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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 April 2017, Volume 60 Issue 4
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    Expression and binding characterization of odorant binding protein 1 (AcorOBP1) in Anomala corpulenta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea)
    WANG Chao-Qun, Zhao-Ying, Cao Ya-Zhong, Wei Hong-Shuang, Li Ke-Bin, Zhang-Shuai, Peng-Yu, Yin-Jiao
    2017, 60(4):  363-371.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.001
    Abstract ( 1044 )   PDF (2951KB) ( 680 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to reveal the expression profiles of the odorant binding protein 1 (AcorOBP1) gene in Anomala corpulenta Motschulsky and its binding specificity to specific semiochemicals.【Methods】 The spatio-temporal expression profiles of AcorOBP1 in A.corpulenta was assayed by RT-qPCR. Prokaryotic expression system was used to express and purify AcorOBP1. The binding characteristics of AcorOBP1 to 56 candidate compounds were assayed by fluorescence competitive binding experiment. 【Results】 AcroOBP1 was expressed in eggs, 1st instar larvae and adults of A. corpulenta, and its  expression level in adult antenna was extremely significantly higher than those in other adult tissues (P<0.05). In the ligand-binding experiment, 53 of the 56 compounds tested were able to bind to AcorOBP1. Particularly, methyl salicylate and decyl alcohol, which are volatile components of the wax leaf privet Ligustrum quihoui, showed outstanding binding affinities to AcorOBP1 with the dissociation constants of 2.10±0.08 and 5.04±0.59 μmol/L,respectively. 【Conclusion】 AcorOBP1 shows binding affinity to a wide range of test compounds and may play a vital role in the localization of host plant L. quihoui by A. corpulenta.
    Influence of lipopolysaccharide on the expression of the Toll-like receptor gene BmToll9-2 in larval Bombyx mori
    LIAO Wen-Li, Bu Xiao-Ling, Jiang Wan-Yi, Liu Ji-Sheng
    2017, 60(4):  372-378.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.002
    Abstract ( 1060 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 550 )     
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    【Aim】 Toll-like receptors are important members in Toll signaling pathway in insects and play an important role in activating the innate immune response to invading pathogenic microorganisms. This study aims to explore the influence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of the Toll-like receptor gene BmToll9-2 in larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. 【Methods】 The expression profiles of BmToll9-2 in epidermis, fat body, Malpighian tubules, midgut, brain, silk glands and thoracic muscles of the 4th and 5th instar larvae of B. mori strain Dazao were detected by RT-PCR. LPS and Escherichia coli were respectively injected into the body cavity of the 5th instar larvae to induce their immune response, and the expression levels of BmToll9-2 in the midgut at different time after injection were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】 RT-PCR results revealed that BmToll9-2 was highly expressed not only in the fat body, Malpighian tubules, brain and silk glands of the 4th instar larvae of B. mori, but also in the fat body, midgut, Malpighian tubules and brain of the 5th instar larvae. The real-time quantitative PCR results showed that injection of LPS could induce the transcription of BmToll9-2 in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae, and the best induction effect was at 6 h after injection. Injection of E. coli could also induce the transcription of BmToll9-2 in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae, and the best induction effect was at 3 and 6 h after injection. 【Conclusion】 Expression of BmToll9-2 in B. mori larvae is up-regulated after  injection of LPS and E. coli,suggesting that BmToll9-2 receptor may be involved in the recognition process of Toll-like receptors to LPS and E. coli in insects.
