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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2016, Volume 59 Issue 9
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of fluctuating temperature on the reproduction and metabolism of primary energy substances in Mythimna separata (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Juan, LI Bo-Liao, WU Jun-Xiang, XU Xiang-Li
    2016, 59(9):  917-924.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.001
    Abstract ( 1315 )   PDF (14507KB) ( 632 )     
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    【Aim】 This research aims to clarify the relationship between fluctuating temperature and development and fecundity of  Mythimna separata  (Walker), and the change pattern of primary energy substances in this insect under daily alternating temperatures. 【Methods】 The eggs of M. separata were reared at two constant temperatures (25℃ and 30℃) and the fluctuating temperature (30/20℃) with the photoperiod 14L:10D, respectively. The development and fecundity at the constant temperature 25℃ and the fluctuating temperature 30/20℃ were observed and recorded. The contents of energy substances (glycogen, trehalose, and triglyceride) and the activities of the primary enzymes in energy metabolism, i.e. trehalase (TRE), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD) and 3-hydroxyacyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (HOAD), in the 3rd instar larvae, 6th instar larvae, pupae and 1-day-old adults reared at 30℃ and 30/20℃were measured.【Results】 The development of ovarioles of the 1-day-old female adults at 25℃ delayed and the number of eggs laid per female were higher as compared with those at the fluctuating temperature 30/20℃. The contents of glycogen, trehalose, and triglyceride were the highest at the pupal stage and lower at the adult stage. The contents of glycogen, trehalose, and triglyceride contents at fluctuating temperature (30/20℃) were significantly higher than those at the constant temperature (30℃), while the triglyceride content had no significant difference at both the 6th instar larval stage and the pupal stage between the two temperatures. Temperature fluctuations significantly influenced the activities of the four metabolism enzymes. 【Conclusion】 Temperature fluctuation has significant impacts on the development and fecundity of M. separata. The metabolism in the growth and development of M. separata is primarily glucose-based. The daily fluctuating temperature accelerates the metabolism of glucose, relieves lipid metabolism at specific developmental stages and benefits the accumulation of energy substances in M. separata.
    Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression profiling of vitellogenin receptor gene in the green rice leafhopper,  Nephotettix cincticeps  (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)
    CHEN Li-Peng, DU Yu-Ping, FANG Qi, YAO Hong-Wei, YE Gong-Yin
    2016, 59(9):  925-937.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.002
    Abstract ( 1829 )   PDF (25638KB) ( 499 )     
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    【Aim】 Vitellogenin receptor (VgR), which belongs to low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) superfamily, mediates vitellogenin/yolk protein absorption by developing oocytes for embryonic development and plays a critical role in insect reproduction. In order to define the physiological functions of VgR and its roles in reproduction of the green rice leafhopper, Nephotettix cincticeps, we cloned and characterized the VgR gene (NcVgR), and monitored its expression profiles. 【Methods】  NcVgR was cloned using RT-PCR according to previous transcriptomic data of N. cincticeps and analyzed by bioinformatic tools, and the mRNA levels of NcVgR  in different developmental stages and adult tissues were detected via real-time PCR. 【Results】 The complete cDNA of  NcVgR is 6 676 bp in length with a 5 568 bp of open reading frame, encoding a 206 kD protein with 1 855 amino acids including a putative 17-amino-acid signal peptide at the N-terminus. NcVgR has 5 typical conserved domains of LDLR family, including ligand-binding domain (LBD), EGF-precursor homology domain (EGFP), O-linked sugar domain (OLSD), transmembrane domain (TMD) and cytoplasmic domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis indicated that NcVgR was most closely related to N. lugens VgR. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of NcVgR started at the 5th instar nymphal stage, increased rapidly after adult eclosion, reached the peak at 8 d post adult eclosion, and decreased subsequently. Interestingly, the transcriptional level of NcVgR increased again and reached the peak at 16 d post adult eclosion when N. cincticeps female adults started to lay eggs. The mRNA level of  NcVgR was very specially high in ovary, but only trace level was measured in fat body and gut of female adults. NcVgR was not expressed in both brains of female and male adults. 【Conclusion】 We cloned the NcVgR gene, and demonstrated that it is specifically expressed in ovaries of female adults and displays a higher expression after adult eclosion. Our results provide the molecular information for further studying the regulation mechanisms of reproduction of female N. cincticeps.
