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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 September 2018, Volume 61 Issue 9
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Coreidae) adults
    CHEN Ju-Hong, CUI Juan, ZHANG Jin-Ping, BI Rui, GAO Yu, XU Wei, SHI Shu-Sen
    2018, 61(9):  1003-1009.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.001
    Abstract ( 568 )   PDF (1470KB) ( 263 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the effects of temperature on the activities of key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism in adults of the bean bug, Riptortus pedestris. 【Methods】 The activities of five key enzymes related to respiratory metabolism, i.e., glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), glycerol-3-phosphate (GDH), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD), citrate synthase (CS), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), in R. pedestris adults exposed to different temperatures (16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36℃) for 4 h in scotophase were assayed by using biochemical methods. 【Results】 The results showed that the activities of the five key enzymes in R.pedestris adults increased first and then decreased as the temperature increased. The CS activities at 16 and 28℃ differed significantly between males and females, being higher in females than in males at 16℃, but lower in females than in males at 28℃. The LDH activities in males were higher than those in females at 36℃, suggesting that there are significant differences between males and females in the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism at low temperature and in the anaerobic glycolysis at high temperature. The ratios of GAPDH activity to HOAD activity in adult males and females exposed to different temperatures were much higher than 1.0, indicating that R. pedestri adults mainly consume carbohydrates in respiratory metabolism at the test temperatures. 【Conclusion】 In the temperature range from 16℃ to 36℃, with the increase of temperature, the activities of key enzymes involved in respiratory metabolism in female and male adults of R. pedestris increase at first, and then decrease. R. pedestris can adjust its respiratory metabolic intensity to some extent to adapt to temperature change.
    Regulation of the trehalose content in diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    Wang-Jia, FAN Huan, XIONG Ke-Cai, LIU Ying-Hong
    2018, 61(9):  1010-1018.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.002
    Abstract ( 649 )   PDF (1945KB) ( 186 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to compare the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of key enzymes in trehalose biosynthesis and catabolism pathway, and the expression levels of genes encoding these key enzymes among pupae at pre-diapause, diapause, and post-diapause stages, and between diapausing and non-diapausing pupae of the Chinese citrus fly, Bactrocera minax. 【Methods】 The contents of trehalose and glucose, and the activities of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP), and trehalase (Tre) in B. minax pupae in pupae at the pre-diapause stage (1 d-old pupae), diapause stage (30, 60 and 90 d-old pupae), and postdiapause stage (120 and 150 d-old pupae) were compared using spectrophotometry, and the expression levels of TPS, TPPB, TPPC-1, TPPC-2, and Tre-1 were determined using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). In addition, the neonate pupae were injected with 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) as the treatment (injected with 10% ethanol as the control), and the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of key enzymes and the expression levels of the above genes at 1 and 30 d after injection were compared between the treatment and control groups. 【Results】 When B. minax pupae entered diapause, their trehalose content significantly increased, while their glucose content changed marginally as compared with those of pre- and post-diapause stages. The TPS and TPP activities and the expression levels of TPS, TPPC-1 and TPPC-2 increased gradually after pupation and reached the highest level during the diapause stage, then significantly decreased before adult emergence. The expression level of TPPB did not change significantly throughout the pupal stage. The Tre activity and the expression level of Tre-1 gradually increased after pupation and reached the highest level at the early diapause stage, then significantly decreased, followed by a significant increase before adult emergence. At 1 d after 20E injection, in pupae of the treatment group the contents of trehalose and glucose, the activities of TPS, TPP and Tre, and the expression levels of TPS, TPPC-2 and Tre-1 only changed slightly, while the expression level of TPPB significantly decreased and that of TPPC-1 significantly increased as compared to the control group. At 30 d after injection, in non-diapausing pupae of the treatment group the trehalose content increased significantly, the glucose content, the TPS and Tre activities, and the expression levels of TPS and Tre1 significantly decreased, while the TPP activity, and the expression levels of TPPB and TPPC-2 did not change significantly as compared to those in diapausing pupae of the control group. 【Conclusion】 The trehalose content in B. minax pupae varies with diapause status under the regulation of key enzymes in trehalose biosynthesis and catabolism pathway, displaying the close relationship between trehalose and diapause. The underlying mechanisms, however, need further investigation.