    Characteristics and classification position of the ionotropic receptor genes IR8a and IR25a in four vector mosquito species of medical importance
    WANG Ting-Ting, Hao You-Jin, He Zheng-Bo, Mei-Ting, Chen-Bin
    2017, 60(4):  379-399.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.003
    Abstract ( 1124 )   PDF (6437KB) ( 552 )     
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    【Aim】 To identify the ionotropic receptor genes IR8a and IR25a , and the representative iGluRs and IRs genes in four vector mosquito species of medical importance, Anopheles sinensisAnopheles gambiaeAedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, and to investigate the characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of these genes, so as to determine the classification position of the IR8a and IR25a genes in the group of ionotropic glutamate receptor genes. 【Methods】 By using BLASTP and BLASTN searching against the genomes of these four mosquito species with the iGluRs and IRs gene sequences of Drosophila melanogaster as query sequences, the sequences of iGluRs and IRs genes of these four mosquito species were identified. The characteristics of the amino acid sequences of IR8a and IR25a and the representative iGluRs and IRs genes identified were predicted and comparatively analyzed by bioinformatics methods. The phylogenetic relationships of these genes in the five species were deduced and discussed by using maximum likelihood, Bayesian and maximum parsimony methods based on amino acid sequences, and the selection pressures of these genes were analyzed with the dN/dS(ω) values calculated by using PAML software. 【Results】 The sequences of IR8a and IR25a, 24 representative traditional iGluRs genes and 30 representative IRs genes in mosquitoes An. sinensisAn. gambiaeAn. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus were identified by bioinformatics methods. The comparative analyses of characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of these genes showed that the amino acid sequence lengths of IR8a and IR25a in the four mosquito species and D. melanogaster are closer to those of iGluRs, and their mean values are significantly longer than those of other IRs. IR25a has the aminoterminal domain (ATD) that is the characteristic of traditional iGluRs, and IR8a also has a region similar to ATD, although it is not conservative, while IRs have no ATD. IR8a and IR25 also have the conserved S1 and S2 ligand-binding domain (LBD), the characteristics of iGluRs, but IRs do not have it. The dN/dS(ω) values of all these genes were far less than 1, suggesting the purifying selection in evolution, while the dN/dS(ω) values of IR8a and IR25a were closer to those of iGluRs. In addition, like non-NMDA, IR8a and IR25a have specific sites which do not exit in IRs. IR8a and IR25a cluster together with non-NMDA to form a sister group, with the genetic distance between the sequences within the group less than that of any other pairs of sequences in this study. Based on these results, IR8a and IR25a were classified into the non-NMDA receptors in iGluRs, and named as Putative receptors. 【Conclusion】 This study developed the information frame of iGluRs and IRs genes of mosquito species and determined the classification position of IR8a and IR25a genes, which is of significance for further functional study of these genes.
    Spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of Panorpa liui Hua (Mecoptera: Panorpidae)
    ZHANG Bei-Bei, Xie-Sha, Hua Bao-Zhen
    2017, 60(4):  389-400.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.004
    Abstract ( 1055 )   PDF (11499KB) ( 550 )     
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    【Aim】 Sperm ultrastructure exhibits great variations among insect groups and has important value for species recognition and phylogenetic analysis of  insects. However, spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure in Mecoptera have not been sufficiently studied. 【Methods】 The spermatogenesis and sperm ultrastructure of the scorpionfly Panorpa liui Hua were investigated by light and transmission electron microscopy.【Results】 Each spermatogonium undergoes seven successive divisions in a cyst of P. liui, resulting in 128 spermatids that synchronously transform later into spermatozoa. These mature spermatozoa form a sperm bundle, but the number of spermatozoa is normally less than 128 in a bundle. During spermiogenesis, the sperm acrosome is generated by the pro-acrosomal granule material, which originates from Golgi apparatus in the cytoplasm of spermatids. The elongated nucleus is transformed through nucleus elongation and streamlining with a simultaneous condensation of chromatin. The mitochondrial derivatives are transformed from the conspicuous nebenkern, which is formed from mitochondrial aggregation and fusion in the cytoplasm of spermatids. The mature spermatozoon consists of a short head, a neck region, and a long flagellum. The head is composed of the apical bilayered acrosome and the elongated nucleus with two lateral grooves. The neck region mainly consists of the centriole and the electron-dense, sheath-shaped centriolar adjunct. The flagellum is helical and mainly comprises a 9+2 axoneme, two mitochondrial derivatives of different sizes, and two accessory bodies.  【Conclusion】 The phenomenon that the number of sperm in a sperm bundle of P. liui is usually slightly less than 128 is likely associated with the complex process of spermiogenesis and phagocytosis of cells. The mitochondrial derivatives differ distinctly among different groups and likely provide valuable characters for phylogenetic analysis of Mecoptera.
