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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 August 2016, Volume 59 Issue 8
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    Construction of yeast two-hybrid system and its application in screening the interacting proteins of ecdysone receptors in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    FAN Lin-Fang, HE Wen-Jing, SU Zhi-Ren, ZHU Jia-Ming, LUO Wei, ZHANG Chun, HUANG Li-Hua
    2016, 59(8):  801-811.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.001
    Abstract ( 1870 )   PDF (4060KB) ( 607 )     
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    【Aim】 Ecdysone plays a key role in insect metamorphosis. It is firstly activated into 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and then binds to its dimer-receptor composed of ecdysone receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle protein (USP) to initiate 20E-induced cascade reaction. This study aims to explore the regulation mechanisms of EcR/USP from the aspects of protein interaction. 【Methods】 A yeast two-hybrid system was constructed to screen the interacting proteins of EcR and USP from Spodoptera litura, an important agricultural pest. 【Results】 The transformation efficiency of yeast library was 3.0×106 cfu/μg, the library titer was 1.3×108 cfu/mL, and the insert length was 500-2 000 bp. The four bait plasmids (EcRA, EcRB1, USP1, USP2/pGBKT7) showed no obvious toxicity to yeast cells and had no autoactivation ability, suggesting that the yeast library is qualified for the next screening of interacting proteins. After screening the library using four bait plasmids, a total of 110 interacting proteins were obtained, including 26 EcRB1-interacting proteins, 52 USP1-interacting proteins, and 32 USP2-interacting proteins. However, no protein was identified to interact with EcRA. Subsequently, five proteins, including DnaJ-5 (Hsp40 homolog 5, a kind of heat shock protein chaperone), MBF2 (mediator of BmFTZ-F1 type 2, a transcriptional co-activator), polyubiquitin, esr16 (ecdysteroid regulated 16 kD protein), and NEDD8-like (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 8, a ubiquitylation-related protein), were selected and their interactive relationship with EcR/USP was further confirmed by both yeast two-hybrid and Far-Western blotting. 【Conclusion】 Our data suggest that heat shock protein chaperone and ubiquitylation may play roles in the regulation of EcR/USP, and this will contribute to the understanding of insect metamorphosis.  
    Identification and ligand binding characteristics of antennal binding protein PxylOBP31 in the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)
    QIN Jiang-Mei, CAI Li-Jun, ZHENG Li-Shuang, CHENG Xiao-Juan, YOU Min-Sheng
    2016, 59(8):  812-822.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.002
    Abstract ( 2009 )   PDF (2861KB) ( 531 )     
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    【Aim】 Antennal binding proteins (ABPs), a sub-class of odorant binding proteins (OBPs), indispensable primary carriers of chemical clues for survival and reproduction of insects. Uncovering the functions of ABPs in olfactory recognition of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.), is fundamental to revealing the molecular mechanisms of olfaction of the moth. 【Methods】 An antennal binding protein gene was cloned by PCR, and the stage- and tissue-specific expressions of the gene were profiled using real-time quantitative PCR. Then the binding properties of the antennal binding protein to 39 ligand compounds were detected by fluorescence competitive binding assays. 【Results】 The antennal binding protein gene cloned was named as PxylOBP31 (GenBank accession no.: KT156676). Its ORF is 411 bp in length and encodes 136 amino acids, containing the six conserved cysteine residues of typical OBPs. The signal peptide consists of 21 amino acids in the N terminus. The predicted molecular weight and the isoelectric point of the encoded protein are 14.74 kD and 4.41, respectively. Expression profiling indicated that PxylOBP31 was highly expressed in male adults, and mainly expressed in antennae. While the expression level in male adult antennae was about 2-fold higher than that in female adult antennae. The expression level of PxylOBP31 decreased obviously in mated male adults. The results of binding property assays showed that PxylOBP31 had a high binding capacity to aldehydes, ketones, terpinolene, and disobutyl phthalate, but a low binding capacity to the main three sex pheromone components, olefins, and esters. 【Conclusion】 The nucleotide sequences and developmental and tissue expression profiles of PxylOBP31 were characterized. Based on the qRT-PCR and fluorescence competitive binding assay results, we inferred that PxylOBP31 is involved in such behaviors of the diamondback moth as seeking a mate and locating host plants.
