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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 May 2017, Volume 60 Issue 5
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in adults of Gomphocerus sibiricus (Orthoptera: Acrididae)
    QIAN Xue, WANG Yue-Ying, XIE Huan-Huan, DOU Jie, LI Zhan-Wu, Roman JASHENKO, JI Rong
    2017, 60(5):  499-504.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.001
    Abstract ( 1410 )   PDF (1647KB) ( 617 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clarify the effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in adults of the Siberian grasshopper, Gomphocerus sibiricus. 【Methods】 By using biochemical methods, the activities of five enzymes, i.e, glyceraldehyde-phosphate (GAPDH), glycerol-3-phosphate (GPDH), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) and citrate synthase (CS), in G. sibiricus adults were measured after they were treated in Light Emitting Feed Box for 4 h under darkness within a temperature gradient of 18-42℃ in a 3℃ interval. 【Results】 The activities of five key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in G. sibiricus adults increased firstly and then decreased, with the values of males higher than those of females at the same temperature. The enzyme activities in both males and females were the minimum at 18℃. The activities of GAPDH and CS of females reached the maximum at 39℃, while the CS activity in males reached the peak at 36℃. At different temperatures, the enzyme activities between males and females were significantly different (P<0.05) except the CS activity, and the ratios of GAPDH activity to HOAD activity were more than or close to 1.0, suggesting that carbohydrates are consumed for respiration at lower temperature, while lipid and carbohydrates are used as energy substances at higher temperature. 【Conclusion】 Temperature has significant effects on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in G. sibiricus adults, which change the intensity of respiratory metabolism and energy substrates for improving the capacity of adapting to high temperature stress.
    Changes in the resistance to nucleopolyhedrovirus and the expression levels of the related antimicrobial peptide and heat shock protein genes in Bombyx mori exposed to short-time heat shock
    TANG Fen-Fen, ZHENG Ya-Qiang, BAI Xing-Rong, CHEN Bin
    2017, 60(5):  505-512.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.002
    Abstract ( 1502 )   PDF (2718KB) ( 441 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effect of short-time heat shock on the resistance of the silkworm, Bombyx mori to nucleopolyhedrovirus, so as to provide references for further study on the antiviral immune mechanism of the silkworm in response to heat shock. 【Methods】 The 5th instar larvae of B. mori were exposed to 42℃ for 15 min, and then fed with B. mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) (5.4×106 PIBs/individual). All the tested larvae were reared as usual. The transcription levels of seven major antimicrobial genes (BmcecD, Bmmor, Bmglve2, BmdefeB, Bmatta1, Bmenbo2 and Bmlebo3) and six heat shock protein genes (Bmhsp90, Bmhsp70, Bmhsp40, Bmhsp19.9, Bmhsp21.4 and Bmhsp25.4) in the midgut of the 5th instar larvae after heat-shock treatment were analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR. The amino acid sequences of all BmHSPs were also phylogenetically analyzed using MEGA 5.0. 【Results】 Short-time heat shock significantly increased the survival rate of the BmNPV-infected 5th instar larvae of B. mori, as compared with the nonheat shock group. Quantitative real-time PCR results showed that the expression levels of Bmglve2 and Bmhsp25.4 were significantly up-regulated in the midgut of the BmNPV-infected 5th instar larvae of B. mori exposed to heat shock in comparison with the non-heat shock groups. The phylogenetic analysis showed that BmHSP25.4 was special in evolution, and individually classified into the same cluster with large HSPs (BmHSP90, BmHSP70 and BmHSP40). 【Conclusion】 Short-time heat shock before BmNPV feeding can enhance the resistance of B. mori to BmNPV. Bmhsp25.4 and Bmglve2 may relatively function in the immunity induction of B. mori against BmNPV through heat shock response.