    Changes in the expression of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene in Antheraea pernyi (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) during pupal diapause termination
    HUANG Ling, SUN Liang-Zhen, WANG Yong, RU Yu-Tao, Muhammad IRFAN, JIANG Yi-Ren, Shi-Sheng-Lin , YANG Rui-Sheng, LI Xi-Sheng, QIN Li
    2016, 59(9):  938-947.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.003
    Abstract ( 1281 )   PDF (10977KB) ( 397 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clone the trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) gene in Antheraea pernyi, to analyze its tissue distribution, and to profile the expression patterns of the gene during diapause termination so as to provide data support for clarifying the relationship between carbohydrate metabolism and diapause termination in diapause pupae of A. pernyi. 【Methods】 The TPS gene was cloned from the fat body of A. pernyi larvae using PCR and 3′ RACE technology, and the putative amino acid sequence was analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The expression pattern of the gene in different tissues of  A. pernyi  larvae was analyzed by RT-PCR. The relative expression levels of the gene in haemolymph and fat body in the process of diapause termination of A. pernyi larvae were measured using real-time PCR technology. 【Results】 The TPS gene of A. pernyi was cloned and named ApTPS. It has an open reading frame (ORF) of 2 487 bp, encoding 828 amino acid residues. The encoded protein is estimated to be 93.19 kD with an isoelectric point (pI) about 4.61, and has no signal peptide and transmembrane region. Subcellular localization analysis indicated that ApTPS targets to cytoplasm. Homology search showed that ApTPS has two conserved domains: TPS (22-497 amino acids) and TPP (532-772 amino acids). Tissue specific mRNA expression profiling showed that ApTPS was mainly expressed in the fat body of A. pernyi larvae. In the process of diapause termination, the expression levels of ApTPS in both haemolymph and fat body were up-regulated and significantly higher than those in the control groups (P<0.05). The elevated expression of the gene in the haemolymph, however, occurred later than that in the fat body. 【Conclusion】 The results suggest that ApTPS participates in the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism and plays a significant role in diapause process of  A. pernyi pupae. There is a close relationship between ApTPS expression and the diapause termination of A. pernyi pupae.
    cDNA cloning, expression anaylsis and subcellular localization of ubiquitin-like post modification protein NEDD8 in the silkworm,  Bombyx mori
    YU Jie, XU Li, SHEN Zhong-Yuan, TANG Xu-Dong
    2016, 59(9):  948-955.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.004
    Abstract ( 1623 )   PDF (14450KB) ( 361 )     
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    【Aim】 NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally down-regulated 8) is an important post-translational modification protein, and plays regulatory roles in the function of its substrate proteins. This study aims to explore the function of NEDD8 in the silkworm,  Bombyx mori. 【Methods】 RT-PCR technology was used to clone the full-length ORF of  NEDD8  from BmN cells. The expression of NEDD8  was detected by real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) in different developmental stages, different tissues of the 5th instar day-3 larvae, and BmNPV infected BmN cells of B. mori. eGFP-fused NEDD8 was expressed in BmN cells by Bac to Bac system and observed under confocal microscope. Western blotting with GFP antibody was performed to verify the expression of GFP-NEDD8 fusion protein in BmN cells. 【Results】 NEDD8 was cloned. Sequence analysis showed that NEDD8 is highly conserved, and has the highest amino acid sequence identity with silkworm ubiquitin. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that NEDD8 was differentially expressed in various tissues of silkworm with the highest expression level in the head, and then in silk gland, and the lowest expression level in testis and ovary. During the pupal stage, the expression level of NEDD8 gradually increased from the 5th instar day-3 larvae to 3-day-old pupae, while significantly decreased in adults. When BmN cells were challenged with BmNPV, the expression level of NEDD8 increased at the early and very late stages of BmNPV infection. GFP-NEDD8 fusion expression analysis showed that NEDD8 was distributed throughout the BmN cells. At 48 h post infection, aggregations of NEDD8 were formed in the cytoplasm of BmN cells. 【Conclusion】 The NEDD8 sequence is highly conserved among different species. It has the highest expression level in the head of  B. mori larva, and increases gradually during the pupal stage of the moth. NEDD8 is localized in the whole BmN cells and may be involved in BmNPV replication. The results lay the foundation for further study of the biological function of NEDD8 and the modification mechanism of its substrate proteins in B. mori.