    Comparison of expression patterns of laccase-1 gene in Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)
    YANG Chun-Hong, GUO Jian-Yang, CHU Dong, CHENG Deng-Fa, WAN Fang-Hao
    2018, 61(9):  1019-1028.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.003
    Abstract ( 417 )   PDF (3910KB) ( 115 )     
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    【Aim】 Laccase-1 (LAC1) plays an important role in whiteflyplant interaction. The aim of this study is to explore the variations in expression patterns of LAC1 gene in two whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and Trialeurodes vaporariorum. 【Methods】 The laccase-1 activity was measured in the saliva of B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum. The LAC1 gene from T. vaporariorum was cloned and sequenced. The expression profiles of LAC1 in different developmental stages and adult tissues of the two whiteflies were assayed by qPCR and compared. The LAC1 expression levels, adult survival rate and the number of eggs laid by the two whiteflies after feeding on tomato plants sprayed with 0.5 mmol/L salicylic acid (SA) were detected and compared. 【Results】 The laccase-1 activities in saliva of B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum had no significant differences. A 639 bp intermediate fragment of LAC1 gene was cloned from T. vaporariorum. Developmental expression profiles revealed that LAC1 was expressed in various developmental stages of both species, and its expression level increased gradually in adult stage of B. tabaci MEAM1, but showed no significant difference among various developmental stages of T. vaporariorum. At the adult stage, the transcript level of LAC1 was higher in B. tabaci MEAM1 than that in T. vaporariorum. Tissue expression profiles revealed that LAC1 was expressed in the cephalothorax, midgut and abdomen wreckage of adults of both whiteflies, and showed the highest transcript level in the midgut. The survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 adults feeding on tomato plants sprayed with SA decreased as the feeding time extended, and was significantly different from that in the control (feeding on tomato plants sprayed with water). At 14 d after adult emergence, the survival rate of B. tabaci MEAM1 feeding on tomato plants sprayed with SA was only half the control, while that of T. vaporariorum feeding on tomato plants sprayed with SA showed no significant difference from the control. In addition, the expression level of LAC1 and the number of eggs laid were higher in B. tabaci MEAM1 than those in T. vaporariorum regardless of whether they fed on tomato plants sprayed with SA or the control plant. 【Conclusion】 The results indicate that there are differences in the expression patterns of LAC1 between B. tabaci MEAM1 and T. vaporariorum, and this may play a role in the competition between the two species.
    Cloning of ferritin gene AmFer3HCH and its response to temperature stress in the Italian honeybee, Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
    MA Rong-Qin, WANG Lin-Ling, HENG Hui, ZHOU Ze-Yang, LI Zhi
    2018, 61(9):  1029-1039.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.004
    Abstract ( 512 )   PDF (4894KB) ( 176 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to clone and identify the ferritin gene AmFer3HCH from Apis mellifera ligustica, to analyze its tissue expression changes in response to temperature stress, and to explore the role of ferritin in encountering the extreme temperature stress. 【Methods】 The cDNA sequence of AmFer3HCH gene was amplified from A. m. ligustica by PCR, and its amino acid sequence was identified by bioinformatic tools. The expression levels of this gene in the thorax, midgut, and fat body of A. m. ligustica worker adults under temperature stress (40℃ and 5℃) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR. 【Results】 A ferritin gene named AmFer3HCH was cloned from A. m. ligustica by PCR and its cDNA fragment is 507 bp in length. Its nucleotide sequence has 100% identity to that of the Fer3HCH gene (GenBank accession no.: GB55416) in A. m. ligustica genome in GenBank database. AmFer3HCH was identified as a ferritin heavychain subunit and clustered in one phyletic clade with other heavy-chain ferritins. The amino acid sequence of AmFer3HCH has a typical ferroxidase activity center, ferrihydrite nucleation center and iron channel as in most ferritin family members. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of AmFer3HCH in the thorax, midgut and fat body of A. m. ligustica worker adults after brief exposure to high temperature stress (40℃ for 0-48 h) presented a tendency of upregulation first, then downregulation and upregulation again as compared to the control group. However, after the adults were exposed to brief low temperature stress (5℃ for 0-6 h), the expression level of AmFer3HCH was up-regulated first, and then down-regulated in the midgut and fat body, but showed a falling tendency in the thorax. 【Conclusion】 AmFer3HCH is a heavy-chain ferritin and plays an important role in response to extreme temperature stress in A. m. ligustica.