    Cloning and expression analysis of the Sox family gene BmDichaete in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    YANG Ji-Gui, PENG Li-Na, LIU Tai-Xing, WU Yun-Fei, DU Guo-Yu, ZHANG Qian, WANG Wei, PAN Min-Hui
    2017, 60(5):  513-522.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.003
    Abstract ( 1388 )   PDF (9050KB) ( 581 )     
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    【Aim】 The Sox family is a group of transcription factors and plays essential roles during the development of multicellular animals. This study aims to clone a Sox family gene from the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and to explore its expression pattern and function in different larval tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. 【Methods】 A gene of the Sox family was cloned from the silkworm using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and its sequence was analyzed with bioinformatics tool. The prokaryotic expression vector was constructed to induce the expression of protein and produce its antibody to test the expression characteristics of the protein during the embryonic development (24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, 168, 192 and 216 h after oviposition) and newly hatched larvae of the silkworm by Western blot. Meanwhile, semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to identify the gene expression profiles during the entire developmental period and in different tissues (testis, ovary, ganglion, head, silk gland, fat body, Malpighian tubules, midgut, hindgut, cuticle, blood, trachea) of the 5th instar day-3 larvae. 【Results】 A Sox family gene named BmDichaete (GenBank accession no.: KY914554) was cloned from B. mori, and its full-length cDNA sequence is 1 541 bp and the open reading frame is 741 bp, encoding a protein of 246 a.a. with an estimated molecular mass of 27.3 kD and pI of 9.89. The results of the homologous sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that BmDichaete has the typical HMG domain of the Sox family gene, and high homology with the Dichaete proteins of other lepidopteran insects. The expression profiling showed that BmDichaete possessed higher expression levels from the late stage of embryonic development to the early stage of pupation, while its expression level decreased in the late stage of pupation and adult stage. Moreover, BmDichaete was significantly overexpressed in the ovary, head, silk gland and hindgut. The expression characteristic analysis by Western blot indicated that BmDichaete was expressed continuously and steadily during the embryonic development of B. mori. 【Conclusion】 BmDichaete with the typical HMG domain should be classified into the Sox family. The BmDichaete gene plays a role in various stages of the embryonic development of silkworm. This study lays the foundation for the further research of the function of BmDichaete in the silkworm.
    Cloning and sequence analysis of heat shock protein gene Ld-HSP60 in Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and its expression under temperature stress
    WEI Chang-Ping, JIANG Jian, LI Xiang-Rui, ZHANG Yun-Hui, ZHANG Fang-Mei, CHENG Deng-Fa, GUO Wen-Chao, LIU Huai
    2017, 60(5):  523-532.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.004
    Abstract ( 1403 )   PDF (2425KB) ( 526 )     
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    【Aim】 As one of international major quarantine pests, the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotars decemlineata, has strong resistance to temperature stress. The study aims to better understand the molecular mechanism of resistance to temperature stress in L. decemlineata by determining the role of heat shock protein HSP60 in response to temperature stress in this beetle. 【Methods】 The fulllength cDNA encoding HSP60 from L. decemlineata was cloned by RT-PCR and RACE technologies. Bioinformatics programs were used to analyze the sequence characteristics of the gene and amino acid sequence. The mRNA expression levels of the gene in L. decemlineata under cold and heat stress conditions were detected by real-time PCR. 【Results】 The complete cDNA of the gene encoding heat shock protein HSP60 was obtained from L. decemlineata, and named Ld-HSP60 with the GenBank accession no. of KC556801. The complete cDNA (2 234 bp) is comprised of a 101 bp 5′ untranslated region (UTR), a 402 bp 3′ UTR, and a 1 731 bp open reading frame (ORF). The ORF of Ld-HSP60 encodes a protein of 576 amino acids, with the molecular weight of 61.27 kD and the theoretical pI of 5.51. The mature amino acid sequence contains the classical signature sequences of HSP60 family. The real-time PCR results showed that low temperature stress (-10 and 0℃) did not induce the expression of Ld-HSP60 in male and female adults of L. decemlineata; however, high temperature stress (38 and 44℃) induced the up-regulated expression of Ld-HSP60 in male adults, and the expression trend of Ld-HSP60 rose first and then fell with the increasing temperature. The expression level of Ld-HSP60 reached the maximum at 38℃, and the longer the stress time the higher the expression level. 【Conclusion】 HSP60 is less sensitive to temperature than other heat shock proteins, and it is inferred that HSP60 may play a role in resistance to high temperature stress in male adults of L. decemlineata.