    Analysis of the transcriptome and olfaction-related genes of Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley (Lepidoptera: Gracilariidae)
    MENG Xiang, HU Jun-Jie, LIU Hui, OUYang Ge-Cheng, GUO Ming-Fang
    2016, 59(8):  823-830.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.003
    Abstract ( 1652 )   PDF (3391KB) ( 638 )     
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    【Aim】 Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley is a major and specific fruit borer pest of litchi and longan in Southern China. It is difficult to be controlled because of its better concealment, and there is a lack of its genomic information. The objective of this study is to obtain the genetic data of C. sinensis and to seek effective molecular targets for pest control. 【Methods】 The transcriptome of C. sinensis was sequenced using the Illumina HiSeqTM 4000 sequencing platform and bioinformatics analysis. 【Results】 The clean reads were then de novo assembled into 68 996 unigenes. Through a similarity search against seven public databases, 22 348 unigenes were annotated. Most unigenes were annotated to Nr database (27.01%), and the unigenes of C. sinensis have the highest homology to those of Plutella xylostella in species distribution of unigenes in Nr database (34.1%). According to GO database, 15 585 unigenes were broadly divided into 3 categories and 47 sub-types. By searching KEGG database, 7 272 unigenes were located into 267 metabolic pathways. By further screening and identification, 100 olfaction-related genes of C. sinensis were obtained. Analysis of odorant binding protein genes from C. sinensis (CsOBPs) and the closely related species of Lepidoptera revealed that these genes form 18 OBP ortholog groups, and some form a unique cluster. 【Conclusion】 This study acquired the transcriptome data of C. sinensis for the first time. The results will provide valuable basic data and candidate molecular targets for biological control of C. sinensis. The unique CsOBPs might be associated with habitat-specific chemical components of C. sinensis.  
    Anatomical structure of the brain of larval Ectropis obliqua (Lepidoptera: Geometridae)
    XIE Gui-Ying, CHEN Jun-Hua, TANG Qing-Bo, YIN Jian, ZHAO Xin-Cheng
    2016, 59(8):  831-838.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.004
    Abstract ( 2705 )   PDF (3048KB) ( 604 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the neuropil structures of the brain of the 5th instar larva of the tea geometrid, Ectropis obliqua Prout and to reconstruct their three-dimensional models. 【Methods】 The immunohistochemistry with synapsin antibody was used to characterize the anatomy of the neuropil structures of the brain. The laser scanning confocal microscope was used to acquire the confocal image stacks of the brain and the digital three-dimensional reconstructions were created by using the image analysis software AMIRA. 【Results】 The immunostaining with synapsin antibody revealed that there are many areas with dense synapse in the brain of the 5th instar larva of E. obliqua, which form different neuropil structures of brain. The larval brain of E. obliqua is composed of three main parts: protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum. The protocerebrum contains several paired neuropils,including optic lobes, mushroom bodies, protocerebral bridges and lateral accessory lobes, and an unpaired neuropil of central body. The optic lobes are located posteriorly to the lateral parts of the protocerebrum. The mushroom body is located on the midline of each half brain. The central body is located in the center of brain. The protocerebral bridges are located dorso-posteriorly to the central body, while the lateral accessory lobes are located ventro-anteriorly to the central body. The protocerebrum is the largest part of the brain. In addition to these prominent neuropils, the protocerebrum at its lateral, ventral and dorsal parts also contains a midbrain which accounts for 66% of the brain neuropils. The boundaries of different parts of the midbrain, however, are too fuzzy to be discriminated. The deutocerebrum mainly consists of a pair of antennal lobes. The tritocerebrum at the entrance of circumoesophageal connectives into the brain is located in ventral part of the brain and under the antennal lobe. 【Conclusion】 The three-dimensional models of the brain including the neuropils were reconstructed. The volumes of the neuropils were calculated and their spatial relationships were determined. The results show that the brain of the 5th instar larva of E. obliqua is small and simple, corresponding to undeveloped visual and olfactory sensory organs as well as simple behavioral task at its larval stage.  