    Transcriptome analysis of immune responses of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) infected by the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea
    LEI Yan-Yuan, HE Yu-Rong, XIE Mei-Qiong, Lü Li-Hua, GU Jia-Rui
    2016, 59(9):  956-964.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.005
    Abstract ( 1451 )   PDF (1573KB) ( 534 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the immune-related genes and immune recognition regulatory network of Plutella xylostella against the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea, so to further investigate the innate immune mechanisms of P. xylostella to I. fumosorosea. 【Methods】 We analyzed the transcriptome of I. fumosorosea infected and uninfected (the control) 4th instar larvae of P. xylostella at 12 h after treatment using high-throughput single-end RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). The differentially expressed genes and their functions, classifications and signaling pathways were analyzed using bioinformatic tools. 【Results】 The numbers of 12 346 987 and 12 315 210 clean reads were obtained for the infected and uninfected libraries, respectively. Among the two RNA-seq libraries, 60.93% and 61.26% of reads could be mapped to reference genome with a perfect match proportion of 32.15% and 32.73%, respectively. A total of 351 differentially expressed unigenes (DEUs) were identified between infected and uninfected larvae. Among them, 275 DEUs were up-regulated while 76 DEUs down-regulated. In total, there were 156 DEUs putatively involved in immune responses. A Blast2GO analysis indicated that 102 differentially expressed transcripts were able to be assigned to 46 Gene Ontology (GO) terms. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis mapped 132 DEUs to 13 pathways (P<0.05).【Conclusion】 Most of the DEUs are putatively linked to innate immune recognition and regulation. These infection-responsive DEUs are enriched in various immune processes, such as energy metabolism, disease and defense response. The findings generated from this study provide a bioinformatic database for searching immune-related genes, and also benefit the future investigations of the innate immune mechanisms of P. xylostella against the entomopathogenic fungus I. fumosorosea.
    Analysis of the bacterial community structure and diversity in the intestine of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
    LIU Xiao-Gai, YANG Ya-Jun, LIAO Qiu-Ju, XU Hong-Xing, LIU Ying-Hong, LU Zhong-Xian
    2016, 59(9):  965-976.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.006
    Abstract ( 1794 )   PDF (1400KB) ( 838 )     
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    【Aim】 To clarify the community structure and diversity of bacteria in the intestine of Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Guenée) larvae. 【Methods】 The V3-V4 regions of the 16S rDNA genes of intestinal bacteria in the 4th instar larvae of C. medinalis  were sequenced by Illumina MiSeq techniques. The numbers of sequences and operational taxonomic units (OTUs), species composition, abundance and diversity of the bacteria were analyzed using USEARCH and QIIME softwares. A total of 165 386 reads were obtained in the four samples consisting of 1, 2, 3 and 5 larvae of C. medinalis, respectively. 【Results】 After filtration, 604 OTUs were acquired and annotated into 22 phyla, 43 classes, 82 orders, 142 families, 204 genera, and 244 species. Common dominant bacteria based on phyla were Proteobacteria (relative abundance 26%-34%) and Actinobacteria (23%-32%). Actinobacteria (relative abundance 23%-32%), Acidobacteria (9%-11%), Alphaproteobacteria (10%-13%), Betaproteobacteria (6%-8%), Gammaproteobacteria (6%-12%) were dominant at the class level. Nocardioidaceae, Comamonadaceae, Xanthomonadaceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Gemmatimonadaceae were commonly dominated at the family level in the bacterial communities from the four samples, and Nocardioides and Sphingomonas were the commonly dominated genera in the top 5 genera of bacterial communities from the four samples. The indices of Simpson, Shannon, Ace and Chao were 0.16-0.65, 0.94-3.22, 212-488 and 210-490, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that there are diverse bacteria in the intestine of C. medinalis larvae, and there are differences in bacterial structure and diversity among intestines of C. medinalis individuals. The information from samples of different size and the total sample can promote the comprehensive understanding of the bacterial community in the intestine of C. medinalis population. The information of bacterial abundance and diversity in the intestine of C. medinalis will facilitate the studies on the new technology of its control based on the intestinal bacteria.
