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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2017, Volume 60 Issue 10
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    MPTP dependency in mitochondrion-mediated apoptosis induced by camptothecin in Spodopetera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    REN Xiao-Shuang, ZHANG Lan, ZHANG Yan-Ning, MAO Lian-Gang, JIANG Hong-Yun
    2017, 60(10):  1105-1113.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.001
    Abstract ( 1161 )   PDF (8287KB) ( 579 )     
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    【Aim】 The opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) leads to the changes of mitochondrial membrane permeability and is closely related to cell apoptosis. This study aims to explore the role of MPTP in the process of apoptosis induced by camptothecin (CPT) in Spodoptera exigua so as to further reveal the mechanisms of CPT-induced apoptosis in insects. 【Methods】 Effects of cyclosporine A (CsA), an inhibitor of MPTP, on the CPT-and 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT)-induced apoptosis in IOZCAS-SPEX-Ⅱ cells of S. exigua were detected by flow cytometry. The detected parameters included the apoptosis ratio, intracellular Ca2+ concentration, mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species (ROS), which would show the role of MPTP in the apoptosis induced by CPT and HCPT. 【Results】 After 10 μmol/L CPT and HCPT pre-treatment for 6 and 12 h, IOZCAS-SPEX-Ⅱ cells were apoptosized through a mitochondira-mediated pathway characterized by the increase of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration and ROS, and the reduced mitochondrial membrane potential in IOZCAS-SPEX-Ⅱ cells as compared with the control group (0.1% DMSO). However, after the pretreatment of 20 μmol/L CsA for 2 h, there were no significant differences between the control group of 0.1% DMSO and the CPT and HCPT treated groups (CsA+CPT or CsA+HCPT, 6 h) in the apoptosis ratio, cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, ROS generation, and the mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that CsA inhibited CPT- and HCPT-induced apoptosis by inhibiting MTPT open in IOZCAS-SPEX-Ⅱ cells. Interestingly, the inhibitory effects of CsA on MPTP were not detected after CPT and HCPT treatment for 12 h. 【Conclusion】 This study confirms that CPT- and HCPT-induced apoptosis in IOZCAS-SPEX-Ⅱ cells of S. exigua is through MPTP-dependent mitochondrial pathway during the initial several hours of treatment.
    Quantitative evaluation of the paralytic activity of an ENF peptide in Bombyx mori (In English)
    WANG Fei, DONG Shi-Feng, SONG Liang, HU Jie, XIA Qing-You
    2017, 60(10):  1114-1119.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.002
    Abstract ( 1045 )   PDF (2839KB) ( 385 )     
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    【Aim】 A Glu-Asn-Phe (ENF) peptide, paralytic peptide (PP) identified in several lepidopteran hemolymph induces rapid and rigid paralysis defined by a tonic contraction when injected into larvae. This study aims to determine the optimal amount and maximum contraction that PP induces in live larvae of the silkworm, Bombyx mori, and to examine the possible change of other physiological index, such as pulse velocity and ion concentration which might accompany the contraction. 【Methods】 The intensity of body contraction and pulse velocity were monitored after injection of various amounts of PP into the body of the 5th instar larvae. And the ion concentrations in hemolymph, fat body and digestive tube were measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. 【Results】 PP at the concentration of 50 ng/g animal triggered the most potent contraction with no lethal effect. The maximum body contraction was seen between 4 and 5 min after injection. Digestive tube distortion was found to accompany body wall contraction, and pulse velocity decreased when the body reached the maximum contraction. In addition, extracellular Ca2+ was required for the contraction and PP also stimulated a sharp decrease then a slow recovery of Cl- concentration in hemolymph. 【Conclusion】 The paralytic activity of PP not only affects the body wall, but also digestive tube and dorsal vessel of silkworm larvae, and is associated with disruption of Cl- homeostasis. Our results will provide reference for studying the physiological role of PP in an animal model.