    Insecticidal activity and identification of the active ingredients of Clausena lansium seed extracts against larval Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    GUO Cheng-Lin, QIN Liu-Yan, WAN Shu-Qing, MA Yue-Feng, QIN Jian-Lin, MA Yong-Lin
    2016, 59(8):  839-845.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.005
    Abstract ( 1581 )   PDF (2702KB) ( 581 )     
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    【Aim】 By measuring the antifeedant activities of extracts from Clausena lansium seeds against Spodoptera litura larvae as well as separating and identifying the active ingredients and measuring the antifeedant activity, development deterrent activity and cytotoxicity, this study aims to provide references for screening botanical pesticides for ecological management of S. litura. 【Methods】 Leaf disc method was used to determine the no-choice antifeedant activities of methanol extract of C. lansium seeds and extracts of other four solvents (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) as well as the developmental inhibitory activity against the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. Silica column chromatography was used to separate the active antifeedant ingredients of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) was used to identify the structure of active antifeedant compound, and MTT method was used to determine the cytotoxicity of antifeedant compound to S. litura cell lines. 【Results】 The methanol extract of C. lansium seeds exhibited strong antifeedant activity against the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. The active ingredients were mainly distributed in petroleum ether extracts and ethyl acetate extracts. Extracts of petroleum ether and ethyl acetate were fractioned with silica column chromatography and 10 fractions were collected then. Fraction 2, a yellow crystal, showed the highest antifeedant activity. Through isolation, purification and 1HNMR and 13CNMR analyses, lansiumamide B was identified to be the main active ingredient, with the 48 h median antifeedant concentration (AFC50) of 214.95 μg/mL against the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura. This ingredient also displayed high cytotoxicity to the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura, with the 48 h cell medium inhibition concentration value of 10.09 μg/mL. 【Conclusion】 Extracts from C. lansium seeds have strong antifeedant activities and cytotoxicity against S. litura larvae. Lansiumamide B is one of the main active ingredients of the extracts, suggesting its good application prospect as a botanical insecticide.    
    Effects of applied potassium levels on alfalfa nutrients and resistance to thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae)
    ZHANG Xiao-Yan, SHI Shang-Li, LI Xiao-Long, LI Ya-Juan, HU Gui-Xin
    2016, 59(8):  846-853.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.006
    Abstract ( 1452 )   PDF (1047KB) ( 422 )     
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    【Aim】 To determine whether potassium application can effectively improve the resistance of alfalfa to thrips and the relationship between potassium, nutrients and resistance to thrips. 【Methods】 The changes in damage index, potassium content, thrips density, carbon to nitrogen ratio and free amino acid content in leaves of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) resistant to thrips (Gannong No. 9) and susceptible to thrips (Gannong No. 3) were evaluated and measured after application with different levels of potassium (0, 6, 9, 12, 15 g/m2 K2O) during the thrips damage peak in fields. 【Results】 The potassium content, soluble sugar content and carbon to nitrogen ratio in old and heart leaves of Gannong No.3 and Gannong No.9 increased while the free amino acid content decreased with the potassium levels increasing, and the thrips density showed no significant change in the 2nd cutting of alfalfa. The damage index of alfalfa decreased significantly after application with potassium (P<0.05) and was the lowest at the potassium level of 9 g/m2 K2O. The damage index, potassium content, carbon to nitrogen ratio and the free amino acid content in leaves of the 3rd cutting of alfalfa displayed the same change trend with those of the 2nd cutting after application with potassium. However, the thrips density increased as the potassium concentration increased. Correlation analysis indicated that the potassium content in leaves of the 2nd and 3rd cuttings of alfalfa had no correlation with the damage index. The damage index of Gannong No.3 applied with potassium were lower than that of Gannong No.9 without potassium application. 【Conclusion】 The potassium application enhances the resistance of alfalfa to thrips effectively by improving the carbon to nitrogen ratio and decreasing the free amino acid content. Therefore, the potassium application is an effective measure to enhance the tolerance of alfalfa to thrips in fields.  
