Please wait a minute...
Information
  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2014, Volume 57 Issue 8
For Selected: View Abstracts Toggle Thumbnails
  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Quantitative measure of feeding potential and the inferred relationship among four agricultural pests (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in India
    Amlan DAS
    2014, 57(8):  869-878. 
    Abstract ( 2211 )   PDF (2322KB) ( 1152 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Feeding potential of insect pests suggests their ecology and economy and that may direct to extend control measure of them. Can the quantitative order of food consumption during developmental or mature period in different pest species be considered in groups together as closely or diversely related species? To resolve the posed question relative to feeding prototype among different pest species will make possible to dig the solution. 【Methods】 Quantitative measure of food consumption in four Indian agricultural pests of Acrididae, viz., Hieroglyphus banian (Fab.), Acrida exaltata (Walk.), Spathosternum prasiniferum prasiniferum (Walk.) and Oxya fuscovittata (Mars.) (Orthoptera: Acrididae), were studied. Food consumption per day and total consumption in lifetime for all instars and during lifespan of adults for both sexes of each species were estimated. 【Results】 Within the framework of polyphagous nature and among diverse food sources, only ‘the most preferred’ host plants were provided to all tests. An identical pattern of consumption rate was noticed among four studied species and it was progressively increased with the advancement of nymphal stages. In all species, females consumed significantly more than males and during adult period all the pests consumed significantly higher than their juvenile days. The amount of consumed food at any nymphal or adult period was notably allied with nymphal or adult period. A. exaltata and S. pr. prasiniferum were marginally related than the rest two species in terms of lifetime food consumption and mean survival period. The uni- and bivoltine pests (H. banian and A. exaltata, respectively) were more closely related species than the two related multivoltine pests (S. pr. prasiniferum and O. fuscovittata) in terms of their lifetime food consumption and mean life survival. 【Conclusion】 Species with longer lifespan, which complete one or two generations per year,are more comparable in feeding potentiality than the short lived species which complete more than two generations per year. An inclusive understanding in this regard may be possible after studying on a number of pest species from different voltine nature.
    Calling behavior of adult Algedonia coclesalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) and the ultrastructure of the sex pheromone-producing glands in its female adults
    LIU Man, YANG Mao-Fa, XU Si-Yuan, YAO Song-Lin
    2014, 57(8):  879-888. 
    Abstract ( 2104 )   PDF (4098KB) ( 1199 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 The production and release of sex pheromone are synchronous with calling behaviour in the moth, and the organs producing and releasing sex pheromone are pheromone-producing glands. In order to understand the secretion characteristics of sex pheromone, the calling behavior and ultrastructure of the sex pheromone-producing glands of Algedonia coclesalis were studied.【Methods】 The calling behavior of adult A. coclesalis was observed under controlled laboratory conditions of 26±2℃, 80%±10%RH and 14L:10D photoperiod. According to the results of calling rhythm, the most active female moth was selected and the terminal abdominal segment was extruded fully. The 8th abdominal segment was cut transversely and was observed by microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. 【Results】 The calling behavior of both females and males had procedures and only occurred in dark period. The calling rate was lower within 5 h of the scotophase, but increased significantly at 6 h after the initiation of scotophase and reached the peak at the 7th-8th hour of scotophase. The calling rate had a close relation with the age of female moth, and the 3 day-old female moth had the highest calling rate and longest calling duration. It was observed that the gland was full ring-like structure situated on the segmental membrane between the 8th and 9th segments, and it was milky white bursa under microscope. Ventral bursa was multiply wrinkled under SEM, which was roughly divided into three wrinkled regions. The surfaces of wrinkled regions except the 1st one are covered with the papillae, concave groove and spine, and the spine has a hole on the top. The bursa on the back has fewer wrinkles, and the 1st wrinkled region has the similar surface morphology with the 2nd and 3rd ones. 【Conclusion】 The results could help us understand the circadian rhythm of pheromone biosynthesis and release, and further provide scientific basis for the biosynthesis, accurate extraction and identification, and application of sex pheromones.
    Positioning and quantitative analysis of ultraspiracle protein gene in the head and its correlation with ecdysone receptor gene in adult Ployrhachis vicina (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    DANG Liang, XI Geng-Si, FAN Jin-Ying, YANG Dong-Liang, WANG Yan-Nan
    2014, 57(8):  889-896. 