    Transcriptomic analysis of Ascosphaera apis stressing larval gut of Apis mellifera ligustica (Hyemenoptera: Apidae)
    CHEN Da-Fu, Guo-Rui, Xiong Cui-Ling, Liang-Qin, Zheng Yan-Zhen, Xu Xi-Jian, Huang Zhi-Jian, Zhang Zhao-Nan, Zhang-Lu, Li Wen-Dong, Tong Xin-Yu, Xi Wei-Jun
    2017, 60(4):  401-411.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.005
    Abstract ( 1502 )   PDF (5934KB) ( 1025 )     
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    【Aim】 This research is designed to conduct transcriptomic analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of Ascosphaera apis stressing larval guts of Apis mellifera ligustica via trend analysis. 【Methods】 The purified A. apis spores at a concentration of 1×107spores/mL was used to feed 3-day-old larvae of A. m. ligustica, and then the cDNA of stressed larval guts was sequenced at Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. After filtration, the clean reads were used to mapping the ribosome database and the reference genome of A. m. ligustica, and the unmapped reads were used to mapping the reference transcriptome of A. apis assembled previously. The STEM software was used to analyze the gene expression patterns. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis for DEGs involved in significant expression patterns was performed using WEGOsoftware. KEGG enrichment analysis for DEGs associated with significant expression patterns was carried out by using Blastall. Finally, RT-qPCR analysis of six randomly selected DEGs was performed to validate the RNA-seq data. 【Results】 The RNA-seq of A. apis produced 25 454 076 raw reads, and after filtration, 24 909 820 clean reads with Q30 above 93.46% were obtained. Trend analysis results showed that 19 893 DEGs were grouped into eight gene expression patterns, among which 12 151 DEGs were assigned to three expression patterns with significantly up-regulated expression trend. GO enrichment analysis results indicated that all DEGs within significantly up-regulated expression patterns were enriched in 40 GO terms, and the mostly enriched one was cellular process (2 601 unigenes), followed by metabolic process (2 553 unigenes) and cell (2 522 unigenes). KEGG enrichment analysis result displayed that all DEGs within significantly up-regulated expression patterns were enriched in 119 metabolism pathways, and the mostly enriched one was ribosome (213 unigenes), followed by biosynthesis of amino acids (154 unigenes) and protein  processing in endoplasmic reticulum (130 unigenes). Furthermore,it was found that 48 DEGs were enriched in MAPK signaling pathway, and the cluster result suggested that the expression levels of these DEGs increased as the stressing time prolonged. RT-qPCR results demonstrated that the expression patterns of the six DEGs were consistent with those of RNA-seq data, confirming that our transcriptome data are credible.【Conclusion】 The findings in this study not only provide the key information for uncovering the pathogenesis of A. apis at the molecular level, but also lay a foundation for clarifying the pathogen-host interaction in A. m. ligustica under the stress of A. apis.
