is a pluripotent transcriptional regulator, which plays an important role in the body response to heavy metals and hypoxia or oxidative stress. This study aims to determine the expression profiles of MTF-1 gene in different tissues and developmental stages of the Chinese rice grasshopper, Oxya chinensis. 【Methods】 The cDNA fragment of MTF-1 was obtained from the transcriptome database of O. chinensis, and its 5′ and 3′ sequences were cloned using RACE methods. The structure prediction, sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the coding product of this gene were performed using different bioinformatics softwares. Based on the cloned mRNA nucleotide sequences of MTF-1, specific primers were designed to analyze its developmental and tissuespecific expression patterns using RT-qPCR. 【Results】 The full length cDNA of MTF-1 from O. chinensis was cloned and named OcMTF-1 (GenBank number: KM017748). Its length is 1 834 bp, with a 1 527 bp open reading frame encoding a 508amino acid polypeptide. It has six C2H2- type zinc finger regions only and no other activating domains were identified. Multiple alignments revealed that the zinc finger domain is conserved at the N terminus of OcMTF-1 and MTF-1 proteins from other species. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression level of OcMTF-1 was the highest in the Malpighian tubules, moderate in the hindgut and fat body, and the lowest in other tissues. OcMTF-1 was expressed at both the 1st to 5th instar nymphal stages and adult stage. 【Conclusion】 In this study, we cloned a full length sequence of OcMTF-1 cDNA, and the zinc finger domain at the N terminus of OcMTF-1 has high sequence identity with MTF-1 proteins from other insects. OcMTF-1 was highest expressed in the Malpighian tubules, and expressed in all the developmental stages with the highest expression level in the 1st instar nymph. The results provided a foundation for further research on the mechanism of gene regulation of OcMTF-1.
    cDNA cloning, sequence analysis and prokaryotic expression of a serine protease from the midgut of Heliothis viriplaca (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHOU Xiao-Qun, GAO Yan-Ling, ZHAO Kui-Jun, FAN Dong
    2014, 57(9):  1008-1017. 
    Abstract ( 2435 )   PDF (13113KB) ( 888 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to obtain the full length cDNA sequence of serine protease (SP) from the midgut of Heliothis viriplaca and determine the activity of SP expressed in prokaryotic expression system after purification and renaturation process. 【Methods】The full length cDNA sequence of SP was amplified from the midgut of larval H. viriplaca by RT-PCR and RACE technique, and then the cDNA sequence was expressed in Escherichia coli expression system. After being purified, the recombinant protein was renatured using gradient dialysis technique. The activity of renatured protein was determined with BApNA as the substrate. 【Results】 The cloned SP cDNA sequence from the midgut of H. viriplaca was named as HvSP (GenBank accession no.:JX866720). The full length cDNA sequence of HvSP is 880 bp in length with an open reading frame of 762 bp, encoding 254 amino acid residues with the predicted molecular weight of 26.9 kDa and pI of 9.49. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that HvSP shares 52%-95% amino acid sequence identities with SPs from other lepidopteran insects, and shares the highest amino acid sequence identity (95%) with SP from Helicoverpa armigera (GenBank accession no.: CAA72962). The recombinant vector pET21b-HvSP was expressed in prokaryotic expression system, and the recombinant protein was determined as the target protein using Western-blot analysis. Protein solubility analysis indicated that the recombinant protein was inclusion body protein. The renatured recombinant protein had the highest activity (35.74 U/mL) when the pH was 10.0 in Glycine-NaOH buffer. 【Conclusion】 A novel serine protease cDNA sequence was obtained from H. viriplaca, and recombinant protein expressed in E. coli expression system was active after denaturation, purification and renaturation processes. The results provide a foundation for further research of physiological function of serine protease in lepidopteran insects.
    Nonlinear quantitative structureactivity relationship of the aromatic carboxylic acid repellents
    LI Ke, LI Xiang-Hui, XU Xi-Lin, YUAN Zhe-Ming
    2014, 57(9):  1018-1024. 