    Abstract ( 1791 )   PDF (3404KB) ( 827 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Ultraspiracle protein (USP) belongs to an essential component of a heterodimeric receptor complex with the ecdysone receptor (EcR) which binds ecdysteroids. This study aimed to explore the distribution of USP mRNA in heads of different castes of Polyrhachis vicina Roger adults for inferring the influence of PvUSP on the function or behavior of cranial nerve of P. vicina, and to assess the influence of PvUSP on physiological functions in the body and the relationship with EcR gene by feeding PvUSP dsRNA as RNAi to different castes of P. vicina adults. 【Methods】 We used real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique and fluorescence in situ hybridization to test the distribution of PvUSP mRNA expression level in the head of different castes of P. vicina adults, conducted RNAi on different castes of P. vicina adults by feeding PvUSP dsRNA, and used the real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR technique to detect the changes in PvUSP and PvEcR mRNA levels. 【Results】 PvUSP was widely expressed in the head of different castes of P. vicina adults, and especially concentrated in the mushroom body. However, its expression level was quite different in the three castes. The highest expression level was found in the head of workers, the moderate expression level was in the head of male adults, and the lowest was in the head of female adults. After using RNAi technique to silence PvUSP, the expression level of PvUSP mRNA decreased obviously in bodies of different castes of P. vicina adults as compared to the control, and an extremely significant difference was observed (P<0.01), while the expression levels of PvEcR mRNA all increased in different castes. The changes in PvEcR mRNA level in workers and male adults were not distinct (P>0.05), while those in the female body showed a dramatic increase (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 PvUSP may be related to the structure and functions of nervous system of P. vicina. PvUSP and PvEcR may have relevance in the formation of heterogeneous dimers or function complementarily. PvUSP may influence the reproductive functions of female adults of P. vicina.
    Cloning, prokaryotic expression and tissue expression profiling of an OBP3 gene in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    JI Ting, SHEN Fang, LIANG Qin, WU Li-Ming, LIU Zhen-Guo, LUO Yue-Xiong
    2014, 57(8):  897-904. 
    Abstract ( 2322 )   PDF (3159KB) ( 933 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are involved in the identification of odor molecules, and play an important role in bees’ olfaction. This study was designed to clone and express an OBP3 gene from the Chinese honeybee Apis cerana cerana, in order to prepare the polyclonal antibody.【Methods】 The OBP3 gene was amplified by RT-PCR from total RNA from head of A. cerana cerana, then sub-cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a and expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta (DE3) host cells. The fusion protein was purified and immunized into New Zealand white rabbits so as to prepare polyclonal antibody. The sensitivity and specificity of the polyclonal antibody were detected through indirect ELISA and Western blot, respectively. The expression profiles of AccOBP3 in different tissues were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】 AccOBP3 (GenBank accession no. KJ026357) was cloned and a 444 bp fragment was obtained. The recombinant vector pET-OBP3 was successfully constructed. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that the fusion protein was well expressed. The anti-OBP3 polyclonal antibody showed high titer (higher than 1∶40 000) and specificity. Real-time quantitative PCR results showed that the expression level of AccOBP3 gene was significantly higher in legs and antennae (P<0.01), moderate in thorax, and significantly lower in heads and abdomen (P<0.01). The expression level of AccOBP3 in heads and abdomen had no significant difference (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The OBP3 gene has high transcript expression in the antennae of A. cerana cerana. In this study, AccOBP3 gene has been cloned and expressed, and the rabbit anti-ApisCeranaOBP3 polyclonal antibody has been prepared by immunization with the purified recombinant OBP3 protein, which lays the foundation for further studies on functions of OBP3 gene.
    Transcriptomic analysis of Apis cerana cerana (Hymenoptera: Apidae) queens and drones newly emerged and sexually matured
    WU Xiao-Bo, WANG Zi-Long, LI Shu-Yun, GAN Hai-Yan, LIU Hao, YAN Wei-YU, ZENG Zhi-Jiang
    2014, 57(8):  905-913. 