    Effects of antiserums of cadherin, aminopeptidase N and alkaline phosphatase on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    WANG Bing-Jie, YUAN Xiang-Dong, ZHAO Man, LIU Chen, CHEN Lin, LIANG Ge-Mei
    2016, 59(9):  977-984.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.007
    Abstract ( 1459 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 399 )     
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    【Aim】 Cry1A and Cry2A toxins play insecticidal roles by specifically binding with receptor proteins on insect midgut, and are widely used in Bt transgenic crops now. This study aims to further understand the action mechanisms of Cry2A and the roles of the functional receptor proteins of Cry1A in the toxicity of Cry2A. 【Methods】 We firstly extracted brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of midgut, prepared antibody and antiserums of cadherin (CAD), aminopeptidase N (APN), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in Helicoverpa armigera. Then, after detecting the antiserums of these three receptor proteins in BBMV by Western blot, we compared the effects of antiserums of these three receptor proteins on the toxicities of Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in the susceptible and Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera  (BtR) by the antibody blocking technology. 【Results】 For the susceptible H. armigera, the antiserums of these three receptor proteins not only significantly reduced the toxicity of Cry1Ac, but also remarkably reduced the toxicity of Cry2Aa. Among them, anti-APN antiserum had the biggest impact on the toxicity of Cry1Ac, causing the mortality of H. armigera larvae to be reduced by 84.44%, and anti-ALP antiserum had the greatest effect on the toxicity of Cry2Aa, causing the larval mortality to be reduced by 71.04% compared with the control (without treatment by antiserum). The toxicity of Cry1Ac to Cry1Ac-resistant H. armigera (BtR) was obviously reduced and the toxicity of Cry2Aa also became less to these resistant larvae. The influences of the antiserums of these three receptors on the toxicity of Cry1Ac to the Cry1Ac-resistant strain of H. armigera (BtR) were smaller than those to the susceptible strain. Especially, the inhibition percentage of anti-CAD and -APN antiserums to the toxicity of Cry1Ac decreased significantly. The effects of anti-CAD and -ALP antiserums on the toxicity of Cry2Aa to the Cry1Ac-resistant strain (BtR) and the susceptible strain were not significantly different, but the anti-APN antiserum obviously reduced the toxicity of Cry2Aa to the Cry1Ac-resistant strain (BtR). 【Conclusion】 The midgut receptor proteins CAD, APN and ALP not only participate in the insecticidal process of Cry1Ac, but also affect the toxicity of Cry2Aa to H. armigera, and these three receptors may be related with the resistance and cross-resistance to Cry1Ac and Cry2Aa in H. armigera.