    Abstract ( 2172 )   PDF (4671KB) ( 684 )     
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    【Aim】 Repellent can protect the users by driving target pests away from them. It is important to establish a nonlinear quantitative structureactivity relationship (QSAR) model with high precision and strong interpretation for designing and synthesizing the new insect repellent with higher bioactivity. 【Methods】 Based on the repellent activities of 37 aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives against the housefly, Musca domestica, the initial descriptors were generated with stoichiometry software PCLIENT, and then the binary matrix shuffling filter (BMSF) and worst descriptor elimination multi round method (WDEM) were successively used to conduct the nonlinear selection for initial descriptors. With the reserved descriptors, a support vector regression (SVR) model was established for the QSAR analysis of these 37 repellent derivatives. The influence of reserved descriptors on repellent activities was further analyzed with SVR interpretation system. 【Results】 The F-score of SVR model with original 1 542 descriptors was 1.2. However, it was 184.6 with the retained six descriptors after feature screening, indicating that feature screening has important effects on the precision of QSAR model. The importance of six molecular descriptors was as follows: p4BCD>GATS7v>T(O..O)>JGI8>SssO> nArCONR2. 【Conclusion】 The nonlinear relationship between reserved descriptors and the repellent activities of aromatic carboxylic acid derivatives against M. domestica was remarkable, and a high performance SVR-QSAR model for repellent derivatives was constructed.
    Calculation of the trimolecular association between terpenoid repellents and attractants
    XU Xi-Zhao, LIAO Sheng-Liang, SONG Jie, WANG Peng, FAN Guo-Rong, JIANG Zhi-Kuan, WANG Zong-De
    2014, 57(9):  1025-1031. 
    Abstract ( 1861 )   PDF (4253KB) ( 735 )     
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    【Aim】 The research of repellent mechanism is still unsatisfactory. This study intends to investigate the trimolecular association between single terpenoid repellent and two different attractants, and the relationship between the trimolecular association and mosquito repellency through the theoretical calculation. The goal is to develop a new direction for the repellent mechanism research.【Methods】 Gaussian View 4.1 and Gaussian 03W softwares were used to build and optimize the structure of terpenoid repellent monomers and trimolecular complexes which comprise L-lactic acid, ammonia and repellents. The optimized structure and association energy were obtained after optimization. Ampac 8.16 was applied to import all the above structures into the Codessa 2.7.10 software. Various kinds of structural descriptors were calculated, and a series of quantitative models which imply the relationship between structural descriptor of the association and repellent activity were generated by the heuristic method encoded in Codessa 2.7.10. The best quantitative model was picked out through breaking point rule and model validation. 【Results】 The energy of trimolecular association is basically in the range of 20 to 50 kJ/mol, and the R2 of the best threeparameter quantitative model is 0.9098. Three structural descriptors contained in the model were the maximum nucleophilic reactivity index for a C atom, topographic electronic index (all bonds) [Zefirov’s PC] and exchange energy + e-e repulsion for a H-O bond.【Conclusion】 A terpenoid repellent molecule can associate with two different attractant molecules at the same time, and this trimolecular association matches the basic characteristics of hydrogen bonds. The maximum nucleophilic reactivity index for a C atom, topographic electronic index (all bonds) [Zefirov’s PC] and exchange energy + e-e repulsion for a H-O bond, which are three descriptors generated from trimolecular complexes, tightly correlate to the repellency. This research preliminarily illustrates the existence of trimolecular association between terpenoid repellents and attractants, and its influence on the repellency. The result provides a new theoretical basis for the future repellent mechanism research.
    Parasitizing, developmental and reproductive performances of Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in relation to host age at oviposition
    ZHANG Ping, MENG Ling, LI Bao-Ping
    2014, 57(9):  1032-1036. 