    Cloning and temporal-spatial expression profiling of the odorant receptor gene AcerOR113 in the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana
    DU Ya-Li, WANG Shu-Jie, ZHAO Hui-Ting, PAN Jian-Fang, YANG Shuang, GUO Li-Na, XU Kai, JIANG Yu-Suo
    2017, 60(5):  533-543.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.005
    Abstract ( 1193 )   PDF (5359KB) ( 442 )     
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    【Aim】 The objective of this study is to identify the odorant receptor gene from the Chinese honeybee, Apis cerana cerana, and to analyze its structure properties. Moreover, the expression profiles of this gene in different tissues and different developmental stages of A. c. cerana under the plentiful or scarce nectar and pollen source conditions were explored, so as to provide a fundamental evidence for the further study on the physiological function of this gene. 【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of the odorant receptor gene was amplified using RT-PCR from the antenna of A. c. cerana foragers, the deduced protein structure was predicted using different bioinformatics software, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using neighbor-joining method of MEGA 6.0. The expression profiles of this gene in different tissues (antenna, head without antenna, thorax without wings, abdomen, legs and wings) of workers of different day-old (1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 day-old) under different nectar and pollen source conditions were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. 【Results】 The cDNA sequence of the odorant receptor gene AcerOR113 (GenBank accession no.: KT252877.1) was obtained from the antenna of A. c. cerana foragers. It contains a 1 035 bp open reading frame, encoding a putative protein of 344 amino acids with an estimated molecular weight of 40.13 kD and the theoretical pI of 7.05, no signal peptide, and with six transmembrane structure and N-terminal intracellularly located. A conserved 7tm-6 superfamily domain between 59-343 amino acid residues was identified. Amino acid sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AcerOR113 has 94% amino acid sequence identity and the closest evolutionary relationship with AmelOR113 of A. mellifera. Real-time PCR data revealed that the expression level of AcerOR113 was extremely higher in the antenna than in other tissues (P<0.01) of workers of different day-old, and the lowest in the abdomen. In the antenna, the expression level of AcerOR113 under the plentiful nectar and pollen source condition was extremely significantly lower than that under the scarce nectar and pollen source condition (P<0.01). 【Conclusion】 AcerOR113 possesses the typical characteristics of insect odorant receptor, and its gene is highly expressed in the antenna of A. c. cerana adults with significantly higher expression level under the scarce nectar and pollen source condition than under the plentiful nectar and pollen source condition, suggesting that AcerOR113 may be involved in the identification of floral scents of nectar and pollen in the environment.
    Lactobacillus plantarum promotes the growth and development of Drosophila melanogaster
    LI Yu-Juan, SU Wan-Zhen, HU Kun-Kun, LI Peng-Cheng, LIU Wei, YAO Hong
    2017, 60(5):  544-552.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.006
    Abstract ( 1607 )   PDF (3198KB) ( 612 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to assay the effect of lactic acid bacteria on the developmental duration of fruit flies, and to further exploit their molecular mechanisms of growth stimulation of fruit flies. 【Methods】 Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from D. melanogaster using lactic acidic bacteria-selective medium MRS and identified by Gram staining, biochemical and 16S rRNA gene techniques. The symbiotic relationship was assayed by in vivo colonization and generation transfer experiments. The growth promoting effect of lactic acid bacteria on D. melanogaster was assessed in germ-free and gnotobiotic model. The expression levels of prothoracicotropic hormone gene (PTTH) and insulin-like receptor gene (InR) were examined using real-time PCR. The glucose concentration in haemolymph was examined using commercial kit with spetrometry. 【Results】 The isolated bacterium from D. melanogaster was identified as Lactobacillus plantarum strain FY1 (GenBank accesson no.: KY038178), which could colonize in the guts of flies with a mount of 104 CFU/gut and be transferred from the parental generation to their offspring. L. plantarum FY1 decreased the pH value of culture media to 5.2 in vitro, and shortened the egg-to-puparium duration of D. melanogaster from 20.0 d to 6.9 d and the egg-to-adult duration from 30.0 d to 10.7 d, respectively, resulting in 2-fold growth rate of flies compared with that of germ-free siblings. Real-time PCR result revealed that L. plantarum FY1 significantly stimulated the expression peak of PTTH gene in advance, while decreased the expression level of InR gene in D. melanogaster, and reduced the glucose concentration in haemolymph from 5.1 mg/mL to 2.7 mg/mL. 【Conclusion】 L. plantarum is a type of commensal bacteria of D. melanogaster, and might promote the growth and development of the host via insulin signal pathway.