    Analysis of the antennal transcriptome and chemoreception-related genes of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae)
    SONG Yue-Qin, DONG Jun-Feng, CHEN Qing-Xiao, HU Zhen-Jie, SUN Hui-Zhong
    2017, 60(10):  1120-1128.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.003
    Abstract ( 1502 )   PDF (8047KB) ( 616 )     
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    【Aim】 Riptortus pedestris is a major soybean pest which feeds juice in the stages of adult and nymph, causing serious damage to production. However, R. pedestris has been rarely researched, that leads to the lack of genomic resources. The objective of this study is to obtain the antennal transcriptome data of R. pedestris and to seek new methods for pest control through olfaction. 【Methods】 The adult antennal transcriptome of R. pedestris is sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 4000 platform and analyzed bioinformatically. 【Results】 In total, 45 802 812 clean reads with 6.87 Gb were obtained (GenBank accession no.: SRR4429103). There were 92 259 unigenes with the mean length of 618 bp and an N50 of 1 013 bp. A total of 21 365 unigenes were annotated based on seven databases. By further analyzing the transcriptome data, we identified 219 chemoreception-related genes including 188 for olfactory receptors (ORs), 6 for gustatory receptors (GRs), 2 for ionotropic receptors (IRs), 4 for sensory neuron membrane proteins (SNMPs), 8 for odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) and 11 for chemosensory proteins (CSPs). The analysis of amino acid sequence indicated that RpedOBP1 and RpedOBP2 have three additional conserved cysteine residues immediately after the sixth cysteine and belong to the plus-C OBP family. 【Conclusion】 This study acquired the antennal transcriptom data of R. pedestris and identified olfaction-related genes. The results provide the important information data of molecular biology for the control of R. pedestris using olfaction-related gene targets.
    Molecular cloning and functional characterization of Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis in the brown planthopper,Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae)
    LI Kai-Long, FU Qiang, WANG Wei-Xia, LAI Feng-Xiang, WAN Pin-Jun
    2017, 60(10):  1129-1140.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.004
    Abstract ( 1407 )   PDF (6222KB) ( 598 )     
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    【Aim】 As one of the most important insects endohormones, ecdysone plays an important role in regulating the development and reproduction of insects. Five Halloween genes are involved in ecdysteroid biosynthesis and encode cytochrome P450 enzymes spook/CYP307A1, Phantom/CYP306A1, disembodied/CYP302A1, shadow/CYP315A1 and shade/CYP314A1, respectively. The brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, is one of the most destructive pests of rice throughout Southeastern and Eastern Asia. For N. lugens, ecdysteroid regulated genes of RNAi technology management has gradually become a research hotspot. The objective of this study is to investigate the function of Halloween genes in N. lugens so as to provide the theoretical basis for the management of N. lugens and development of new pesticides. 【Methods】 Based on the genome and transcriptome database of N. lugens, five ecdysteroidogenesis-related Halloween genes in N. lugens were cloned using RT-PCR, and the deduced protein structure was predicted using different bioinformatics software, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining method of MEGA 5.0. The expression profiles of these genes in different tissues of nymph and at different developmental stages of N. lugens were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAi experiment was carried out to examine the effects of knockdown of Halloween genes on the development and reproduction of N. lugens. 【Results】 Five Halloween genes involved in ecdysteroidogenesis, i.e., NlCyp307a1, NlCyp306a1, NlCyp302a1, NlCyp315a1, and NlCyp314a1, were cloned and identified in N. lugens. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the five Halloween genes belong to two superfamilies 2-Clan and Mito-Clan, respectively, and clustered with their homologous genes in other insects, suggesting that Halloween genes and edysteroidogenesis pathways are very highly conserved during insect evolution. NlCYP314A1 contains five conserved P450s motifs and two transmembrane domains, being a typical mitochondria cytochrome P450s. The results of qRT-PCR showed that five Halloween genes had higher mRNA abundance at 24 h and 60 h after molting in the 5th instar nymph stage. NlCyp314a1 was continually expressed during the whole developmental stage, and showed the highest expression level in adults. Among the examined tissues, thorax had the higher transcription level of NlCyp314a1 than head and abdomen, and fat body had the highest transcription level of NlCyp314a1, followed by leg, integument, wing bud, and midgut. Four days after injection of dsNlCyp314a1, the expression levels of NlCyp314a1 and NlFTZ-F1 in the treated individuals were extremely significantly decreased by 84.6% and 64.1%, respectively, compared with the control. NlCyp314a1 knockdown resulted in nymphs failed to molt on time, exhibited apparent phenotypic defects, and >95% mortality of the nymphs at day 7 after injection. NlCyp314a1 knockdown also resulted in the developmental abnormality of adult ovary. 【Conclusion】 Halloween genes of N. lugens involving in ecdysteroidogenesis are evolutionarily conserved. Silencing of selected Halloween gene expression causes phenotypic defects in molting and reproduction. These results suggest that Halloween genes encode functional proteins that are involved in molting and reproduction of N. lugens. Halloween genes might be used in altering genetically the progress of molting and reproduction of N. lugens. This study provides a theoretical basis for potential application of Halloween genes in the management of N. lugens.