    Abstract ( 2280 )   PDF (3642KB) ( 824 )     
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     【Aim】 The “dome-shaped” hypothesis suggests that medium aged host larvae are higher in quality than the two ends of host instar for fitness of solitary braconid and ichneomonid parasitoids attacking lepidopteran larvae. The hypothesis receives support from numerous studies, but most of these empirical studies tested host larval instars and gave little focus on reproductive performances of offspring parasitoids, leading to inaccurate and incomplete description of parasitoid fitness as a function of host age at parasitism. This study aims to test this hypothesis by focusing on host larval age in days. 【Methods】 In this study, we exposed Spodoptera litura larvae at different days of age from late 1st instar to early final instar to Meteorus pulchricornis for parasitism, and examined the parasitizing, developmental and reproductive parameters of the parasitoid. 【Results】 The linear regression results showed that M. pulchricornis female wasps had higher parasitism rate on medium aged hosts than on younger and older hosts at oviposition. The egg-to-adult survival, adult body size and fecundity (number of eggs laid) of the parasitoid were greater in medium aged hosts as compared to those in younger and older hosts. 【Conclusion】 Our study provides the solid support to the “dome-shaped” hypothesis.
    Adult oviposition and larval feeding preference for different citrus varieties in Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    LIU Lu, ZHOU Qiong, SONG Ao-Qun, YOU Ke-Xi
    2014, 57(9):  1037-1044. 
    Abstract ( 2179 )   PDF (6420KB) ( 1031 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the preference of Bactrocera minax for several citrus varieties. 【Methods】 We investigated the diseased citrus ratio of different citrus varieties in citrus orchards under natural conditions by five-point sampling method, counted the numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on the basal hemisphere and distal hemisphere of citrus fruit, and examined the larval feeding preference of B. minax to host odorants of citrus petals by the selection tests in the laboratory. 【Results】 The results showed that the rate of oviposition sites on citrus fruits facing the forest harborage was significantly higher than that at any other directions in citrus orchards, and the oviposition preference of B. minax found was Citrus sinensis cv. Navel and C. aurantium>C. sinensis cv. Bingtang, Amakusa, and C. reticulata cv. Satsuma>C. maxima cv. Shatian>C. reticulata cv. Ponkan. The numbers of egg-laying marks and eggs laid on oranges (C. sinensis cv. Navel, C. aurantium and C. sinensis cv. Bingtang) were higher than those on tangerines (Amakusa, C. reticulata cv. Satsuma, C. reticulata cv. Ponkan) and C. maxima cv. Shatian (P<0.05). The number of egg-laying marks on the distal hemisphere of citrus fruit was significantly than that on the basal hemisphere (P<0.05)(except C. reticulata cv. Satsuma). Larval feeding preference was closely correlated with adult oviposition preference. 【Conclusion】 Our results suggest that oviposition preference of B. minax is related to larval feeding preferences.
    Effects of light intensity on the sexual behavior of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    YAN Shuo, LI Hui-Ting, ZHU Wei-Long, ZHU Jia-Lin, ZHANG Qing-Wen, LIU Xiao-Xia
    2014, 57(9):  1045-1050. 
    Abstract ( 3111 )   PDF (4274KB) ( 955 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to illustrate the effects of light intensity on the sexual behavior of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner). 【Methods】 The calling behavior of H. armigera female adults under four light intensity (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50.0 lx) was observed. The sex pheromone titer and the incidence of mating of female adults under different light intensity were assayed by pheromone extraction from individual adult and dissection of the bursa copulatrix of female adults, respectively. 【Results】 Under high-intensity light (50.0 lx), the onset time of calling was the latest, the mean duration of calling was the shortest, the mean number of calling bouts was the smallest, the sex pheromone titer remained low during the entire scotophase, and the mating rate was the least. Under low-intensity light (0.5 lx), the onset time of calling was the earliest, the mean duration of calling was the longest, and the mean number of calling bouts was the highest. There were over 40% females calling during the 2nd half of scotophase although the amount of Z9-16:Ald was low under the light of 5.0 lx. 【Conclusion】 High-intensity light (50.0 lx) can suppress the calling behavior, sex pheromone production, and mating of H. armigera adults. Low-intensity light (0.5 lx) can significantly promote female moth calling and mating in a short time (1 h) compared to the dark condition (0 lx). Low-intensity light (0.5 lx) is of significance for sexual behavior of adult H. armigera. Sex pheromone production and calling behavior are not related. This research provides some theoretical basis for the effects of light on the sexual behavior of noctuid moths, and also offer new ideas on taking advantage of physical and chemical communication for control of pest noctuid moths.