     Effects of maternal overwintering experience on offspring development and reproduction in Chrysoperla sinica (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)
    CHEN Zhen-Zhen, LIU Li-Yuan, LIU Shao-Ye, GUO Qi-Qi, XU Yong-Yu
    2017, 60(5):  553-561.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.007
    Abstract ( 1183 )   PDF (1371KB) ( 575 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of maternal overwintering experience on offspring growth and development, diapause induction and reproductive capability in the green lacewing, Chrysoperla sinica. 【Methods】 The age-stage two-sex life table method was used to study the development and population dynamic change of C. sinica offsprings in the early overwintering stage (November), mid overwintering stage (January) and late overwintering stage (March) at 25℃ under two photoperiod regimes (15L∶9D and 9L∶15D). 【Results】 The pre-adult period of C. sinica offspring under long photoperiod (15L∶9D) had no significant differences between different overwintering periods, but the adult duration was significantly shorter in the mid overwintering stage than in the other two overwintering stages. The pre-oviposition duration of offspring under long photoperiod was significantly longer in the mid overwintering stage than in the other two overwintering stages, and the fecundity was significantly higher in the late overwintering stage than in the other two overwintering stages. The intrinsic rate (r), the finite rate of increase (λ) and the net reproduction rate (R0) of offspring population under long photoperiod were the highest in the late overwintering period, and the mean generation time was significantly longer in the mid overwintering stage than in the other two overwintering stages. The adult duration under short photoperiod (9L∶15D) was significantly longer in the late overwintering stage than in the other two overwintering stages. The pre-oviposition duration of offspring under short photoperiod was the longest in the early overwintering stage, moderate in the mid overwintering stage and the shortest in the late overwintering stage. The longest oviposition period and the highest fecundity were found in the late overwintering stage under short photoperiod. The change trends of the population parameters under short photoperiod were the same as those under long photoperiod. The survival rate of C. sinica offspring under short photoperiod was the highest in the late overwintering stage, moderate in the early overwintering stage and the lowest in the mid overwintering stage. 【Conclusion】 The offspring of C. sinica has the highest reproductive capability in the late overwintering stage among the three overwintering stages. Short photophase could induce adult diapause, and the pre-oviposition length may represent the depth of diapause. The maternal overwintering experience can weaken the induction of offspring diapause, and the longer the maternal overwintering time, the more obvious the reduction.
    Reproduction potential of male adults of the hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis (Acari: Tetranychidae)
    LI Ding-Xu, QUAN Peng-Qi, DONG Jun-Feng, HU Zhen-Jie, YANG Hai-Bo, CHEN Han-Jie
    2017, 60(5):  562-569.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.008
    Abstract ( 1285 )   PDF (1257KB) ( 555 )     
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    【Aim】 The hawthorn spider mite, Tetranychus viennensis Zacher, is an important damaging pest on deciduous fruit trees in northern China. This study aims to explore the reproduction potential of male adults of T. viennensis. 【Methods】 Leaf disc bioassay was employed to investigate the number of matings in adult males, mating duration, the number of daughters fathered by a male and the percentage of males in offspring of T. viennensis under the laboratory conditions of 25±1℃, 60%±7% RH and a photoperiod of 16L∶8D. 【Results】 Upon emergence of T. viennensis adults, males continued to mate with females until the end of their life. The copulation duration of the first mating of males was the longest and became significantly shorter in following matings. The least copulation duration of a male to inseminate a female was 50 s, much shorter than in nature. The newly emerged male adults copulated and inseminated 26-37 females, and contributed to 688-989 daughters over their lifetime, depending on the sex ratio. The age (in days) of male adults significantly affected their mating capability. The daily number of matings of male adults significantly decreased when they were 5 dayold, whereas had no obvious change when they were within 3 day-old. However, the male adults were still able to inseminate several females per day when they were over 7 day-old. The mating history of male adults imposed significant effects on their mating capability. The daily number of matings of male adults significantly decreased when they historically mated more than 20 times, but male adults could maintain the capability to inseminate females sufficiently even they had inseminated 30 females. 【Conclusion】 Male adults of T. viennensis have an extraordinary reproduction potential to copulate, inseminate and fertilize female adults.