    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus-induced volatiles from rice plants and behavioral responses of adult Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae) to the components of these volatiles
    WANG Lu-Feng, Hu-Kui, He Hua-Liang, Ding Wen-Bing, Li You-Zhi
    2017, 60(4):  412-420.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.006
    Abstract ( 1174 )   PDF (1594KB) ( 593 )     
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    【Aim】 Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a persistent virus transmitted by the whitebacked planthopper (WBPH),Sogatella furcifera, among rice plants. This research aims to investigate whether SRBSDV can induce the changes in the types and contents of volatiles from rice plants, and the possible relationship between the host orientation behavior of WBPH and the volatile changes. 【Methods】The volatiles from SRBSDV-infected and  uninfected plants were respectively collected by using the dynamic headspace, and analyzed on GC-MS. The behavioral responses of WBPH to the volatiles detected exclusively in the infected plants were tested by using olfactometer.【Results】 Thirty-six volatile compounds belonging to 11 categories weredetected from the uninfected plants. Thirty-seven compounds belonging to 12 categories were detected from the SRBSDV-infected plants. Twelve compounds, i.e., n-hexadecane, didecyl ether, butyl octyl phthalate,n-octadecane, diisobutyl adipate (DA), pentadecanal, methyl hexadecanoate (MH), 2-methylhexacosane, benzophenone, cedrol,n-eicosane and plant alcohol, were detected exclusively in the infected plants. Meanwhile, six compounds, i.e., 1-tricosene, octadecanal,naphthalene, perhydrofarnesyl acetone, lauryl alcohol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), were detected both in the infected and uninfected plants, but had significant differences in their contents. Olfactory selection experiments showed that only plant alcohol exhibited distinctly repellent activity against WBPH at the concentration of 50 μL/L.【Conclusion】 The changes in the types and contents of rice volatiles are related to rice varieties and its developmental stages. Plant alcohol is only detected in the rice variety Rongyouhuazhan at the booting stage and has significantly repellent effects on WBPH. However, more research is needed to clarify whether plant alcohol can be helpful for the transmission of SRBSDV.
    Attractiveness of aggregation pheromones and host plant volatiles to Anoplophora glabripennis and A. chinensis (Coleoptera:Cerambycidae)
    ZHU Ning, Zhang Dong-Yong, Wu Li-Ping, Hu-Qin, Fan Jian-Ting
    2017, 60(4):  421-430.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.007
    Abstract ( 1305 )   PDF (1576KB) ( 806 )     
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    【Aim】 Anoplophora glabripennis and A. chinensis often coexist, endanger the common hosts and share the same aggregation pheromones. The aim of this study is to evaluate the attractiveness of aggregation pheromones and host plant volatiles to the two long-horned beetle species. 【Methods】 The indoor feeding preference of A. glabripennis and A. chinensis adults on twigs of three host species, Acer negundo Salix babylonica and Melia azedarach, was assayed by using feeding area method, and the components of host plant volatiles were analyzed by using dynamic headspace adsorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The trapping effects of aggregation pheromone and plant volatiles on these two species were investigated by field trapping tests in Yuyao and Cixi, Zhejiang. 【Results】 The results of indoor choice and no-choice feeding experiments showed that the most preferred host plant of A. glabripennis was A. negundo, followed by S. babylonica,and then M. azedarach, while the preference order of A. chinensis to host plants was just opposite: the most preferred host plant was M. azedarach, followed by S. babylonica, and then A. negundo. In the host plant volatiles, there were many terpenoids and aromatic compounds, and eachhost species had several unique volatile components and there were significant differences in the volatile components among different hostspecies. The results of the field trapping tests showed that the mixed formula MK (4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol+4-(n-heptyloxy)utanal+camphene+cis-3-hexen-1-ol+ocimene+β-caryophyllene) of the aggregation pheromones and M. azedarach volatiles, aggregation pheromone formula M (4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol+4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal), M. azedarach formula K (camphene+cis-3-hexen-1-ol+ocimene+β-caryophyllene) and S. babylonica formula L (nonanal) all trapped A. glabripennis and A. chinensis adults at the same time. Among them, the mixed formula MK of the aggregation pheromones and M. azedarach volatiles showed the best trapping effect on A. glabripennis and A. chinensis adults, and trapped more adults of both species than  aggregation pheromones or plant volatiles alone. The proportion of females trapped by aggregation pheromones was higher than the proportion of males, while the proportion of males trapped by plant volatiles was higher than that of females.【Conclusion】 The study further confirms that 4-(n-heptyloxy)butan-1-ol and 4-(n-heptyloxy)butanal are the common aggregation pheromones shared by A. glabripennis and A. chinensis. Meanwhile, nonanal, camphene, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, ocimene and β-caryophyllene are the common plant volatiles shared by A. glabripennis and A. chinensis. The combination of aggregation heromones and plant volatiles can be applied to the technology for monitoring A. glabripennis and A. chinensis in forests.