    Effects of pupal weight on the fecundity and longevity of adults and the larval development of the next generation in Grapholitha molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    YU Qin, WANG Fang, ZHANG Run-Xiang, GUO Gui-Ming, FAN Ren-Jun, HAO Chi
    2016, 59(9):  985-990.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.008
    Abstract ( 1377 )   PDF (1250KB) ( 522 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of pupal weight of Grapholitha molesta (Busck), associated with nutrition, on the fecundity, oviposition duration, longevity of both male and female adults and the development of larvae of the next generation (F1). 【Methods】 G. molesta pupae of various weights were reared in the laboratory and sorted into three groups: heavier, medium and lighter groups. After emergence and mating, the fecundity, oviposition duration, and survival of male and female adults were recorded. Before the eggs were hatched, the sizes of eggs were measured; after egg hatching the sizes of newly hatched larvae were measured, and the egg hatchability and the larval duration were observed. 【Results】 Female pupal weight of G. molesta significantly affected the fecundity of adults, and had a positive linear correlation with the number of eggs laid (y=15.505x-59.292) and a linear correlation with the male pupal weight (y=0.823x-0.538). The female pupal weight also had a significant effect on oviposition duration. The peak oviposition period of the lighter pupal weight group appeared 1 d earlier than that of the heavier group. The oviposition duration with the number of eggs laid per female per day greater than 10 was 9-10, 7 and 5-6 d, respectively, for the heavier, the medium and the lighter groups, while the oviposition duration with the number of eggs laid per female per day greater than 5 was 12-13, 9 and 6-7 d, respectively, for the three groups. However, male pupal weight had no obvious effects on adult fecundity and oviposition duration. Moreover, the longevity of adult females emerged from lighter pupae was 2-3 d shorter than that of adult females emerged from the heavier ones. But male pupal weight showed no significant effect on the longevity of adult males. Pupal weight was found to have no statistically significant effects on egg hatchability, sizes of eggs and newly hatched larvae, and the growth and development of F1 larvae. 【Conclusion】 Female pupal weight of G. molesta has a significant effect on the fecundity and oviposition duration of female adults. With these conclusions in mind, we should consider the weight of moths when we control this pest in the field, especially the weight of female G. molesta, which may be affected by nutrition and will affect population dynamics in the following generation.
    Effects of brief exposure to high temperature in the larval stage on the survival and fecundity of Athetis lepigone (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LIANG Fei-Fei, WANG Zhen-Ying, HE Kang-Lai, ZHANG Tian-Tao, BAI Shu-Xiong
    2016, 59(9):  991-996.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.009
    Abstract ( 1455 )   PDF (969KB) ( 526 )     
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    【Aim】 As the global climate becomes warmer, the frequencies of transient extremely high temperature have gradually increased. This study aims to understand the thermal adaptation of Athetis lepigone larvae at high temperature. 【Methods】 The survival rate, larval duration, pupation rate, emergence rate, female longevity, fecundity and egg hatching rate of A. lepigone reared at the constant temperature 26℃ and treated with heat stress at 35, 38, and 41℃ for 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h, respectively, in different larval stages were observed and compared with the untreated control reared at the constant temperature 26℃. 【Results】 Both temperature and duration of exposure to high temperature significantly affected the survival rate and larval duration of A. lepigone. No significant differences were observed in pupation rate, emergence rate, female longevity and fecundity of adults, and egg hatching rate between the heat stress groups and the control. The survival rate of larvae tended to drop and the larval duration prolonged with the increase of temperature and duration of exposure. The 18-day-old larvae were the most sensitive to high temperature. After the larvae were exposed to 38℃ and 41℃ for 6 h, their survival rates were 58.3% and 17.7%, respectively, significantly lower than that of the control, and the larval duration was 25.5 d and 29.2 d, respectively, significantly longer than that of the control.  【Conclusion】 Short-term exposure to high temperature in the larval stage of A. lepigone only affects its larval survival rate and duration, but has no effect on its pupal and adult development and adult fecundity.