    Effects of Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae) infestation on photosynthesis and chlorophyll fluorescence of jujube leaves
    LI Qing-Liang, TAN Wei, LI Jie, LI Xia-Ming, HUANG Jun-Bao, PANG Chuan-Ming, ZHAO Long-Long
    2016, 59(8):  854-864.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.007
    Abstract ( 1799 )   PDF (2266KB) ( 440 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the effects of A. lucorum infestation on photosynthesis of Chinese jujube leaves and their mechanisms. 【Methods】 The net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and total chlorophyll content of winter jujube (Zizyphus jujuba cv. Dongzao) and wild jujube (Ziziphus jujuba var. spinosa) leaves were investigated at 1, 3, 5 and 7 d after A. lucorum infestation. 【Results】 The Pn of winter jujube leaves declined by 55.83%, 55.42% and 59.61% at 3, 5 and 7 d after A.lucorum infestation, respectively, while that of wild jujube leaves only decreased by 26.66% and 27.34% at 5 and 7 d, respectively. The reduction of Pn of winter jujube leaves was positively correlated with the reduction of stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content, while that of wild jujube leaves was only positively correlated with chlorophyll content. The chlorophyll a fluorescence transient of winter jujube and wild jujube leaves changed significantly after A. lucorum infestation. A. lucorum infestation reduced the maximum photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm) of winter jujube leaves at 3, 5 and 7 d, but did not significantly affect Fv/Fm of wild jujube leaves. A. lucorum infestation severely damaged the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) and light reaction activity center of winter jujube and wild jujube leaves, but with less injury to wild jujube leaves than to winter jujube leaves. The electron transport activity of PSⅡin winter jujube leaves was inhibited at 5 and 7 d after A. lucorum infestation. However, A. lucorum infestation did not affect the electron transport activity of PSⅡ in wild jujube leaves. A. lucorum infestation reduced the quantum yield of electron transfer in winter jujube and wild jujube leaves, but with less injury to wild jujube leaves than to winter jujube leaves. 【Conclusion】 A. lucorum infestation decreases Pn of jujube leaves, with higher reduction degree in winter jujube leaves than in wild jujube leaves. The decrease in chlorophyll content caused by A. lucorum infestation has a significant positive relation with the reduction of Pn of winter jujube and wild jujube leaves. A. lucorum infestation damages the structure and function of PSⅡ of jujube leaves, the OEC reaction centers of PSⅡ donor side are damaged and the electron transportation of PSⅡ is also inhibited by A. lucorum infestation, but with more severe influence on winter jujube leaves than on wild jujube leaves.      
    Effects of temperature on the development and reproduction of Athetis dissimilis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    GUO Ting-Ting, MEN Xing-Yuan, YU Yi, CHEN Hao, ZHOU Xian-Hong, ZHUANG Qian-Ying, WANG Zhen-Ying, LI Li-Li
    2016, 59(8):  865-870.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.008
    Abstract ( 1708 )   PDF (961KB) ( 692 )     
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    【Aim】 Athetis dissimilis (Hampson) is an agricultural pest newly found in mainland China in recent years, and has similar morphology and the same damage characteristics as Athetis lepigone (M?schler). This study aims to explore the effects of temperature on the growth and development of A. dissimilis so as to provide a basis for its population monitoring and management. 【Methods】 In the laboratory (photoperiod 16L∶8D, RH 70%±10%), the developmental duration, mortality, fecundity of A. dissimilis were studied, and the developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature were calculated at five different temperatures (17, 21, 25, 29 and 33℃). 【Results】 A. dissimilis could complete its life cycle within the constant temperature ranging from 17 to 33℃, and the developmental duration decreased with the temperature increasing. At 17 and 21℃, larvae pupated after the 7th instar, while above 25℃ larvae just had 6 instars. The lowest mortality (only 21.00%) emerged at 25℃. The number of eggs laid per female was 763.95 at 25℃, which was higher than those at other temperatures. The developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature of the whole generation were 9.38℃ and 1 015.36 degree-days, respectively. The duration of male and female adults and the oviposition period decreased with the temperature increasing in the range of 17-33℃, and the longevity of female adults was longer than that of males. At the five temperatures, the sex ratios (male to female) were all between 1.18 and 1.20. 【Conclusion】 The optimal temperature for the development and reproduction of A. dissimilis is 25℃.  