    Abstract ( 2675 )   PDF (2213KB) ( 1123 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 This study aims to understand the transcriptome characteristics of queens and drones of the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and enrich the transcriptome data. 【Methods】 The transcriptomes of queens and drones newly emerged and sexually matured were constructed and analyzed by RNA-seq. 【Results】 The results showed that the proportion of nucleotides with quality value larger than 20 in reads (Q20) were more than 90% and all the reads were assembled into 90 839 uniques with a mean length of 1 549 bp. Based on sequence similarity search against five public databases (NR, SwissProt, GO, COG and KEGG), a total number of 45 112 unigenes were annotated. Using these transcriptome data as the reference sequences, we found that the genes encoding cuticular proteins/apidermins, CYP and odorant binding proteins were differentially expressed between the sexually matured bees and the newly emerged bees which are related to the development of body, reproductive system and olfaction system. Meanwhile, the odorant binding protein genes were significantly differentially expressed between the sexually matured queens and drones as well as their reproductive system. 【Conclusion】 The results indicated that the expression levels of a large number of genes changed during maturing of A. cerana cerana bees. This study made an insight into the characteristics of the development in adult queen and drone, and a lot of transcript sequences with important function were acquired for future gene expression or regulation research relative to the growth, development and reproduction in A. cerana cerana.
    Infection and reproductive effects of Wolbachia in the hawthorn spider mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis (Acarina: Tetranychidae)
    ZHANG Yan-Kai, SUN Bing, HONG Xiao-Yue
    2014, 57(8):  914-920. 
    Abstract ( 1713 )   PDF (1386KB) ( 842 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Endosymbiont Wolbachia can induce cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) and alterative fitness in spider mites, affecting the biological characteristics of hosts. The hawthorn spider mite, Amphitetranychus viennensis, is one of the most important pest mites on fruit trees and often causes serious damage to agricultural industry. This study aims to clarify the infection status and reproductive effects of Wolbachia in A. viennensis. 【Methods】 The Wolbachia infection in natural population of A. viennensis was analyzed using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). By crossing and biological experiments, the effects of Wolbachia on the fecundity, offspring hatchability, sex ratio and mortality of the host A. viennensis were investigated. 【Results】 A. viennensis was infected with a Wolbachia strain, wVie, which has a closer phylogenetic relationship with Wolbachia from Orius strigicollis and Nasonia vitripennis than with Wolbachia from spider mites of Tetranychus genus. Wolbachia are associated with four little divergent mitochondrial haplotypes. Fecundity of infected and uninfected females did not differ significantly (P>0.05). When infected males mated with uninfected females, the egg hatching rate was significantly lower than that in other cross combinations (P<0.05), but the hatchability still reached 75%. The offspring sex ratio and mortality of each cross did not change significantly (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 Wolbachia infection in A. viennensis is a recent event and has no effect on host fecundity, offspring sex ratio and mortality. Wolbachia induces weak CI in A. viennensis.
    Synthesis of acetal derivatives of citronellal and their repellent activities against the pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    2014, 57(8):  921-926. 
    Abstract ( 2018 )   PDF (948KB) ( 953 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 Citronellal has good repellent activity against ants. This study aims to seek novel ant terpenoid repellents. 【Methods】 A series of citronella acetals including citronellal dimethyl acetal, citronellal diethyl acetal, citronellal dipropyl acetal, citronellal diisobutyl acetal, citronellal glycol acetal, citronellal 1,2-propanediol acetal and citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal were synthesized in this study using citronellal as the starting material. Their structures were characterized with IR, MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR after purification. The repellent activities of these compounds at different concentrations against the pharaoh ant, Monomorium pharaonis were tested. 【Results】 At the concentration of 10 mg/mL, all the compounds except citronellal dimethyl acetal had the repellent rate of more than 70%, and citronellal diethyl acetal, citronellal glycol acetal and citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal had the repellent rates of 87.47%, 100% and 97.53%, respectively. When the concentrations of the compounds dropped to 2.5 mg/mL, the repellent activities of five compounds decreased significantly, while citronellal glycol acetal and citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal still showed high repellent activities with the repellent rates of 85.33% and 97.10%, respectively. Variance analysis showed that citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal had the strongest repellent effect, followed by citronellal glycol acetal. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that citronellal diethyl acetal, citronellal glycol acetal and citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal can be used for repelling M. pharaonis, and citronellal glycol acetal and citronellal 1,3-propanediol acetal can be better choices. This research provides a basic reference for screening good ant repellents.

    Effects of foliar spraying of silicon and phosphorus on rice (Oryza sativa) plants and their resistance to the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    YANG Guo-Qing, HU Wen-Feng, ZHU Zhan-Fei, GE Lin-Quan, WU Jin-Cai
    2014, 57(8):  927-934. 