    Biological characteristics of Leptopilina boulardi (Hymenoptera: Figitidae) and the effects of its parasitism on the growth and development of Drosophila melanogaster
    ZHOU Si-Cong, CHEN Jia-Ni, PANG Lan, PAN Zhong-Qiu, SHI Min, HUANG Jian-Hua, CHEN Xue-Xin
    2018, 61(9):  1040-1046.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.005
    Abstract ( 878 )   PDF (2802KB) ( 168 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the biological characteristics of the parasitoid Leptopilina boulardi and to determine the effects of its parasitism on the growth and development of host Drosophila melanogaster. 【Methods】 The developmental duration and parasitism efficiency of L. boulardi were detected by anatomical imaging and statistical analysis. The changes of developmental duration and pupal body length and weight of host D. melanogaster after being parasitized by L. boulardi were also investigated. 【Results】 The results showed that the mean duration of egg stage, larval stage and pupal stage of L. boulardi was 0.98±0.22, 10.22±0.57 and 8.09±0.19 (male pupa) or 10.07±0.30 (female pupa) d, respectively. The female takes about two more days to complete pupal eclosion than the male. After the 2nd instar larvae of D. melanogaster were parasitized by L. boulardi, the cellular encapsulation response occurred obviously in D. melanogaster larvae, the larval duration of D. melanogaster was prolonged, and the pupal body length and weight of D. melanogaster were also significantly reduced. 【Conclusion】 L. boulardi is a specialist parasitoid of D. melanogaster. The results provide the experimental basis for studying the mechanisms of wasps regulating their hosts.
    Effect of host plants on the movement rate and predation ability of Neoseiulus bicaudus (Mesostigmata: Phytoseiidae)
    ZHANG Yan-南, GU Jia-Min, CHEN Jing, WANG Pei-Ling, ZHANG Jian-Ping
    2018, 61(9):  1047-1053.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.006
    Abstract ( 595 )   PDF (3321KB) ( 150 )     
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    【Aim】 The predation ability of Neoseiulus bicaudus depends on its movement rate. This study analyzed the effect of five host plants on the movement rate of N. bicaudus in order to explore the predation ability of N. bicaudus to Tetranychus turkestani on different host plants. 【Methods】 The movement rates of female adults of N. bicaudus on five host plants including green bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), eggplant (Solanum melongena) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) were recorded by digital image processing technology, and the effects of host plants on the predating functional response of N. bicaudus were compared by direct observation. 【Results】 The movement rates of N. bicaudus on the fivehost plants ranked in the descending order as green bean (0.62 cm/s) and cotton (0.60 cm/s)>cucumber (0.38 cm/s) and eggplant (0.36 cm/s)>tomato (0.27 cm/s). Further study on predating functional responses of N. bicaudus on the five host plants indicated that the prey consumption increased as the prey density increased until it reached a plateau where the consumption rate remained constant, exhibiting a Holling type II response. The attack rate (a) of N. bicaudus against T. turkestani on green bean (1.124) was the highest. The handling time (Th) on cotton (0.059) was the shortest. The predation abilities of N. bicaudus on green bean and cotton were strong, with the a/Th values of 18.177 and 16.763, respectively, while those on tomato, eggplant and cucumber were weak, with the a/Th values of 6.780, 6.537 and 6.369, respectively. 【Conclusion】 On green bean and cotton, the movement rates of N. bicaudus are the fastest and its predation ability is the strongest.