    cDNA cloning, expression and ligand binding properties of the odorant binding protein AglaOBP12 in the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae)
    LI Guang-Wei, CHEN Xiu-Lin, SHANG Tian-Cui
    2017, 60(10):  1141-1154.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.005
    Abstract ( 1109 )   PDF (6056KB) ( 463 )     
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    【Aim】 Cloning and identification of the odorant binding protein (OBP) genes and clarifying their expression features and ligand-binding characteristics with host-plant volatiles are helpful to address the molecular mechanisms of olfaction in the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis. 【Methods】 Based on the antenna transcriptome data of A. glabripennis female adult, the complete coding sequence of OBP12 was cloned using RT-PCR and bioinformatically analyzed. The expression levels of OBP12 in the antenna, head (without antennae), thorax, abdomen, leg and wing were assayed by realtime quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR). The recombinant OBP12 protein was prokaryotically expressed and then purified by Ni ion affinity chromatography. The binding affinities of the recombinant OBP12 with 39 ligands were assessed by using fluorescent competitive binding assay. 【Results】 AglaOBP12 of A. glabripennis was successfully cloned and sequenced (GenBank accession no.: KX890109). Its ORF is 414 bp in length, encoding 137 amino acids with the signal peptide of 18 amino acids at the N-terminal. The matured protein possessed six conserved cysteines and could be classified into the Classical OBP subfamily. qRT-PCR results showed that AglaOBP12 primarily expressed in the antenna and slightly expressed in other tissues. Among the 39 chemicals tested, the recombinant AglaOBP12 had only binding activities to 19 compounds, suggesting that AglaOBP12 has obvious selective binding characteristics to host plant volatiles. The recombinant AglaOBP12 showed higher binding affinities to dodecanol, tetradecanol, farnesol, dodecanal, cis-3-hexenyl acetate and β-caryophyllene, with the Ki values of 196, 0.96, 1.03, 0.82, 0.77 and 0.74 μmol/L, respectively. 【Conclusion】 The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of AglaOBP12 were characterized in this study. AglaOBP12 shows particularly strong binding affinities to alcohols, aldehydes and terpenes with 12 carbon atoms in the main-chain. Based on the results of qRT-PCR and fluorescent competitive binding assay, we speculated that AglaOBP12 in the Asian longhorned beetle plays an important role in locating trophic host plants.
