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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 October 2018, Volume 61 Issue 10
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    Identification of odorant binding protein genes in antennae of Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae)
    YANG Hai-Bo, HU Zhen-Jie, LI Ding-Xu, ZHU Pin-Hong, DONG Jun-Feng
    2018, 61(10):  1121-1131.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.001
    Abstract ( 659 )   PDF (5034KB) ( 130 )     
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    Abstract: 【Aim】 The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive and specific forestry pest of Platanus spp. The objective of this study is to obtain the gene information of odorant binding proteins (OBPs) in C. ciliata antennae and to seek effective olfactory molecular targets for pest control. 【Methods】 The antennal transcriptomes of male and female adults of C. ciliata were sequenced using Illumina HiSeqTM 4000 platform and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The expression patterns of OBP genes in female and male antennae of C. ciliata adults were analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). 【Results】 In total, 40.87 Gb clean reads were obtained from six samples of male and female antennal transcripts of C. ciliata adults, the sequences of all of the samples are more than 6.31 Gb in length. By further screening and identification, we obtained 26 putative OBP genes from C. ciliata, whose encoded proteins correspond to 24 Classic OBPs (CcilOBP1-24) and 2 Plus-C OBPs (CcilOBP25/26). Phylogenetic analysis of OBPs from C. ciliata (CcilOBPs) and other closely related Hemiptera species revealed that most CcilOBPs form a unique cluster, and a few form ortholog groups with OBPs from other hemipterous insects. qPCR analysis showed that there were significant differences in the expression levels of 11 OBP genes in the antennae of male and female adults, including 9 OBP genes (CcilOBP5/6/9/10/17/18/21/24/25) highly expressed in the male antennae, and 2 OBP genes (CcilOBP14/16) highly expressed in the female antennae. 【Conclusion】 This study acquired the molecular information of OBP genes from C. ciliata adult antennae. The results provide valuable basic data and candidate molecular targets for biological control of C. ciliata.
    Gene cloning, prokaryotic expression and subcelluar localization of a class C scavenger receptor BmSR-C in the silkworm, Bombyx mori  
    SHEN Li, XU Chuan, ZHANG Lei, ZHANG Kui, MAO Jing-Xin, PAN Guang-Zhao, LI Zhong-Yang, HU Ren-Jian, YANG Li-Qun, CUI Hong-Juan
    2018, 61(10):  1132-1144.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.002
    Abstract ( 480 )   PDF (3856KB) ( 87 )     
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     【Aim】 This study aims to clone and identify a class C scavenger receptor gene BmSR-C in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, so as to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the function of scavenger receptor class C in the silkworm immunity. 【Methods】 The full-length cDNA of BmSR-C was cloned by RACE and analyzed by bioinformatics. The spatial and temporal expression profiles of BmSR-C were detected by RT-PCR and qPCR. The BmSR-C recombinant protein was obtained by prokaryotic expression and Ni+ affinity chromatography. The antibody was acquired by using the recombinant protein to immunize mice, and its titer and specificity were detected by ELISA and Western blot, respectively. Simultaneously, the subcellular localization of the protein was analyzed after BmSR-C eukaryotic vector was constructed and then transfected into BmE cells of the silkworm. 【Results】 We cloned the fulllength cDNA of BmSR-C (GenBank accession no.: BGIBMGA004577) from B. mori, which contains an ORF of 1 821 bp encoding a putative protein of 606 amino acid residues. BmSR-C has the typical structural features of scavenger receptor class C family, including CCP, MAM and SO domains, as well as a single transmembrane region in the near end of the C-terminus. Evolutionary analysis showed that SR-C proteins from lepidopteran insects clustered alone, and BmSR-C was most closely related to its homologues from Spodoptera frugiperda and Danaus plexippus. The spatial and temporal expression profiles showed that BmSR-C was highly expressed in the Malpighian tubules and hemocytes, but showed no obvious expression in other detected tissues. In addition, BmSR-C was expressed in hemocytes during different developmental stages, with the expression peak at the 4th instar larval molting. The titer of the antibody was estimated as high as 1∶128 000 dilution ratio through ELISA, and the result of Western blot showed that the antibody could specifically recognize the recombinant protein. The subcellular localization result in BmE cells showed that BmSRC is mainly located on the cell membrane. 【Conclusion】 BmSR-C was cloned and its expression patterns were investigated. The antimouse polyclonal antibody was obtained. The subcellular localization of BmSR-C was investigated in BmE cells of the silkworm. It is inferred that BmSR-C may be involved in the growth and development and immune response to the invasion of pathogenic microorganisms in the silkworm. This study provides a foundation for further research of the biological function of BmSR-C in the silkworm.