    Analysis of the genetic diversity and host specialization of Ostrinia furnacalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Northeast China
    WANG Ke-Qin, LIU Xing-Long, SHAO Tian-Yu
    2018, 61(9):  1054-1066.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.007
    Abstract ( 486 )   PDF (3222KB) ( 146 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to identify the degree of genetic differentiation and gene flow level among different geographic populations and host populations of Ostrinia furnacalis in Northeast China, and to clarify whether there is a host specialization and genetic structural change between different populations. 【Methods】 A 1 034-bp segment of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene of 400 individuals from 23 geographic populations of O. furnacalis on three main host plants [corn (Zea mays), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and millet (Setaria italica)] in Northeast China was sequenced and analyzed by bidirectional sequencing. The genetic diversity, gene flow level, phyletic evolution and molecular variance among different host populations and different geographic populations of O.furnacalis were analyzed using DnaSP 5.0 and Arlequin3.5.1.2. 【Results】 A total of 400 COI gene sequences of 1 034 bp, including 60 haplotypes, were obtained from O. furnacalis. The total haplotype diversity (Hd) of all populations was 0.793±0.01, and the range of haplotype diversity of different geographic populations was 0-0.916±0.041. The level of total gene flow was high (Nm=2.67), the total Fst of the total population was 0.1579, and the range of Fst of different geographic populations was -0.046-0.627. Tajima’s D of the total population was -1.73602, and the test results were not significant, suggesting that the O. furnacalis in Northeast China has not experienced the recent expansion of population, and the population size is stable. Molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) demonstrated that the genetic differentiation between different geographic populations was great (Fst=0.16236, P<0.0001), and 83.76% of genetic variation was mainly within a population, while the genetic variation between populations was only 16.24%. The genetic differentiation between O. furnacalis populations on different hosts (Fct=0.01568, P>0.05) was small, and the genetic variation accounted for only 1.57%, suggesting that the observed genetic differentiation of O.furnacalis occurs primarily within populations, and there is no obvious genetic differentiation among its geographic populations and host populations. The neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree and haplotype network showed that the haplotypes of host populations were distributed in different populations, and no obvious geographic distribution and host distribution patterns were found. 【Conclusion】 Due to the stronger flight ability (or spreading long distances with air) of O. furnacalis, the gene flow is not affected by geographic distance, and the genetic distance is not significantly correlated with the geographic distance. Despite of the wide host range of this insect, the gene flow is frequent among its different host populations, and host specialization and genetic structural difference don’t exist among host populations collected from corn, sorghum and millet.
    Analysis of the diversity of host plants of Gracillariidae (Lepidoptera) in China
    BAI Hai-Yan, TIE Jun, HOU Qin-Wen
    2018, 61(9):  1067-1075.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.008
    Abstract ( 450 )   PDF (1431KB) ( 170 )     
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    【Aim】 To summarize host plant species of gracillariid moths in China, and to analyze the relationship between the diversity of gracillariid moths and the diversity of their host plants. 【Methods】 Domestic and foreign published literatures were referred to count the taxa of host plants of gracillariid moths in China. SPSS version 19.0 was used to analyze the data on diversity of both gracillariid moths and their host plants. 【Results】 There are 149 gracillariid species with host plant records in China, under 4 subfamilies and 37 genera. Host plants of gracillariid moths are numerous, with 435 species of 153 genera of 49 families, and the major host plant families are Leguminosae, Fagaceae, Salicaceae, Rosaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Polygonaceae and Rutaceae. In addition to three families of Monocotyledoneae and one family of Gymnospermae, the major host plants belong to Dicotyledoneae and Angiospermae. Gracillriinae holds the most host plants including 43 families, 129 genera and 430 species, and then Lithocolletinae with 12 families, 29 genera and 87 species, Phyllocnistinae with 5 families, 10 genera and 38 species, and Oecophyllembiinae only with 4 families, 5 genera and 7 species. At the gracillariid genus level, 14 genera of gracillriid can infest more than two families of host plants. Host range in Caloptilia is the widest with 18 families, 37 genera and 111 species, and then Phyllonorycter with 10 families, 18 genera and 68 species. Among different host plants, the species of gracillariid moths are also diverse. At the host family level, 22 families can be infested by over two genera of gracillariid moths. Leguminosae host the most number of gracillariid genera, including 14 gracillariid genera, and then Euphorbiaceae and Fagaceae, including 8 and 7 gracillariid genera, respectively. At the host genus level, 37 genera can be infested by two or more genera of gracillariid moths, the remaining 116 genera are only infested by one gracillariid genus respectively. Significantly positive correlations (R2>0.60, P<0.01) between the gracillariid species number at the subfamily and genus levels and the species, genus and family numbers of host plants were found. 【Conclusion】 The richness of gracillariid species positively correlates the range of their host plants. The feeding habits of gracillariid moths comprise both monophagy and oligophagy.