    Abstract ( 2075 )   PDF (2931KB) ( 908 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
       【Aim】 Silica strengthens disease resistance and improves environmental stress tolerance in plants. We examined the changes in the silicon content and some biochemical substances in rice leaves following foliar spraying of silicon and phosphorus, and the effects of spraying silicon on a population of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera, in order to further understand the enhancement of innate rice resistance to pests by exogenous elements. 【Methods】 After foliar spraying of silicon, phosphorus, and silicon+phosphorus at the tillering stage of rice, the contents of silicon, oxalic acid, and soluble sugar in rice leaves were measured. After foliar spraying of silicon, the silicon cells around the stomata of rice leaf were observed under transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and the population growth parameters of WBPH fed on treated rice were also examined. 【Results】 The silicon content in rice leaves in foliar spray treatment with 20 or 40 mg/L silicon or silicon+phosphorus increased significantly compared to that in the control (P<0.05). The silicon contents on both the upper and lower sides of rice leaves in foliar spray treatment with 40 mg/L silicon+40 mg/L phosphorus increased by 116% and 104.4%, respectively, compared to that in the control (P<0.01). There were more silicon cells around the stomata of treated rice leaves. The oxalic acid content in rice leaves at 3 and 6 d after foliar spray treatment with silicon+phosphorus increased significantly. The soluble sugar content in rice leaves for most silicon+phosphorus combinations increased. The number of eggs laid by per female of S. furcifera fed on rice leaves sprayed with 40 mg/L silicon decreased significantly (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 The foliar spraying of silicon+phosphorus enhances the innate resistance of rice to pests and induces an increase of resistant substances in rice plants, and decreases the number of eggs laid by the WBPH females.  
    Effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of Jakowleffia setulosa (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)
    HE Jia, GAO Li-Yuan, ZHANG Rong, CHEN Lin, ZHU Meng-Meng
    2014, 57(8):  935-942. 
    Abstract ( 2330 )   PDF (976KB) ( 836 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     【Aim】 Jakowleffia setulosa (Jakovlev) has migrated to agricultural areas and caused serious damages in recent years. It has become an agricultural pest with outbreaking populations from a desert insect with stable populations. Due to the lack of basic research on the biology of J. setulosa, its monitoring and integrated management are difficult. Our research aimed to study the effect of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of J. setulosa. 【Methods】 At a series of temperature gradient (13,  18, 23, 28, 33, 35 and 37℃), the developmental period, developmental rate, survival rate, number of eggs laid and population parameters of J. setulosa on host plant Halogeton arachnoideus Moq. was investigated. 【Results】 The duration of various developmental stages of J. setulosa decreased with the increasing temperature. It needed 82.63 d to complete a life cycle at 13℃, while it needed 14.61 d at 37℃. The relationships between developmental rates (V) at different stages and temperature (T) all fit the the polynomial regression model. By the analysis of direct optimal method, the developmental threshold temperature for J. setulosa was 8.30℃, and its effective cumulative temperature was 555.77 day-degree, suggesting two generations a year for J. setulosa in Ningxia. The generation survival rate reached the maximum (35.44%) at 33℃, and the number of eggs laid per female was more than 10 in the temperature range of 28-37℃. The theoretical optimum temperature of fecundity, which was calculated by the fitting equation, was 34.59℃ with 16.73 eggs laid per female adult. The population trend index was zero at 13℃, while it was less than 1 at 18-23℃, demonstrating that the mean population growth is negative. On the contrary, the population trend index was greater than 1 at 28-37 ℃ and reached the maximum (2.77) at 33℃. The net reproductive rate, the intrinsic rate of increase and the finite rate of increase peaked at 37℃, which were 7.24, 0.3912 and 1.4787, respectively. The generation time of the population was the longest (45.8936 d) at 13℃, but was the shortest (5.0608 d) at 37℃. 【Conclusion】 The survival rate, population growth index and fertility are the highest in the temperature range of 28-35℃, suggesting that this temperature range is the most suitable for the growth, development and reproduction of J. setulosa populations. Our results provide a scientific basis for monitoring and integrated management of J. setulosa.
    Effects of the artificial diet with low water content on the growth and development of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
    YU Guo-Hui, LI Yi-Ping, YANG Yu-Huan, XIA Qiang
    2014, 57(8):  943-950. 