    Gene cloning and expression of polycalin protein from Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) and its binding characteristics with Cry1Ac toxin
    ZHAN 恩Ling, DU Xiao, ZHAO Ai-Ping, SUN Cong, LIU Tong-Xian, LI Yi-Ping
    2017, 60(10):  1155-1167.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.006
    Abstract ( 948 )   PDF (7873KB) ( 378 )     
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    【Aim】 As a newly found receptor of Bt toxin, polycalin is considered to be related to the resistance of insects to Bt toxin. This study aims to clarify the relationship between polycalin and the Bt Cry1Ac toxin in Plutella xylostella. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA sequence of polycalin gene was cloned from the midgut of the 3rd instar larvae of P. xylostella by PCR and RACE techniques. The expression levels of the polycalin gene in different developmental stages and different tissues of the 4th instar larvae were determind by quantitative real-time PCR. The expression levels of the polycalin gene in the 3rd instar larvae fed with different concentrations of Cry1Ac toxin were also compared. The brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) proteins in larval midgut were separated, and monoclonal antibodies were prepared by peptide synthesis technique. The polycalin and its binding characteristics to Cry1Ac toxin were identified by using Western blot and Ligand blot. 【Results】 The full-length cDNA (GenBank accession no.: MF138149) of polycalin gene obtained from P. xylostella is 9 102 bp in length, with the open reading frame of 8 778 bp, encoding 2 925 amino acids. The predicted molecular weight and isoelectric point of the encoded protein are 326.38 kD and 4.39, respectively. The putative protein sequence contains an N-terminal signal peptide of 20 amino acid residues, 14 N-linked and 67 O-linked glycosylation sites, with six lipocalin signatures, six lipocalin hits and 13 lipocalin like structures. There are a glycoprotein cleavage-activation site between the 20th and 21th (TSG-QVV) amino acid residues, and a GPI anchor signal peptide with two amino acid residues at the C-terminus. The polycalin has the feature of Bt toxin receptor. Developmental expression profiles revealed that the polycalin gene had higher expression level in larva than in pupa and adult, with the highest expression level in the 3rd instar larva. Tissue expression profiles revealed that the polycalin gene was expressed in the head, thorax and abdomen of the 4th instar larvae, with the highest expression level in the abdomen. The expression of the polycalin gene in the 3rd instar larvae fed with different concentrations of Cry1Ac toxin was dramatically decreased as compared with that of the control (fed with PBS). The higher the concentration of Cry1Ac toxin, the lower the expression level of the polycalin gene. The polycalin in the brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) of the midgut of P. xylostella was approximately 300 kD by Western blot analysis. The Ligand blot result confirmed that this polycalin protein could bind to Cry1Ac toxin. 【Conclusion】 This study verified that the polycalin from P. xylostella could bind to Bt toxin, and provides useful information for further study on the action mechanisms of Bt against insects and pest control by utilization of Bt.
    Mining the secretome of Delia antiqua (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) based on the transcriptomic and gene expression data and analysis of its potential roles in diapause development (In English
    HAO You-Jin, XU Yan-Ling, CHEN Bin
    2017, 60(10):  1168-1177.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.007
    Abstract ( 1059 )   PDF (2481KB) ( 420 )     
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     【Aim】 Insect diapause is a critical eco-physiological adaptation for seasonal survival, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of summer and winter diapause of Delia antiqua. Here, our main goal is to identify candidate genes linked to pupal diapause of D. antiqua. 【Methods】 A straightforward in silico approach was performed to predict the secreted diapause-related proteins based on the RNA-seq and digital gene expression datasets. Amino acid sequence similarity and basic physiochemical characteristics analysis were conducted. Gene expression levels of 12 selected genes from RNA-seq data were further validated in non-diapause pupae, and different developmental stages of summer and winter diapause pupae by qRT-PCR. 【Results】 A total of 38 putative secreted proteins were differentially regulated between the summer and winter diapause pupae of D. antiqua. Gene Ontology analysis revealed differentially expressed genes to be associated with odorant binding, chitin and lipid metabolic processes, innate immunity and development, etc. Among them, regulation of lipid mobilization and chitin-related metabolism was found to be important during diapause development. qRT-PCR analyses showed that the expression profiles of the 12 selected genes were in good agreement with results from RNA-seq (R=0.862, P=0.001). 【Conclusion】 This study establishes a robust pipeline for the discovery of diapause-related genes by secretome mining based on the high-throughput sequencing.