    REVIEW ARTICLES
    Advances in biology, chemical ecology and control of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)
    LI Feng-Qi1, #, FU Ning-Ning, ZHANG Lian-Zhong, JIAO Meng-Meng, PENG Ling-Fei, XU Yi-Hua, LUO Chen
    2018, 61(9):  1076-1086.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.009
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (2401KB) ( 230 )     
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     The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata, is an important invasive pest, obligately infesting Platanus spp. trees. This pest, a native species to North America, was introduced to Europe in 1960s. In China it was first found in Hunan province in 2002, and has spread to Hubei, Shanghai, Shandong, Henan and Beijing, causing heavy infestations. Researchers have found that the sycamore lace bug specifically damaged Platanus spp. trees, causing chlorotic or bronzed foliage and premature senescence of leaves. In addition, this pest has a high capacity to survive and adapt to high and low temperatures. In recent years, the research on pheromones of C. ciliata has gradually attracted people’s attention. Many bioactive molecules and genes associated have been identified, providing a basis for ecological control of this pest. In this article, we reviewed the research progresses of this species, focusing on its biology, damage characteristics, propagation patterns, chemical ecology, environmental adaptability, and prevention and control methods, and brought forward the future research directions of development of integrated pest management technologies for managing this pest so as to provide a reference for researchers in this field.
    Advances in nocturnal pollinating moths
    YANG Xiao-Fei, ZHU Lin, LI Hou-Hun
    2018, 61(9):  1087-1096.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.010
    Abstract ( 681 )   PDF (4137KB) ( 194 )     
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    Moths are important pollinators of a diverse range of plant species in ecosystems. They, as a key composition in global diversity, have considerable impacts on ecoenvironment. The majority of them are nocturnal insects. However, studies on nocturnal pollination biology to date have largely been ignored. Their contribution to the provision of pollination ecosystem services may have been underappreciated. In this article, we made a systematic review of the studies of nocturnal pollinating moths across the world, mainly including the diversification, distinction between nocturnal and diurnal pollination, research methods, and pollination biology and ecology. The results showed that, up to June 2018, there were 596 species of moths, involving 29 families of 15 superfamilies of Lepidoptera, which have been recorded for flower visit or pollination. Both nocturnal and diurnal pollinators and pollinated plants have obvious adaptive characteristics in morphology. The research methods of nocturnal moths include the light trap, sample section counting, observation and some technical methods derived therefrom. It is hoped that this review will provide a useful reference for the study of the interaction between pollinators and entomophilous plants in China.
    SHORT COMMUNICATIONS
    Flight capacity test and trajectory analysis of long-distance dispersal of Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)
    LU Shao-Hui, WEI Mei-Cai, YUAN Guo-Jun, CUI Jian-Xin, MEI Xiang-Xin
    2018, 61(9):  1097-1105.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.011
    Abstract ( 432 )   PDF (3846KB) ( 116 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to investigate the effects of temperature, age and sex on the flight capacity of the alien species Corythucha ciliata, and to analyze its long-distance diffusion trajectory. 【Methods】 The flight capacity of C. ciliata adults and the diffusion trajectory of the population with air flow were measured by using the flight mill system, the high altitude tethered balloon and the HYSPLIT-4 model. 【Results】 The results revealed that the flight distance and flight time of C. ciliata adults were age-dependent, reaching the peak at 10 d after emergence and then decreasing gradually. The flight distance and flight time of 10 day-old adults were the minimum at 19℃ among the test temperatures (19, 22, 25, 29 and 31℃), gradually increased with the increase of temperature, reached the peak at 25℃, and then decreased gradually. The flight distance at 25℃ significantly increased compared with that at the other test temperatures. The average flight speed reached the maximum at 28℃, which was significantly higher than that at the other temperatures. The flight distance and flight time of females were significantly higher than those of males; however, males had significantly higher flight speed than females. The results of the high altitude tethered balloon survey showed that the population density of C. ciliata reached the maximum at 5 and 10 m. With the increase of altitude, the number of insects caught by trap decreased gradually, the population density at 35 m reached the minimum, and no adults were trapped over 65 m. The southern-northern diffusion routes of C. ciliata in 2015 simulated using the HYSPLIT-4 model were from Zhengzhou city, Henan province to Lingchuan county of Jincheng city, and then to Qinxian county of Changzhi city, and then to Fanshi county of Yizhou city, Shanxi province, and finally to the Northeast of Zhangjiakou city, Hebei province.【Conclusion】 In the laboratory the 10 day-old adults of C. ciliata at 25℃ show the strongest flight capacity. In fields C. ciliata adults could rise up to the altitude of 65 m with air flow, and have the ability to diffuse at low altitude with air flow.