    Attractiveness of jasmonic acid-treated Morus alba branches to Aprostocetus prolixus (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) and analysis of their volatile compounds
    WANG Wei, LI Ji-Quan, WANG Shu-Xiang, ZHANG Jing, DONG Xin, TANG Zhe, TIAN Hong-Yu
    2016, 59(9):  997-1003.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.010
    Abstract ( 1244 )   PDF (1151KB) ( 418 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the effects of volatiles from Morus alba branches treated with jasmonic acid (JA) on the behaviors of Aprostocetus prolixus, and to investigate the dynamic changes of the volatiles, so as to provide the theoretical basis for clarifying the mechanism of JA-induced indirect resistance to insects in M. alba. 【Methods】 In this study, the olfactometer was employed to investigate the attractiveness of M. alba branches to A. prolixus at 24, 48 and 72 h post treatment with different JA concentrations. The dynamic changes of chemical components of volatiles from M. alba branches treated with 1 000 μmol/L JA were analyzed by GC-MS at different time points. 【Results】 The results demonstrated  that M. alba branches had no significant attractiveness to A. prolixus at any time point when treated with 10 μmol/L JA. Treated with 100 μmol/L JA, M. alba branches displayed significant attractiveness to A. prolixus only at 48 h post treatment. However, the attractiveness of volatiles from M. alba branches to A. prolixus was significantly higher than that of the control at 24 h (P<0.05) and 48 h (P<0.01) post treatment with 1 000 μmol/L JA. At 72 h post treatment, the attractiveness gradually disappeared. Spearman’s correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive correlation between JA concentration and the attractiveness of branches to A. prolixus (ρ=0.791, P=0.006). Identified by GC-MS, the volatiles of M. alba branches treated with 1 000 μmol/L JA consisted of alcohols, easters, terpenoids, aromatic compounds and nitrogenous compounds. Among them, the terpenoids were predominant and contained 13 components. It was also found that the components and the total emission rate of volatiles altered with extension of the duration of jasmonic acid treatment. At 24 h post treatment, 18 chemical components were emitted from the treated M. alba branches (with 11 more components than those of the control), and their total emission rate was 8.2-fold as high as that of the control. The M. alba branches emitted 22 chemical components at 48 h post treatment (with 15 more components than those of the control), and the total emission rate of these components was 44.6-fold as high as that of the control. At 72 h post treatment, 13 chemical components, six more than those of the control, were detected from the treated M. alba branches, and their total emission rate sharply decreased (3.9-fold as high as that of the control) but was not significantly different from that of the control. 【Conclusion】 The attractiveness of M. alba branches to A. prolixus gradually enhances with the increase of JA concentration. JA can induce the synthesis of volatile chemical components and great emission of volatiles in M. alba branches.
    Morphology of the immature stages of Panorpa macrostyla  Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) with notes on its biology
    JIANG Lu, HUA Bao-Zhen
    2016, 59(9):  1004-1012.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.011
    Abstract ( 1230 )   PDF (21117KB) ( 427 )     
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    【Aim】 Panorpidae, the largest family of Mecoptera, are important ecological indicators for environments. The immature stages of Panorpidae, however, are insufficiently studied so far mainly due to their strict ecological requirements and rearing difficulties. 【Methods】 The immature stages (including egg, larva, and pupa) of the scorpionfly Panorpa macrostyla Hua were studied biologically and morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy. 【Results】 P. macrostyla is a univoltine insect, completing one generation per year. The adults appear from late June to early August. The egg is ellipsoid, with a raised reticulation on the chorion. The larva is eruciform, with three pairs of four-segmented thoracic legs and eight pairs of unsegmented prolegs. The larval head is strongly sclerotized, bearing a pair of compound eyes each comprising 26 ommatidia, a pair of 3-segmented antennae, and the mandibulate mouthparts. The larval trunk is cylindrical, bearing nine pairs of dorsal processes on the first nine abdominal segments and a single dorsal process on the tenth abdominal segment. A protrusible sucker is present on the terminal abdominal segment. The larval respiratory system is of the peripneustic type, having a pair of prothoracic and eight pairs of abdominal spiracles. The larval stage consists of four instars, and overwinters as prepupal stage within a pupal cavity in the soil. The pupa is exarate and decticous, morphologically similar to the adult. The male pupa has enlarged genital bulb on its caudal end. 【Conclusion】 The larvae of P. macrostyla are morphologically different from those of Neopanorpa, Sinopanorpa, Dicerapanorpa, and Cerapanorpa. However, P. macrostyla larvae differ from its congeners by the apical-expanded setae of L2 and SO2 on the head capsule, and D2, SD1, SD2 on the caudal segment, implying that the generic status of P. macrostyla needs further research.