    Relationship between the contents of nutrients and chlorophylls in leaves of different grape varieties and their resistance to Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae)
    WANG Li-Li, LUAN Bing-Hui, LIU Xue-Qing, WANG Pei-Song, WANG Ying-Zi
    2017, 60(5):  570-575.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.009
    Abstract ( 1257 )   PDF (955KB) ( 559 )     
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    【Aim】 Studying the resistance of grape varieties is very important for developing the integrated pest management of the green plant bug, Apolygus lucorum. In this study, the resistance levels of different grape varieties were identified, and the relationship between the contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars and chlorophylls in grape leaves and their resistance to A. lucorum was analyzed, so as to explore the resistance mechanism of different grape varieties to A. lucorum. 【Methods】 The resistance levels of nine grape varieties (Kyoho, Muscat Hamburg, Red Globe, Ruby, Fujiminori, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Gernischt, Chardonnay and Cabernet Franc) were tested in the field for three consecutive years, the contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars and chlorophylls in grape leaves were determined with the coomassie brilliant blue method, anthrone colorimetry method and ethanol extraction method, respectively, and the relationships between the contents of these substances and their resistance to A. lucorum were analyzed with linear regression method. 【Results】 The resistance levels of different grape varieties to A. lucorum were obviously different. The resistance indices of the varieties Red Globe, Muscat Hamburg, Kyoho, Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc, Ruby, Cabernet Gernischt, Fujiminori and Chardonnay increased sequentially. The contents of soluble proteins, soluble sugars and chlorophylls in different grape varieties were different. Correlation analysis showed that the contents of soluble proteins and chlorophylls in grape leaves had no correlation with the resistance index, while the content of soluble sugars had a significantly negative linear correlation with the resistance index (P<0.05). 【Conclusion】 Different grape varieties show different resistance levels to A. lucorum. Fujiminori and Chardonnay have high resistance to A. lucorum, while Red Globe, Muscat Hamburg and Kyoho have low resistance to A. lucorum. This difference of resistance to A. lucorum may be related to the content of soluble sugars in grape leaves.
     Effects of Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidopteran: Crambidae) infestation on the occurrence of Fusarium ear rot and the yield loss of spring corn
    LIU Yue, LI Rong-Rong, HE Kang-Lai, BAI Shu-Xiong, ZHANG Tian-Tao, CONG Bin, WANG Zhen-Ying
    2017, 60(5):  576-581.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.010
    Abstract ( 1288 )   PDF (1039KB) ( 366 )     
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    【Aim】 The yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), has become the major insect pest of corn in Huang-Huai-Hai Region. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the occurrence of C. punctiferalis and the severity of corn ear rot, and the effect of ear infestation by C. punctiferalis on corn yield loss. 【Methods】 The corn ears were inoculated with neonate larvae of C. punctiferalis and Fusarium verticillioides singly or complexly at the silking, blister and milk stages of corn ears, respectively, and then the damage degree of C. punctiferalis, the occurrence rate of ear rot, the disease index and the corn yield were investigated. 【Results】 For different inoculated developmental stages of corn ears, the disease index by the complex inoculation with C. punctiferalis larvae and F. verticillioides was the highest, followed by the single inoculation with C. punctiferalis larvae, and then by the single inoculation with F. verticillioides. When the corn ears were inoculated with C. punctiferalis larvae at the silking stage of corn ears, the occurrence of the corn ear rot and the borer damage was the most serious. The corn yield components were affected when the corn ears were complexly inoculated with both C. punctiferalis larvae and F. verticillioides, with the highest yield loss per ear (33.09%) at the silking stage and 22.50% and 10.13% yield loss per ear at the blister and milk stages, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The yellow peach moth infestation during the developmental stage of corn ears significantly aggravates the occurrence of corn ear rot and causes heavier yield loss of corn.