    Analysis of the genetic diversity in geographic populations of Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) from northeastern China based on mitochondrial DNA COI gene sequences
    WANG Hong, XU Zhong-Xin, HAN Lan-Lan, WANG Ke-Qin, ZHAO Kui-Jun
    2014, 57(9):  1051-1060. 
    Abstract ( 2049 )   PDF (6874KB) ( 853 )     
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    【Aim】 The soybean podborer, Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura), is a major insect pest of soybean Glycina max, and it damages G. max seriously in northeastern China. This study aims to investigate the genetic differentiation among geographic populations of L. glycinivorella in northeastern China. 【Methods】 A 657 bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 153 individuals from 10 geographic populations in northeastern China was sequenced and analyzed. The genetic diversity, gene flow and molecular variance were analyzed using DnaSP 5. 0 and Arlequin 3. 5. 1. 2.【Results】 The results showed that 36 variable sites were detected, and 17 haplotypes were defined based on the COI sequences of 10 geographic populations of L. glycinivorella, including one haplotype shared by all the 10 populations. The total haplotype diversity of all populations was 0.456, and the range of haplotype diversity of different populations was 0-0.634. The total Fst, Gst and Nm were 0.12545, 0.06326 and 3.49, respectively, and all pairwise gene flow Nm was greater than 1 in the 10 populations, suggesting that extensive gene flow occurred among the ten populations of L. glycinivorella. 【Conclusion】The L. glycinivorella populations are characterized by medium/low genetic diversity. The Tajima’s D test indicated that there might not have been a recent population expansion. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) demonstrated that the observed genetic differentiation occurs primarily within populations, and there is no obvious genetic differentiation among populations. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and haplotype network showed that the haplotypes are distributed in different clades and no obvious geographical structure has been formed. The genetic distance is not significantly correlated with the geographical distance between populations, and the gene flow is not affected by geographical distance.
    Genetic differentiation and gene flow among geographic populations of Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in China
    WANG Xing-Ya, XU Guo-Qing
    2014, 57(9):  1061-1074. 
    Abstract ( 2333 )   PDF (9922KB) ( 780 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to identify the genetic differentiation and gene flow among geographic populations of Spodoptera exigua in China and clarify its population demographic history. 【Methods】 In the present study, the genetic diversity, genetic differentiation, gene flow and molecular variance were analyzed using DnaSP 5.0 and Arlequin 3.11 based on the partial sequences of mtDNA COI gene in 20 geographic populations of S. exigua in China. Phylogenetic trees and the haplotype network of COI haplotypes were also constructed. 【Results】 The results showed that a total of 10 haplotypes were defined among 529 sequences, including Hap_1 shared by all populations. Low level of genetic diversity (Hd=0.257±0.025, Pi=0.0007±0.0001, Kxy=0.323) in the total populations was detected. There was little genetic differentiation (FST=0.211) and a high level of gene flow (Nm=1.870) among different geographic populations. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that the percentage of variation within a population was greater than that among populations. There was no significant correlation between the pairwise genetic distances for mtDNA COI sequences and the natural logarithm of geographical distance. The phylogenetic trees and haplotype network showed that haplotypes were distributed in different clades and had no obvious geographical structure. Finally, the neutral test (Tajima’s D=-2.177, P<0.05; Fu’s FS=-8.629, P<0.05) and unimodal mismatch distribution indicated that S. exigua experienced recent population expansion in China. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the gene flow among S. exigua populations is not affected by the geographical distance, further confirming that the moth has a high ability of migration.

    A new genus and four new species of Podisminae (Orhtoptera, Acridoidea, Catantopidae) from Taiwan, China(In English)
    YIN Xiang-Chu, ZHENG Fang-Qiang, YIN Zhan
    2014, 57(9):  1075-1083. 