    Geometric morphometrics evaluation and adaptive evolution study of scarabaeine metendosternites
    TONG Yi-Jie, YANG Hai-Dong, MA De-Ying, Bai Ming
    2016, 59(8):  871-879.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.009
    Abstract ( 1842 )   PDF (6027KB) ( 485 )     
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    【Aim】 The metendosternite of beetle is a kind of endoskeleton that is made of chitin. The base of metendosternite is located on hind coxae with free end in the thorax. As the junction point of muscles in chest movement, metendosternite not only plays an important role in the movement of beetles, but also loads the information of classification and system development. According to the habits, dung beetles have two behavior types: tunnelling and rolling. We can not understand the influences of the two behavior types on the morphology of metendosternites through traditional comparative morphology. This study aims to use quantitative geometric morphology method to explore the relationship between behavior type and the response of metendosternites of dung beetles to selective pressure. 【Methods】 The morphological diversity of 76 species of dung beetles was quantitatively analyzed by two-dimension geometry morphology quantitative analysis. The 3D model of the two representative species of the dung beetles, Copris hispanus and Kheper devotus, was reconstructed using Micro CT and the three-dimension reconstruction, and the morphological differences of the metendosternites between both were compared. 【Results】 The p-values of the Mahalanobis distance and Procrustes distance of metendosternite of the two representative species were all less than 0.0001 through the geometric morphology analysis, indicating that the two dung beetles have significant differences in morphology of the metendosternites. The largest differences are the front section of metendosternites (furcal arm and median process) through the comparison of the 3D model of the two dung beetles. The furcal arms (F.A.) of C. hispanus are long and thin, the median process (M.P.) is wide, and the dorsal longitudinal flange (D.L.F.) is narrow and underdeveloped. The furcal arms of K. devotus are flat and broad, the basal parts of the furcal arms are very wide, the median process is small, and the dorsal longitudinal flange is very derdeveloped and looks like a fins. 【Conclusion】 The behavior type of tunnelling or rolling has a significant impact on the morphology of the metendosternites of dung beetles. The morphology of metendosternites has significant correlation with selective pressure of the two behavior types, and this morphology has a close relation with the movement of the muscles that adhere to the metendosternites involved in. This study provides a good example to explore the relationship between morphology and function in insects.  
    Phylogenetic relationship of the genera Aporia and Mesapia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) based on COI and EF- gene sequences
    DING Chang-Ping, ZHANG Ya-Lin
    2016, 59(8):  880-887.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.010
    Abstract ( 1559 )   PDF (14871KB) ( 452 )     
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    【Aim】 At present, the taxonomic status of Aporia and Mesapia is still uncertain. This study aims to explore the phylogenetic relationship between Aporia and Mesapia. 【Methods】 Partial sequences of the COI and EF- genes of 19 species (including 13 species of Aporia, one species of Mesapia, and five species of other three genera used as the outgroups) collected from China were sequenced and analyzed. Based on the combined sequence of the two genes, the phylogenetic relationships of these species were reconstructed and analyzed with the maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian inference (BI) methods. 【Results】 The sequence analysis showed that the COI sequence is 657 bp and the EF-1α sequence is 642 bp in length. There are 439 variable sites and 249 parsimony-informative sites in the 1 299 bp nucleotides of the combined sequence of the two genes, and the percentage of A+T is significantly higher than that of C+G for the whole sequence. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the 14 species except the outgroups included in this study were recovered as monophyletic by strong BV (100) and PP (1.00). In the phylogenetic tree, one branch is (A. oberthuri + A. goutellei)+(A. delavayi+(A. agathon+(A. martineti+(A. largeteaui+A. gigantea)))), another is A. genestieri+(A. leucodice+((A. crataegi+A. potanini)+(M. peloria+(A. bieti+A. hippia)))). 【Conclusion】 Our results support that the genus Mesapia should be synonymized under Aporia. Moreover, our data do not support any subdivisions of Aporia into subgenera or species groups.  