    Abstract ( 3976 )   PDF (1897KB) ( 2849 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 To evaluate the effects of the artificial diet with low water content on the growth and development of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens. 【Methods】 The black soldier fly was reared in climatic cabinet (27℃, RH 80%, photoperiod 14L∶10D) with artificial diet. Such biological characteristics as the larval survival rate, larval weight, adult body length, eclosion rate and duration of different developmental stages were compared among the flies reared with the artificial diet with 30%, 50% and 70% water content, respectively, of which the artificial diets with 70% water content was used as the control. 【Results】 The larval weight of the black soldiery fly reared with the diets with 30% and 50% water content were significantly different (P<0.05) and lower than the control (P<0.05). The black soldier fly could not develop to prepupae when reared with the diet with 30% water content, and most larvae died within 13 d. The beginning time and finishing time of prepupal stage in the 50% water content group was 5 and 14 d later than the control, respectively. The duration of prepupal stage in the 50% water content diet group was 18 d, which was 8 d longer than the control. The body lengths of female and male adults in the 50% water content diet group was significantly shorter than those in the control (P<0.05). Adults in the 50% water content diet group began eclosion 5 d later than the control, and the duration of eclosion was 18 d, which was 5 d longer than the control. The time from egg hatch to the eclosion of all adults in the 50% water content diet group was 55.67 d, while that in the control group was 45.00 d. However, there was no significant difference in larval survival rate and adult eclosion rate between the 50% water content group and the control (P>0.05). 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that the artificial diet with water content lower than 70% is not suitable for the growth and development of the black soldier fly.
    Segmentation of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera, Tephritidae) on the background of fruits under the illumination of near-infrared narrow-band light
    LOU Ding-Feng, LIU Xin-Jiao, XU Lang, LAI Tian-Shu, YU Dao-Jian, JIAO Yi, CHEN Zhi-Lin CHEN Yan-Lun
    2014, 57(8):  951-961. 
    Abstract ( 1522 )   PDF (4611KB) ( 1017 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    【Aim】 To enhance the recognition effect of Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel (Diptera, Tephritidae) on the background of fruits, the difference in the reflectivity spectra of the insect and different fruits was studied. 【Methods】 The reflectivity spectra of B. dorsalis and 16 species of fruits were first measured in the wavelength range of 400-2 500 nm using the UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. Then images of the flies on the fruits were taken respectively under the illumination of narrow-band light with the central wavelengths of 565 and 827 nm as well as sunlight, and binarization of the images was made according to Otsu algorithm. 【Results】 We found that the reflectivity of B. dorsalis increased slowly with the wavelength, and approached to the maximum (<40%), while the strongest reflectivity peak of the sixteen species of fruits was located between 777 and 896 nm entirely or partially. The average maximum reflectivity of each species of fruit ranged from 41.10% to 97.89%, while that of B. dorsalis was approximately 30%, leading to a higher difference in this NIR (near-infrared light) range. It was found that B. dorsalis was dark on the large-area bright background of fruits in the images taken under the illustration of narrow-band light with a central wavelength of 827 nm, which can be recognized easily because of a high contrast between B. dorsalis and the fruits. Contrarily, under the illustration of sunlight and narrow-band light with a central wavelength of 565 nm, more black spots were found in the images of the fruits which were confused with the dark images of B. dorsalis, or the insect appeared as a white spot, causing recognition failure. 【Conclusion】 We confirmed that the image contrast between B. dorsalis and fruits, and the segmentation effect of B. dorsalis can be enhanced under the illumination of the NIR narrow-band light.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances in the genes associated with the development of ventral limbs in insects
    FU Ming-Yue, CHEN Peng, DAI Fang-Yin, LU Cheng, TONG Xiao-Ling
    2014, 57(8):  962-968. 