    Abstract ( 2284 )   PDF (7946KB) ( 2311 )     
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    A new genus Taipodisma gen. nov. and four new species, i.e. Taipodisma rufifemora sp. nov., Taipodisma hsiehi sp. nov., Taipodisma chowi sp. nov. and Taipodisma nigritibia sp. nov. of the subfamily Podisminae are described from Taiwan, China. The new genus Taipodisma gen. nov. is similar to Sinopodisma Chang, 1940, but differs from the latter by hind margin of pronotum without hollow in the middle, median keel of pronotum invisible in prozona and vestigial in metazona. The new genus is also similar to Liaopodisma Zheng, 1990, but differs from the latter by lateral lobes of metasternum not contiguous in male. The new species T. rufifemora sp. nov. differs from the other congeneric species by hind femora red on inner side and ventral side. The new species T. hsiehi sp. nov. differs from the other cougeneric species by postocular black band invisible. The new species T. chowi sp. nov. is allied to T. rufifemora sp. nov., but differs from the latter by hind femora without red on inner and lower sides. The T. nigritibia sp. nov. is similar to T. chowi sp. nov., but differs from the latter by pronotum without black longitudinal stripe along median keel and tegmina yellowish brown, without black stripe. The type specimens are deposited in the National Museum of Natural Science (NMNS), Taichung and the Institute of Entomology, Taiwan University, Taibei, Taiwan, China, respectively.
    Research progress in insect cuticular protein genes
    LIANG Xin, CHEN Bin, QIAO Liang
    2014, 57(9):  1084-1093. 
    Abstract ( 3827 )   PDF (7021KB) ( 1231 )     
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     During insect cuticle occurrence and differentiation, and in the process of construction of external important parts and organs of insect body, cuticular proteins are essential constituent elements. In this article, we briefly summarized the identification and classification, the spatiotemporal expression patterns, the regulation of expression by hormones and transcription factors, and functional research of insect cuticular protein genes over the past ten years. We also discussed their possible application prospects in pest control in order to provide references for further study of insect cuticular proteins and their potential utilization. More than 1 400 sequences of insect cuticular proteins have been reported, and they are divided into twelve families such as CPR, CPF, CPFL, Tweedle, etc. Related transcription factors such as βFTZ-F1 and BR-C, which are activated by ecdysteroid, act on the cis acting elements upstream cuticular protein genes and turn on or off these genes in order to regulate the expression of cuticular protein genes. Cuticular protein genes play an indispensable role in the insect cuticle integration, body shaping, activity, resistance, innate immunity and other physiological phenomena and physiological process. Therefore, if we can inhibit the expression of key cuticular protein gene or remove it from the genome to prevent the insect development or disrupt the reproductive ability of insects, this may provide reference for pest control strategies.

    Application of molecular markers in studies of insect invasion
    BIN Shu-Ying, WU Zhong-Zhen, ZHANG He, LIN Jin-Tian
    2014, 57(9):  1094-1104. 
    Abstract ( 2802 )   PDF (6659KB) ( 1101 )     
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    Genetic variations are closely related to population persistence and evolutionary potential, and the changes in genetic variation due to biological invasions may provide ideal model to resolve various ecological and evolutionary issues in nature. Molecular markers are powerful tools by which we can investigate the ecological and evolutionary impacts of invasive species. These approaches enable the processes, consequences and future expectations of biological invasions to be identified. To introduce the research progress of the applications of molecular markers in insect invasion, we have highlighted studies that have used molecular markers to address various ecological and evolutionary aspects of biological invasions, including detection and monitoring of cryptic invasion, estimating method for refactoring invasion histories, and the important research progress in the mechanisms of population genetic variation and successful invasion, selected typical cases to illustrate the research areas that are particularly relevant, and reviewed the application prospects of high-resolution melting (HRM ) analysis in studying insect invasion.
    A review of three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometrics and its application in entomology
    BAI Ming, YANG Xing-Ke
    2014, 57(9):  1105-1111. 