    Role of catalase in the antioxidative response induced by Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli infection in the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    CHEN Jin-Hong, XU Lu, MA Li, 吕Zhi-Qiang
    2017, 60(10):  1178-1186.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.008
    Abstract ( 1158 )   PDF (2536KB) ( 416 )     
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    【Aim】 To investigate the relationship between bacteria, catalase (CAT) and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, and the role of catalase in the immune responses of the pea aphid. 【Methods】 The bacterial load in the aphid was determined by in vitro culturing and colony counting after Micrococcus luteus and Escherichia coli infection. H2O2 concentration and catalase gene transcriptional level of the aphid after bacterial infection were measured by microwell-plate fluorescence assay and real-time quantitative PCR, respectively. The catalase gene (Cat) of the pea aphid was knock-downed by RNA interference, and the H2O2  concentration, bacterial load and survival rate of the aphids were assayed after bacterial infection. 【Results】 The H2O2 level and the expression level of the catalase gene in the pea aphid increased markedly 12 h post infection by M. luteus. After E. coli infection, the expression level of the catalase gene increased 12 h post infection, but the H2O2 level had no obvious change. After the catalase gene was knock-downed, the H2O2  level of the aphid was up-regulated significantly 12 h post M. luteus infection, the bacterial load of dsCat-injected pea aphid was about half that of dsGFP-injected pea aphid 24 h post M. luteus infection, but the survival rate of aphids had no change after M. luteus infection. However, knock-down of the catalase gene had no effects on the H2O2 level of the aphid, proliferation of bacteria inside the aphid, and the survival rate of the aphids infected by E. coli. 【Conclusion】 The catalase is involved in the immune defense of the pea aphid against infection by M. luteus, but is not a key enzyme in this process. To cope with E. coli infection, however, the aphid may have different defense strategies.
    Effects of sublethal doses of thiacloprid on the detoxifying enzyme activities and the growth and reproduction of Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    LIANG Wei-Bo, XIANG Xing, WANG Xue-Gui, YANG Qun-Fang, LUO Jia-Dong
    2017, 60(10):  1187-1197.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.009
    Abstract ( 1063 )   PDF (2998KB) ( 455 )     
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    【Aim】 Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) is an important agricultural insect pest, and its growth and development are different under the selective pressure of different drugs and environments. Thiacloprid, the second neonicotinoid insecticide, has potent agonist activity on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of insects. This study aims to explore the sublethal effects of thiacloprid on S. litura so as to provide a scientific basis for the integrated management program for S. litura and the rational use of thiacloprid. 【Methods】 The toxicity of thiacloprid on the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura was assayed with diet-incorporation bioassays, and the effects of thiacloprid at two sublethal doses (LC25 and LC50) on the activities of three detoxifying enzymes including the carboxylesterase (CarE), glutathione-S-transferase (GSTs) and P450-ECOD were analyzed by in vitro enzyme activity assay. The growth, fecundity and population growth data of the tested insects were recorded, and the differences of the age-stage two-sex life table parameters between the LC25 and LC50 treatment groups and the control group of the offspring (F1) of S. litura were analyzed by using the age-stage two-sex life table method. 【Results】 The results showed that when the 3rd instar larvae of S. litura were treated with two sublethal doses of thiacloprid (LC25 and LC50) for 48 h, the CarE activities obviously increased by 14.2% and 45.1%, respectively, whereas the GSTs activities were inhibited significantly with the inhibition rates of 9.8% and 37.1%, respectively, as compared with those in the control. The activities of P450-ECOD in the treatment groups decreased with the inhibition effect positively related to the thiacloprid doses, but had no significant difference from those in the control group. The preadult duration of F1 generation in the LC25 and LC50 treatment groups was prolonged about 3.05 d and 4.80 d, respectively, as compared with that of the control group, while the male adult longevities were shorten by 2.06 and 3.31 d, respectively, the female adult longevities were shortened by 0.13 and 0.92 d, respectively, and the mean numbers of eggs laid per female were decreased significantly by 17.7% and 33.3%, respectively. The pupation rates in the LC25 and LC50 treatment groups were decreased by 10.7% and 11.4%, respectively, and the intrinsic rates of increase (r), finite rates of increase (λ) and net reproductive rates (R0) were significantly lower than that of the control group, and the mean generation time (T) became longer obviously. 【Conclusion】 The results demonstrate that CarE may be the major enzyme in the metabolic detoxification of thiacloprid in S. litura and involved in the resistance development, and the sublethal dose of thiacloprid can significantly restrain the growth, development and reproduction of S. litura.