    Abstract ( 2482 )   PDF (789KB) ( 949 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     The body of insects consists of a series of appendages, including the dorsal and ventral appendages. Particularly, the ventral limbs exhibit great diversity. Here, we present a brief review of the expression, functions, and regulatory interactions of the genes related to the development of the ventral limbs. On one hand, the ventral limbs, as a whole, are controlled by the Hox gene and morphogens genes (Dpp/Wg). Hox genes control whether there are ventral limbs on certain segment. Through the formation of concentration gradients of their expressed products, Dpp/Wg regulates the development of entire vental limbs. Both of them are irreplaceable for the development of the vental limbs. On the other hand, the proximal, intermediate and distal portions are controlled by the corresponding segmental special factors, respectively. For instance, hth, tsh and al mainly control the development of the proximal portion. Dac regulates the intermediate portion by the interaction of the Dll and Dpp/Wg. Bab, Dll and Lim1 control the development of distal portion. Furthermore, the formation of joints is crucial for the development of ventral limbs. Notch signaling related regulators, such as the ligand gene (Dl and Ser), the modifier gene (fng) and the downstream target genes (odd, sob, drm and bowl), regulate that process. Studies on genes involved in the development of the ventral limbs are essential for well understanding the mechanisms that produce the appendages and revealing how the diversity in limbs has been evolved.
    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs) in insects
    CHEN Kang-Kang, Lü Zhi-Qiang
    2014, 57(8):  969-978. 
    Abstract ( 2412 )   PDF (2462KB) ( 1216 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
     Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a family of pattern recognition proteins, play key roles in the innate immune system against invading pathogens and parasites in vertebrates and invertebrates. Peptidoglycans (PGNs), which are conserved in most bacteria as an essential component of cell wall, are recognized by PGRPs as pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). In insects, some PGRPs function as receptors to recognize bacteria and fungi, leading to the activation of antimicrobial peptide (AMP) synthesis through IMD and Toll pathways. And this recognition also results in the activation of prophenoloxidase (PPO) cascade. Some PGRPs with amidase activity are involved in phagocytosis, and some may down-regulate AMP pathways by degradation of bacterial peptidoglycan. And some PGRPs function as effectors to kill bacteria by themselves. This review summarizes the functions of PGRPs as recognition receptor, regulator and effector in insect innate immune system and gives the directions for future study.
    Effects of sugar-rich foods on the longevity, fecundity and pest control capacity of arthropod natural enemies
    WANG Geng-Wei, TIAN Jun-Ce, ZHU Ping-Yang,ZHENG Xu-Song, XU Hong-Xing, YANG Ya-Jun, Lü Zhong-Xian
    2014, 57(8):  979-990. 
    Abstract ( 2277 )   PDF (993KB) ( 1162 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics
    Most arthropod predators and parasitoids also feed on sugar-rich foods including floral nectar, extrafloral nectar and arthropod honeydew besides preying orparasitizing arthropod hosts. These sugar-rich foods play important roles in enhancing their flight and host foraging ability, prolonging adult longevity, increasing fecundityand improving pest control capacity. In this article, we briefly introduced three common sugar-rich foods in agro-ecosystem including floral nectar, extrafloral nectar andhoneydew. Floral nectar and extrafloral nectar could significantly prolong and improve the longevity, fecundity and pest control capacity of most arthropod natural enemies,whereas honeydew could only improve the biological fitness of some natural enemies.  The successful applications of planting flowering plants and supplying sugar-rich foods onimproving biological control functioning in agro-ecosystem were also reviewed. Furthermore, the further research directions of sugar-rich foods, including screening nectarresource plants, clarifying the effects of sugars in sugar-rich foods and the mechanism of searching and locating the sugar-rich foods by natural enemies,  were discussed.
    High-throughput transcriptome sequencing technology and its applications in Lepidoptera
    2014, 57(8):  991-1000. 
    Abstract ( 2238 )   PDF (1606KB) ( 1267 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics

     Transcriptome is the complete set of RNA transcripts in a specific type of cell or tissue under a certain stage or physiological condition. Next generation high-throughput sequencing technology has changed the study patterns of transcriptomics tremendously, from which RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) is derived. Next generation sequencing is rapidly becoming an advanced technology to explore genetic outlines of non-model organisms. It helps to elucidate the types and number of expressed genescomprehensively, which reveals the molecular mechanisms of physiological and biochemical processes in organisms under certain conditions. This article introduced briefly thebasic concepts of transcriptome sequencing technology and technical processes, elaborated the contribution of this technology to solve problems about taxonomy, toxicology,growth and development, insect-plant interactions, and even non-coding RNA in Lepidoptera, and elucidated the current technical difficulties and the future trends of this technology.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 57 Issue 8
    2014, 57(8):  1001. 
    Abstract ( 1304 )   PDF (648KB) ( 826 )     
    Related Articles | Metrics