    Molecular identification of the thelytokous strain of Neochrysocharis formosa (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) newly found in China and detection of its endosymbiont Rickettsia
    YANG Yue-Mei, XUAN Jing-Li, YE Fu-Yu, GUO Jian-Yang, Yang-Li-Yan, LIU Wan-Xue
    2017, 60(5):  582-593.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.011
    Abstract ( 1306 )   PDF (6482KB) ( 385 )     
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    【Aim】 The eulophid wasp Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood) is an important dominant parasitoid against vegetable agromyzid leafminers all over the world. In June 2015, we found the thelytokous strain of N. formosa in Beijing, which was its first discovery in China. It is difficult to distinguish thelytokous strain from arrhenotokous strain because of no distinct morphological differentiation. In this study molecular methods were adopted to identify these two strains so as to provide a basis for future research and application of the thelytokous strain of N. formosa. 【Methods】 The genetic differentiation between the thelytokous strain TH-China and the arrhenotokous strain AR-China of N. formosa reared for several generations indoor was analyzed by multiple molecular markers (COⅠ gene, ITS-1 gene and 28S rDNA). The 16S rDNA sequence was amplified from the endosymbiont Rickettsia of the two strains using the specific primers NforRick1/NforRick2, sequenced and blasted against NCBI database. The existence of Rickettsia which can induce thelytoky was detected in ovarioles, larvae, pupae and adults of TH-China, and adults of AR-China. 【Results】 Phylogenetic trees constructed based on two fragments of COⅠ gene amplified with the primer pairs LCO1490/HCO2198 and COⅠ1/COⅠ2 showed that the thelytokous and arrhenotokous strains of N. formosa diverged into two distinct clades and their genetic distance is 0.039 and 0.023, respectively. Using the ITS-1 gene and 28S rDNA as the molecular markers, there are 21 and 0 discrepant sites between the two strains, respectively, and the genetic distance of the two strains based on ITS-1 gene is 0.008. The 16S rDNA sequence amplified from Rickettsia in TH-China strain has 100% identity with that from Rickettsia in the thelytokous strain in Japan (GenBank accession no.: AB185963). Rickettsia was detected in ovarioles, larvae, pupae and adults of the thelytokous strain, but absent in adults of the arrhenotokous strain, suggesting that Rickettsia might contribute to the thelytoky. 【Conclusion】 The thelytokous and arrhenotokous strains of N. formosa are easily differentiated by COⅠ gene sequences, while no genetic variation is found based on 28S rDNA and almost no genetic divergence based on ITS-1 gene.
    Molecular mechanisms of juvenile hormone in insect metamorphosis
    HE Qian-Yu, ZHANG Yuan-Xi, PEI Ze-Hua, LI Mei-Xin, ZHANG Xu
    2017, 60(5):  594-603.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.012
    Abstract ( 1526 )   PDF (1896KB) ( 930 )     
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    Since Methoprene tolerant (Met) was identified as the juvenile hormone receptor, great progress has been made in understanding the molecular mechanisms of juvenile hormone (JH) in insect metamorphosis. In this article, we summarized the identification of Met and the regulation of chaperone protein Hsp83 and Nuclearporin Nup358 on Met cellular localization, focusing on the roles of JH-Met-Kr-h1-Br signal pathway in larval-pupal metamorphosis of holometabolous insects, and JH-Met-Kr-h1-E93 signal pathway in adult metamorphosis of hemimetabolous and holometabolous insects. Moreover, the roles of many molecular interactions in JH-20E crosstalk were discussed. These interactions include the binding between Met and 20-hydroxyecdysone nuclear receptor EcR/USP, the interaction of Tai/SRC/FISC with Met and EcR/USP to form JH and 20E functional receptors respectively, the activation of JH on 20E responsive gene E75A, and the association between JH and USP. The research progress of the mechanism that JH plays its physiological function through binding to the membrane receptor to activate PKC and PLC signalling was also overviewed.  
    Homeobox genes and their application in the studies of developmental biology of prolegs of larval insects
    DING Guo, HUA Bao-Zhen
    2017, 60(5):  604-612.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.05.013
    Abstract ( 1382 )   PDF (3581KB) ( 399 )     
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     Homeobox genes possess a conserved sequence of 180 bp and play a crucial role in the developmental regulation of organisms. The abdominal prolegs of larval insects become an important model for the study of evolutionary developmental biology due to their abundant diversity. Studies of homeobox genes related to proleg development help reveal the developmental mechanisms and promote our understanding of the evolution and functions of homeobox genes. This article briefly introduces the research advances of homeobox genes and summarizes the studies of insect proleg development, including the origin and development pattern of prolegs based on the temporal and spatial expression patterns of related homeobox genes, the functions and evolution of homeobox genes, especially the repression of Distal-less by Hox genes and their evolution among various insect groups, and the controversial issues in this field, so as to provide some insights for the related research.
    Contents of Vol. 60 Issue 5
    2017, 60(5):  613-613. 
    Abstract ( 659 )   PDF (497KB) ( 308 )     
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