    Occurrence characteristics of adults of the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Altay, Xinjiang, northwestern China
    AZIGULI Abulizi, YASEN Shali, ZU Mi-Na, AMANGULI Tuniyazi, WU Le-Nian, XU Guang-Qing, ZHAO Li
    2018, 61(9):  1106-1113.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.012
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF (3552KB) ( 100 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the increasing patterns of adults of the meadow moth, Loxostege sticticalis in Altay, Xinjiang, northwestern China, and the relationship between its ovarian development and population dynamics and migration. 【Methods】 L. sticticalis adults were trapped using highaltitude searchlight, and their ovaries were dissected to identify the status of ovarian development. 【Results】 The numbers of L. sticticalis adults in the study sites exhibited a phenomena of sudden increase and decrease, occurring more frequently in 2015 than in 2016. L. sticticalis disappeared on 30 August 2015 and on 22 August 2016. Adults appeared the most in the second (00:10-01:50) and third (01:50-03:30) periods during the night in 2015 and 2016. In 2015, most ovaries (65.5%) were in the stage Ⅲ when the first generation adults increased sharply, and most ovaries (69.1%) were in the stage Ⅱ from the end of July when the first generation adults decreased. In 2016, most ovaries (71.25%) were in the stage Ⅳ when the first generation adults increased sharply. In 2015 and 2016, various stages of ovaries could be found in the first generation adults in Altay, but the proportions of stages Ⅲ and Ⅳ ovaries were higher than those of other stage ovaries. 【Conclusion】 L. sticticalis in Altay, Xinjiang is the mixed population of the immigrant and local breeding populations.
    Identification of Delia platura (Diptera: Anthomyiidae) and its damage to corn seeds and seedlings in Xingtang, Hebei, northern China
    ZHANG Hai-Jian, SONG Jian, MA Hong-Xia, SHI Jie, HU Qing-Yu, WANG Zhen-Ying
    2018, 61(9):  1114-1120.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.09.013
    Abstract ( 519 )   PDF (5314KB) ( 97 )     
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    【Aim】 The aim of this study is to ascertain the taxonomic status, occurrence and damage characteristics of the maggot newly found in Xingtang County, Hebei Province, northern China, which has caused severe injury to corn seeds and seedlings. 【Methods】 The maggots collected from damaged corn field in Xingtang, Hebei, were reared in the laboratory. The morphological characteristics of different developmental stages were described. The maggot was identified by both morphological and molecular methods. The damage of this maggot to corn seeds and seedlings in the spring corn fields with different planting patterns in Xingtang, Hebei, including the corn monoculture field applied with decomposed organic fertilizer, the corn monoculture field applied with non-decomposed organic fertilizer, the corn-Chinese cabbage rotation field applied with decomposed organic fertilizer and the corn-Chinese cabbage rotation field applied with non-decomposed organic fertilizer, were investigated by random sampling survey method. 【Results】 The morphological characteristics of different developmental stages of the unknown root maggot collected in fields and then reared in laboratory were basically identical to that of the reported Delia platura. The COI and Cytb gene sequences of the root maggot show 99% nucleotide sequence identity with those of D. platura, respectively. Therefore, the root maggot which injured the corn seeds and seedlings was identified to be D. platura both by morphological and molecular methods. Field survey results showed that D. platura caused more serious damage in the corn-Chinese cabbage rotation field applied with non-decomposed organic fertilizer than in other fields. Injured corn seeds could not germinate and injured young seedlings wilted and died. The total percentage of both corn seeds and seedlings injured by seedcorn maggots was 39.33%, and the maximum larval number per plant was eight. 【Conclusion】 It is the first report on D. platura infesting corn seeds and young seedlings in China. The damage risk by D. platura is very high for the corn-Chinese cabbage rotation field applied with non-decomposed organic fertilizer.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 61 Issue9
    2018, 61(9):  1121-1121. 
    Abstract ( 277 )   PDF (471KB) ( 67 )     
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