    Optimization of fumigation conditions of dichlorvos smoke agent in controlling Bradysia odoriphaga (Diptera: Sciaridae)
    XU Lei, ZHAO Tong-Hua, LIU Pei-Bin, XU Guo-Qing, WANG Zhe, ZHONG Tao
    2017, 60(10):  1198-1207.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.010
    Abstract ( 1053 )   PDF (1583KB) ( 458 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to explore the conditions for improving the fumigation effect and efficiency of dichlorvos smoke agent in controlling Bradysia odoriphaga adults. 【Methods】 Four factors including temperature, relative humidity, period and dosage were optimized by the orthogonal experiment, and the fitted model was established by multiple regression analysis and verified by a set of experiments. 【Results】 The main effect analysis of the orthogonal experiment results showed that the influence order on the efficacy of dichlorvos smoke agent was dosage>temperature>relative humidity>period. Determined by analysis of variance and multiple comparison, the optimal conditions for fumigation were the temperature of 32℃, relative humidity of 70%, dosage of 0.0878 g a.i./m3 and period of 2 h. Regression analysis showed that there were interactions between temperature and relative humidity, temperature and dosage, and relative humidity and dosage, with the interaction effect indices of 3, -4.4 and -3.25, respectively. At the same time, the regression equation of the mortality of test insects and the related factors was established. The mortality under the optimized fumigation conditions was 96.59%. Moreover, the Pearson’s correlation coefficient between the measured value and the predictive value was 0.9749, showing that the regression model was verified to be accurate and effective by the experiments. 【Conclusion】 The control efficacy of dichlorvos smoke agent in controlling B. odoriphaga adults can be promoted by optimizing fumigation conditions, and the regression model obtained in this study can be used to predict the mortality of B. odoriphaga adults.
    Mating and oviposition behaviors of Pagiophloeus tsushimanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    ZHANG Cong-Cong, WANG Meng, SU Peng, FAN Bin-Qi, WANG Yan, HAO De-Jun
    2017, 60(10):  1208-1215.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.011
    Abstract ( 1375 )   PDF (3797KB) ( 503 )     
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    【Aim】 Pagiophloeus tsushimanus is a newly recorded species in China, which injures Cinnamomum camphora. The study aims to learn more the behavioral characteristics of P. tsushimanus by investigating its adult mating and oviposition behaviors. 【Methods】 Mating and oviposition behaviors of P. tsushimanus adults was recorded by direct observation and video recording in the laboratory and analyzed. 【Results】 A complete mating of P. tsushimanus involves three stages, i.e., pre-mating, mating and post-mating, exhibiting the behavioral characteristics of encountering pair-bonding, insemination and post-copulatory guarding. An entire mating procedure lasts about 672.67±156.53 min. The duration of the mounting, insemination, and post-copulatory guarding behaviors was 103.94±20.61 min, 333.83±94.15 min, and 234.9±41.79 min, respectively. The whole process of oviposition can be divided into three stages, i.e., burrowing oviposition scar, egg deposition and covering oviposition scars, including 52.43±4.93 min for making an oviposition scar, 2.47±0.14 min for laying an egg, and 29.09±6.74 min for covering an oviposition scar. There are multiple mating behaviors in the whole mating process for the female and male adults of P. tsushimanus, and mating behavior occurs day and night. The major peak of mating took place from 12:00 to 14:00, with a minor peak from 6: 00 to 8: 00. The female adults of P. tsushimanus display obvious circadian rhythms in oviposition behaviors. The peak of oviposition occurred from 18: 00 to 20: 00, with a minor peak from 8: 00 to 10: 00. 【Conclusion】 The results contribute to elucidate the reproductive process of P. tsushimanus, and also provide the basis for systematically studying its behavioral mechanisms and developing novel control technologies based on behavior regulation.