    Parasitic biological characteristics of Psyllaephagus arenarius (Hymenoptera:Encyrtidae) on Paratrioza sinica (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)
    WU Peng-Xiang, Ma Bao-Xu, Xu-Jing, Zhang-Rong, He-Jia, Zhang Run-Zhi
    2017, 60(4):  431-440.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.008
    Abstract ( 1132 )   PDF (2476KB) ( 463 )     
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    【Aim】 To study the parasitism of Psyllaephagus arenarius on Poratrioza sinica, so as to provide the scientific basis for wise use of P. arenarius to control P. sinica.【Methods】 The morphological and parasitic characteristics of P. arenarius were observed in the laboratory, the parasitism preference, parasitism functional response, mutual interference and host discrimination of P. arenarius wasps on P. sinica nymphs were assessed through the laboratory  experiments, and the parasitic characteristics of this parasitoid in the field was also investigated in Zhongning, Ningxia, northwestern China. 【Results】 The results showed that P. arenarius is both solitary and endoparasitoid. P. arenarius preferred to parasitize on the 4th instar nymphs of P. sinica rather than on the 3rd and the 5th instar nymphs, with the preference coefficient of 0.44±0.02, while did not parasitize on the 1st and 2nd instar nymphs. The maximum parasitic amount, searching efficiency,processing time of P. arenarius on the 4th instar nymphs of P. sinica were 40.3, 0.8688 and 0.0243, respectively. The coefficient of mutual interference of P. arenarius within species was 0.3856, and P. arenarius wasps had significant host discrimination. The occurrence of P. arenarius lasted from late June to mid September, which overlapped with that of the 3rd-5th instar nymphs of the 2nd generation of P. sinica. The average parasitism rate of P. arenarius was 44.2%±6.7%, and the maximum parasitism rate (89.7%±12.2%) happened on 4 July. The parasitism rates of P. arenarius were the highest at lower hierarchy of plants (58.1%±6.8%) among three hierarchies of plants, in the west of plants (51.4%±8.2%) among five directions and on the 4th instar nymphs of P. sinica (69.7%±3.1%) among different larval instars. 【Conclusion】 The results suggestthat P. arenarius is one of parasitic natural enemies with the potential to control P. sinica, and artificial releasing of this parasitoid, a newly recorded species in China, might effectively control P. sinica nymphs and alleviate their damage in the field.
    Maternal care improves offspring developmental performance in Scleroderma guani (Hymenoptera: Bethylidae)
    HUANG Wei-Ya, Li-Li
    2017, 60(4):  441-449.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.009
    Abstract ( 1139 )   PDF (1423KB) ( 451 )     
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    【Aim】 The study aims to explore the effects of maternal care on offspring developmental performance of Scleroderma guani Xiao et Wu,so as to provide important theoretical evidence for its subsocial behavior. 【Methods】 S. guani wasps were reared on Monochamus alternatus larvae (body weight=0.532±0.021 g, mean±SE) according to the 1 female wasp/0.1 g host in a glass tube in the growth cabinet with the conditions of 25±5℃, 70%±5%RH, and a photoperiod of 10L∶14D. The growth and development of the parasitoid offspring were tested in six different maternal care treatments (removing mother wasps in egg, early instar larva, late instar larva, mature larva, spinning mature larva and pupa cocoon stages of their offspring, respectively) and the control (with maternal care in all developmental stages of offspring). 【Results】 In the experimental group lacking of maternal care in egg stage, the mean developmental duration of early instar larva prolonged obviously, being 1.6 times as high as that of the control group. When there was lack of maternal care in different developmental stages, the mean developmental duration of mature larvae also prolonged 0.885 d as compared with the control group. Moreover, lack of maternal care in egg and larval stages was unfavorable for the offspring survival. In the experimental groups without maternal care in egg stage, the survival rates of mature larvae and spinning mature larvae were 22.08% and 17.43%, respectively, which were only one third and one fourth of that of the control group, respectively. In the experimental groups lacking of maternal care in egg stage, early instar larva, late instar larva and mature larva, the infection rates of offspring by Beauveria bassiana were above 40%. Especially in the experimental group lacking of maternal care in early instar larva, the infection rate of offspring was up to 65.68%, which was 11 times as high as that in the control group. 【Conclusion】 The maternal care in S. guani can promote the offspring development and survival rate and reduce the infection rate of offspring by pathogens,playing important roles in the parasitoid’s population reproduction.