    Abstract ( 2519 )   PDF (4196KB) ( 1148 )     
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    Two-dimensional (2D) data is the major data type in geometric morphometrics for a long time. 2D data played an important role in the origin and rising of geometric morphometrics. Numerous significant scientific problems have been solved based on 2D data. The super capability of geometric morphometrics in scientific computing and problem solving based on 2D data has been perfectly demonstrated. However, there are still some special scientific problems or specific morphological characters which can not be easily or perfectly investigated via 2D data. Three-dimensional (3D) data on a large scale and in great amount could be a better option for these issues. The needs for 3D geometric morphometrics become more and more urgent. Furthermore, 3D data collecting becomes easier and cheaper and a large quantity of 3D data emerge. Here in this article the principles and application of 3D geometric morphometrics were reviewed. The similarities and differences between 2D and 3D geometric morphometrics are listed. The two development stages of 3D geometric morphometrics, i.e., the morphological simulation and quasi-quantitative comparison of a small-size sample, and quantitative comparison of a large number of samples, are reviewed. The application of four-dimensional data and finite element analysis is evaluated. The development potential of 3D geometric morphometrics in the field of entomology is pointed out. The future directions of 3D geometric morphometrics, such as increasing of sample size, hardware upgrade, increasing of data resolution, development of new algorithms, presentation of results, 3D printing, etc., are proposed.

    Oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of Mikania micrantha extracts on Tirathaba rufivena (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    ZHONG Bao-Zhu, Lü Chao-Jun, QIAN Jun, QIN Wei-Quan, GOU Zhi-Hui
    2014, 57(9):  1112-1116. 
    Abstract ( 1930 )   PDF (3276KB) ( 844 )     
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    【Aim】This study aims to explore the repellent effect of Mikania micrantha on the palm pest Tirathaba rufivena. 【Methods】The oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity of M. micrantha extracts with different solvents against T. rufivena were studied with bioassay methods in the laboratory. 【Results】Among different solvent extracts, the M. micrantha extracts from hexane and chloroform had the highest oviposition deterrent activities against T. rufivena, with the deterrent rates of 43.64% and 44.20% in choice test, and 51.60% and 59.20% in non-choice test, respectively. All extracts showed ovicidal activities against T. rufivena, while the chloroform extract showed the strongest impact on hatchability with the lowest corrected egg hatching rate (53.39%) and caused the highest corrected mortality (42.64%) to the 1st instar larvae. Among the different solvent extracts of M. micrantha by chloroform extraction, the butanol extract showed the highest oviposition deterrent and ovicidal activity against T. rufivena. 【Conclusion】M. micrantha extracts show a great application potential in ecological control of T. rufivena based on the oviposition deterrence and ovicidal activity.
    Geographic populations of the tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in Zhejiang, eastern China have differentiated into different species
    XI Yu, YIN Kun-Shan, TANG Mei-Jun, XIAO Qiang
    2014, 57(9):  1117-1122. 
    Abstract ( 2494 )   PDF (5018KB) ( 895 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to evaluate the degrees of differentiation and reproduction isolation in different geographic populations of the tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua Prout. 【Methods】 Investigations of morphological, biological properties and reciprocal cross experiments were carried out in Hangzhou population (H) and Quzhou population (Q) of E. obliqua, which were collected in the field of Hangzhou and Quzhou, Zhejiang, respectively.【Results】 Morphological and biological observation revealed that individuals of population Q had larger body shape and darker wing color than population H, whereas no observable difference in external morphology, genital structure or female fecundity was found between the two populations. Significantly fewer eggs were laid in the reciprocal cross experiments than in self-cross experiment (control). The F1 generation was always obtained with decreased egg hatching rate. The larval duration of the F1 generation was significantly shortened, the temporal distribution of pupation was irregular and pupal weight became lighter as compared with those of parents. The eclosion rate of F1 generation was reduced and the sex ratio was extremely disordered. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that reproductive isolation and differentiation exist between population H and Q of E. obliqua, and these two geographic populations should be different species.
    Contents of Vol. 57 Issue 9
    2014, 57(9):  1123. 
    Abstract ( 1296 )   PDF (655KB) ( 754 )     
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