    Influence of temperature on the development and reproduction of the camphor sawfly, Mesoneura rufonota (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae)
    XU Chuan-Feng, LUO Dan, YIN Li-Xin, LIU Xing-Ping
    2017, 60(10):  1216-1225.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.012
    Abstract ( 1150 )   PDF (1782KB) ( 471 )     
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    【Aim】 The camphor sawfly, Mesoneura rufonota, is an important leaf-feeding pest of the camphor tree, Cinnamonum campora. In this study the effects of temperature on the development and reproduction of M. rufonota were investigated so as to provide a foundation for the forecasting and integrated management of this pest. 【Methods】 The duration of different developmental stages, survival rate and reproduction of M. rufonota reared at different constant temperatures (19, 22, 25, 28 and 30℃) were measured and analyzed, the model fitting between the developmental rate and temperature was conducted, and the developmental threshold temperature and effective accumulated temperature were calculated by using the method of least squares. 【Results】 Within the constant temperatures ranging from 19 to 30℃, the average duration of various developmental stages of M. rufonota shortened as temperature rose gradually. This insect needed 34.62 d to complete a life cycle at 19℃, while needed 18.97 d at 30℃. The developmental rates in different stages were positively correlated with temperature, and the relationships between developmental rates and temperature all fitted the quadratic regression model. The developmental thresholds of egg, larva, pupa, adult and whole generation were 5.26, 3.22, 7.66, 8.24 and 5.11℃, respectively, while the effective accumulated temperatures were 65.58, 204.15, 121.94, 65.01 and 460.29 d·℃. The accumulative survival rates in different stages were decreased and the adult longevity shortened with increasing temperature. The fecundity was the highest at the temperatures ranged from 22 to 25℃ and the lowest at 30℃, indicating that higher or lower temperature inhibits oviposition of M. rufonota. 【Conclusion】 Temperature is a key factor affecting the development and reproduction of M. rufonota, and the optimum temperature range for its development and reproduction is from 22 to 25℃. These findings provide a scientific basis for the monitoring and integrated management of this pest.
    Changes in the functional diversity of ground-dwelling ants during land use change
    LU Zhi-Xing, CHEN You-Qing
    2017, 60(10):  1226-1234.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2017.10.013
    Abstract ( 1183 )   PDF (2241KB) ( 520 )     
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    【Aim】 To reveal the protection roles of artificial plantations for ecosystem function. 【Methods】 The ground-dwelling ants were investigated in plots of seven habitats, i.e., secondary natural forest, eucalyptus plantation, rubber plantation, lac insect plantation, lac insectcorn agroforest, corn dryland and farmland, by pitfall traps in Lüchun County, Yunnan Province. Head length, head width, Weber’s length and femur length of hind leg of 82 ant species were measured. Differences in functional richness, functional evenness and functional divergence were compared among different habitats. 【Results】 There were significant differences of ant functional richness FRic among different habitats (rainy season: F=4.475, P=0.002; dry season: F=7.717, P<0.001). Secondary natural forest, eucalyptus plantation and rubber plantation during the rainy season and lac insect plantation and lac insect-corn agroforest during the dry season had higher levels of ant functional richness, and farmland had the lowest ant functional richness. There were no significant differences in ant functional evenness FEve among different habitats (rainy season: F=2.106, P=0.078; dry season: F=2.093, P=0.079). There were significant differences in ant functional divergence FDiv among different habitats (rainy season: F=2.577, P=0.036; dry season: F=3.969, P=0.004). Rubber plantation had the highest ant functional divergence during both rainy and dry seasons, while secondary natural forest and farmland had the lower ant functional divergence. Functional richness of ground-dwelling ants were significantly correlated with ant species richness (rainy season: Pearson=0.461, P=0.002; dry season: Pearson=0.854, P<0.001; liner model: rainy season: F=10.533, P=0.002; dry season: F=107.387, P<0.001). Functional evenness and functional divergence of ground-dwelling ants were not significantly correlated with ant species richness. In rainy season, ant functional richness increased with increasing of leaf-litter thickness. In dry season, ant functional richness decreased with increasing of bare ground coverage, and first decreased then increased with increasing of leaf-litter thickness, and first increased then decreased with increasing of plant coverage. 【Conclusion】 Reduction of habitat heterogeneity caused by land use change and alternation of rainy and dry seasons can lead to the decrease of ant functional richness but has no significant effect on ant functional evenness and functional divergence. More ant living space will be provided by reducing disturbance to artificial plantation and increasing habitat heterogeneity artificially. This will reduce the competition between different ants, and be helpful to ecosystem function diversity and protection.
    Contents of Vol. 60 Issue 10
    2017, 60(10):  1235-1235. 
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