    Influence of  2015-2016 El Niño on the occurrence of rice planthoppers in China
    LI Xi-Jie, Hu Yan-Yue, Ma-Jian, Wang Ye-Chen, Wang-Li, LU Ming-Hong, ZHAI Bao-Ping
    2017, 60(4):  450-463.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.010
    Abstract ( 1086 )   PDF (8555KB) ( 546 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this research is to determine the influence of El Niño on the occurrence of rice planthoppers in China, so as to illustrate the occurrence regularity of rice planthoppers under extreme weather. 【Methods】 The northward migration processes of rice planthoppers in the next year (2016) after an event of El Niño were analyzed based on the data of the weather over the East Asia migration field and population sizes of rice planthoppers monitored by light traps. The light trap catches of rice planthoppers in nine provinces of southeast China in the latest decade were statistically analyzed. Grid Analysis and Display System (GrADS) was used to visualize the weather processes during the migration of rice planthoppers. HYSPLIT trajectory analysis platform was used to simulate the endpoints of an emigration event of rice planthoppers from their population source areas. The essential weather  processes in the source areas of Indo-hina Peninsula to the main damage regions of the Yangtze River Delta were analyzed, and their effects on the secondary environmental factors were discussed. 【Results】 The 2015-2016 El Niño was one of the strongest events since 1980s. This event  resulted in significant influences on the weather of East and Southeast Asia. It caused the unprecedented worst drought in Indo-hina Peninsula,and heavy rain and floods in the south and east of China. It was found that: 1) the drought of IndoChina Peninsula in winter-pring brought about the decrease of the number of rice planthoppers in this area which would migrate to China; 2) the heavy rainfall in the south of China led to a barrier for rice planthoppers to migrate from south to north; 3) the waterlogging induced by rainfall made the number of eggs and nymphs in the fields hardly rise; and 4) high temperature in summer prevented planthopper population outbreaks. 【Conclusion】 The impacts of this El Niño on rice planthoppers are not only related to the own property of this extreme meteorological event, and some certain short-erm weather events  during the El Niño also might be crucial for the population development of rice planthoppers.
    Sequencing and analysis of the complete mitochondrial genome of Parapolybia crocea (Hymenoptera: Vespidae)
    PENG Yan, Chen-Bin, LI Ting-Jing
    2017, 60(4):  464-474.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.011
    Abstract ( 1384 )   PDF (3508KB) ( 711 )     
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    【Aim】 To sequence and analyze the complete mitochondrial genome of Parapolybia crocea, and to explore the phylogenetic position of Parapolybia in Vespidae based on mitochondrial genome sequences. 【Methods】 The complete mitochondrial genome of P. crocea was sequenced by using Illumina sequencing technique, and its general features and base composition were analyzed. The phylogenetic tree of mitochondrial genomes of seven vespid species was constructed by using maximum likelihood method, and their phylogenetic relationships within Vespidae were analyzed.【Results】 The mitochondrial genome of P. crocea is a circular molecule of 16 619 bp (GenBank no.: KY679828), including 13 protein coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes (rrnS and rrnL), and one control region (CR). The gene arrangement of P. crocea is not completely consistent with the putative ancestral sequence of insects. All protein-coding genes initiate with the start codon ATN. The stop codon of these genes is TAA,except for CYTB and ND1 which terminates with TAG. All the predicted tRNAs show the classic clover-leaf structure, except for the absence of DHU arm of tRNASer(AGN). The control region contains one 18 bp T-stretchstructure and two tandem repeat sequences. The phylogenetic relationships of seven species within Vespidae based on the mitochondrial genomes present as Eumeninae+(Vespinae+Polistinae), and Parapolybia and Polistes are grouped into the subfamily Polistinae. 【Conclusion】  Gene rearrangement exists in the mitochondrial genome of P. crocea. The phylogenetic relationships of Vespidae constructed based on the mitochondrial genomes are consistent with those in traditional morphological taxonomy: Parapolybia is grouped into Polistinae, and the relationship between Polistinae and Vespinae is closer than that between Polistinae and Eumeninae.