    Application of DNA barcoding identification kit to identify bark beetles of the genus Dendroctonus Erichson (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)(In English)  
    AN Yu-Lin, YANG Xiao-Jun, YE Jian-Ling, QIAN Lu, XU Mei, WU Yun-Ke
    2016, 59(8):  888-895.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.011
    Abstract ( 1506 )   PDF (26561KB) ( 440 )     
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    【Aim】 DNA barcoding has become a powerful tool in taxonomic identification. However, potential issues associated with DNA barcoding, such as overlap of genetic distances between intraspecific and interspecific variation, would directly affect the accuracy of identification. To accurately identify economically important Dendroctonus spp. intercepted at ports of entry, we employed a suite of nucleotide diagnostic sites as the identification characteristics (ICs). Each species is represented by a unique IC. 【Methods】 We designed genus-specific primers to improve amplification efficiency in Dendroctonus. Web-based software Gene Barcoding Analysis Software (GBAS) was designed to extract the IC from molecular sequences and a database was built specifically for species identification. Six unidentified specimens of Dendroctonus were also sampled to validate our IC approach. 【Results】 We obtained 325 bp of COI gene fragment (position 889-1 213 bp on the COI gene) using genus-specific primers. A combination of nucleotide diagnostic sites from the mitochondrial COI region of 12 species of Dendroctonus provides the IC, which is unique for each species, and thus can be used to differentiate closely related species. The ICs of six unidentified samples of Dendroctonus were compared to those of all invasive insects stored in the Plant Quarantine Organisms Identification System. The nucleotide sequence identity between the query sequence of Dendroctonus and IC database is 100% in all cases.【Conclusion】The results demonstrated that the IC approach can accurately identify the species of Dendroctonus. Our approach may be extended to barcode other economically important organisms and identify unknown samples.  
    Basic scientific questions and molecular biology techniques in entomology
    ZHAO Xiao-Fan
    2016, 59(8):  896-905.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.012
    Abstract ( 2287 )   PDF (1014KB) ( 1278 )     
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    Insects are closely associated with human production and life, and therefore entomological research has important theoretical significance and practical value. Insects are good materials to study biological questions because they are easily bred in a large number. The rapid development of molecular biology techniques has greatly promoted the process of entomological research. The success of the transcriptome sequencing and gene editing technologies has broken the boundary of the model species and the non-model species, providing techniques for the study of various important agricultural pests. We need to consider the important scientific questions according to the needs of production practice and the existing theories, promote entomological research progress by using various research methods and techniques, and clarify special scientific questions in the field of entomology and common scientific questions in the field of biology as well.  
    Research advances in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in insects
    WEI Qi, SU Jian-Ya
    2016, 59(8):  906-916.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.08.013
    Abstract ( 2812 )   PDF (1524KB) ( 1330 )     
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     The emerging epidemics of obesity and diabetes have been recognized as major public health problems worldwide, and the primary etiology is an elevation of blood glucose and lipid levels resulting from an imbalance in energy availability and expenditure. Numerous reports have underscored that insects can be used as in vivo model organisms for human metabolic disorders, such as identification of evolutionarily conserved hormones (such as insulin-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone), signaling networks (such as target of rapamycin signaling pathway), and analogous organs or tissues (such as midgut and fat body) that regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in arthropods and mammals. Here, we reviewed the regulatory mechanism of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in insects, which involves the physiological function of the fat body and oenocytes, the antagonism between insulin-like peptide and adipokinetic hormone on hemolymph glucose regulation, the insulin and insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway (IIS) participated in nutrient metabolism and the cholesterol metabolism associated with steroid hormone synthesis, and also summarized the recent findings on Drosophila genes related with carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review will provide reference information for insect physiology and contribute to a better understanding of human metabolic disorders.  
    Contents of Vol. 59 Issue 8
    2016, 59(8):  917-917. 
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