    Morphological identifiability of Burmese amber inclusions under X-rays
    GUO Ming-Xia, YANG Hai-Dong, LI Gang, TONG Yi-Jie, LI Sha, LU Yuan-Yuan, SHI Ai-Min, WANG Bo, ZHANG Wei-Wei, BAI Ming
    2016, 59(9):  1013-1020.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.012
    Abstract ( 1729 )   PDF (55764KB) ( 396 )     
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    【Aim】 Burmese ambers from the Hukawng Valley of North Myanmar are estimated to be formed in the middle Cretaceous. Not only did these ambers have very high artistic value, but also their inclusions had high biodiversity and immeasurable scientific value. Micro-CT can provide high-resolution tomographic image of internal anatomy from fossil (amber). In this case, Micro-CT is becoming one of the common methods of amber study. However, the biological structures within the amber visible from microscopy may demonstrate very different results under X-rays. On the contrary, the extant materials provide similar performance in the detection under microscopy and Micro-CT. This study aims to ascertain this particular phenomenon based on nine Burmese amber samples from the Hukawang Valley. 【Methods】 Photographs were taken using a Nikon 5200D digital camera and processed with Helicon Focus 5.3 software. Nine Burmese amber samples were scanned by micro-CT. The Burmese amber inclusions were reconstructed by computer tomography reconstruction technologys.【Results】 The Micro-CT results were mainly divided into three types: no contrast completely, contrast in partial structure and good contrast in most structures. The external and internal structures with visible contrast were reconstructed based on the CT data obtained from Burmese ambers. 【Conclusion】 There is not always good relationship between visible light imaging and X-ray imaging of amber inclusions. This phenomenon is probably related to the preservation of the amber, amber density difference, and the difference in contrast between the surroundings of amber. The physical and chemical changes during the process of amber formation and burial are very complex. The mechanisms would be more complex and difficult to be inferred. Here we preliminarily illustrated the main types of this phenomenon. More comprehensive sampling and more strict experimental design in the follow-up studies may finally solve this problem on taphonomy.
    Current research on the resurgence, biology and control of bed bugs
    WANG Lei, WANG Chang-Lu, XU Yi-Juan, ZENG Ling
    2016, 59(9):  1021-1032.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2016.09.013
    Abstract ( 1777 )   PDF (6740KB) ( 624 )     
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    Since the mid-1990s, many developed countries and regions experienced a resurgence of bed bugs. In this article, we reviewed the researches on bed bugs, including the resurgence causes, their biology and behavior, artificial rearing techniques, insecticide resistance, and monitoring and management techniques. We summarized the studies on the common bed bug (Cimex lectularius L.) and the tropical bed bug (C. hemipterus (F.)) during the past 15 years. The recent resurgence of bed bugs was likely to be caused by high levels of insecticide resistance of bed bugs and frequent travel. Simple and inexpensive artificial membrane blood-feeding techniques were developed for mass rearing and maintenance of bed bugs. Integrated pest management (IPM) was shown to be the most effective and sustainable management strategy of bed bugs which includes education, proactive inspection, nonchemical treatments (laundering, encasing mattresses and boxsprings, steaming, installing intercepting devices), chemical treatments, and follow-up service visits until elimination is confirmed. Some areas in China, such as the Pearl River Delta area in Guangdong province, are also experiencing  risingincidences of bed bug infestations. Infestations were primarily found in migrant worker dormitories and passenger trains. It is urgent to monitor the occurrence of bed bugs and their insecticide resistance in China. Effective monitoring tools and control methods suitable for the unique environment in China are also needed. Establishing standards for the control of bed bug infestations will be very important. Government-organized community-wide bed bug education and control campaigns should be considered to increase public awareness and curb the current bed bug resurgence.
    Contents of Vol. 59 Issue 9
    2016, 59(9):  1033-1033. 
    Abstract ( 971 )   PDF (447KB) ( 316 )     
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