    Analysis of the genetic differentiation among geographic populations of Leguminivora glycinivorella (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) in China based on mitochondrial COII gene sequences
    ZHU Shi-Yu, Xu-Wei, Gao-Yu, Cui-Juan, OU Shi-Qi, Shi Shu-Sen
    2017, 60(4):  475-486.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.012
    Abstract ( 917 )   PDF (2829KB) ( 630 )     
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    【Aim】 Leguminivora glycinivorella (Matsumura) is one of the major pests of soybean Glycina max in China. This study aims to investigate the genetic  ifferentiation among different geographic populations of L. glycinivorella in mainland China. 【Methods】 A 723 bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COII) gene in 208 mature larvae from 19 geographic populations of L. glycinivorella in China was sequenced and analyzed. The genetic differentiation and sequence variation were analyzed using MEGA6.0 and DnaSP 5.0.【Results】Among the alignment of 208 COII sequences from 19 geographic populations of L. glycinivorella, 61 variable sites and 57 haplotypes were identified. The total haplotype diversity index (Hd) was 0.8522, and the range of haplotype diversity of different populations was 0.1818-0.9546.The total fixed coefficient (Fst), total genetic differentiation coefficient (Gst) and total gene flow (Nm) were 0.4619, 0.1186 and 0.29,respectively. No significant difference among different populations was found by Tajima’s D test, suggesting that there might be no population expansion in recent history of L. glycinivorella and the population size is stable. Analysis of haplotype networks, ML  hylogenetic trees of haplotypes and UPGMA phylogenetic trees based on the genetic distance of different geographic populations showed that Guiyang (GY) and Du’an (DA) populations had obvious genetic differentiation with other populations. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) of geographic populations demonstrated that the percentage of variation among the population groups of Northeast China, Northwest China, Huang-Huai region, South China, and Southwest China was higher than those within each population group. 【Conclusion】The results revealed that there is less gene flow among different geographic populations of L. glycinivorella, which have high-degree whole genetic diversity and genetic differentiation. And the observed genetic differentiation  rimarily occurs among population groups of different geographic regions. The geographic distance has important influence on the genetic distance of different geographic populations of L. glycinivorella.
    Advances in apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    BAO Xi-Yan, Chen-Peng, LIU Tai-Xing, Wang-La, Liu Wen-Bo, Pan Min-Hui, Lu-Cheng
    2017, 60(4):  487-498.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.04.013
    Abstract ( 1109 )   PDF (2030KB) ( 614 )     
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     Apoptosis is the cell autonomic decease by gene controlling to maintain the homeostasis of cells. Studying the mechanisms of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, an important model of Lepidoptera, has the representative significance. Apoptosis in the silkworm not only participates in the metamorphosis, but also in the natural immunity. Apoptosis plays an important role in promoting tissue degradation and removing redundant cells in the egg-larva-pupa-adult stages of B. mori through the regulation of apoptosis-related genes, and in the inhibition of B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) proliferation. In this article we reviewed the advances in the apoptosis-inducing factors,apoptosis-related genes and pathways in B. mori, and the effects of apoptosis on the development of B. mori in recent years, which will facilitate to deeply resolve such problems as the mechanism research on apoptosis not enough, the pathway of endoplasmic reticulum rarely explored and the linkage between various pathways unclear and so on, and lay the foundation for studying the mechanism of metamorphosis and the system of autoimmune in B. mori. 
    Contents of Vol. 60 Issue 4
    2017, 60(4):  498-498. 
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