    Regulation of the expression of chemosensory protein gene csp9 by miR-301 in Bombyx mori  
    YANG Juan-Juan, WANG Yuan-Zhuo, WEI Bo-Fan, XING Qiu-Ting, HAN Yun-Chao, QIAO Hui-Li
    2018, 61(10):  1145-1152.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.003
    Abstract ( 450 )   PDF (1396KB) ( 92 )     
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    【Aim】 To explore the role of miRNAs in regulating the expression of chemosensory protein genes in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, so as to further study the functions of miRNAs and their target genes in insect chemoreception. 【Methods】 The miRNAs that may interact with silkworm CSPs gene family were predicted and screened using bioinformatics methods, and the expression changes of candidate miR-301 and its target gene in different tissues of silkworm adults were analyzed using RT- qPCR. Dual luciferase report vector for miR-301 target gene 3′-UTR was constructed and transfected into human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells with miR-301 mimics or the negative control. The regulation of expression of the target gene by miR-301 was detected by the change of luciferase activity in dual luciferase reporter gene assay system. 【Results】 The results of bioinformatics analysis showed that csp9, a silkworm chemosensory protein gene, is a predicted target gene of miR-301, and its binding site with miR-301 is located in the 3′ -UTR region of csp9. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression of miR-301 was significantly up-regulated in male and female adult antennae and male adult head after mating, while the expression of csp9 was significantly down-regulated in these tissues. Dual luciferase assays showed that miR-301 significantly inhibited the expression of luciferase reporter gene by interacting with csp9 3′-UTR after co-transfection into HEK293 cells. 【Conclusion】In B. mori the chemosensory protein gene csp9 is a target gene of miR-301, its expression at the translational level is inhibited by miR-301 through binding to its 3′-UTR.
    Purification and characterization of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase from the Italian honey bee, Apis mellifera ligustica (Hymenoptera: Apidae) (In English)
    ZHANG Wei-Ni, HU Chong-Wei, ZHANG Meng-Xin, HAN Wei-Chao, HUANG Xiao-Hong
    2018, 61(10):  1153-1159.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.004
    Abstract ( 425 )   PDF (1114KB) ( 72 )     
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    【Aim】 N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase) is an important chitinase for degradation of chitin. It can cleave terminal N-acetyl-β-D-glucosamine residues from the nonreducing ends of N-acetyl-β-D-glucosides, participating in the ecdysis of exoskeletons in insects. Researching and characterizing this enzyme from honey bees may help to clarify its mechanism of action in the development of honey bees. 【Methods】 NAGase was purified from larvae of the Italian honey bee(Apis mellifera ligustica) by means of (NH4)2SO4 fractionation (40%-70% of saturation), DEAE-cellulose ion exchange chromatography, and Sephadex G-100 gel filtration. The enzyme activity was determined by using p-nitrophenyl-N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminide (pNP-NAG) as the substrate. The purity of the enzyme was determined by native PAGE and SDS-PAGE. The isoelectric point (pI) of the enzyme was measured by IEF-PAGE, and its molecular weight was determined by Sephadex G-200 gel filtration. 【Results】The specific activity of purified NAGase was 803.09 U/mg and the molecular weight was 77.3 kD. The enzyme was composed of two subunits with the same molecular weight of 39 kD. Its pI was determined to be 4.8. Results of kinetic analysis indicated that the enzyme in the hydrolysis of pNP-NAG followed Michaelis -Menten kinetics with the Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.11 mmol/L and the maximum velocity (Vm) of 17.65 μmol/L·min, respectively. The optimum pH and optimum temperature of the enzyme for hydrolysis of pNP-NAG was pH 5.5 and 60℃, respectively. And the activation energy of the enzyme for the hydrolysis of pNP-NAG was determined to be 64.8 kJ/mol. Pb2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Al3+ inhibited the enzyme activity in different degrees. 【Conclusion】In this study the enzyme NAGase has been purified and characterized from A. mellifera ligustica, laying a foundation for further unveiling the structure and function of NAGase in bees.
    Virulence and phylogenetic analysis of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus isolates from Yunnan, southwestern China
    TANG Fen-Fen, ZHANG Yong-Hong, SHAO Yu-Lan, ZHU Feng, BAI Xing-Rong
    2018, 61(10):  1160-1169.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.005
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF (3261KB) ( 69 )     
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    【Aim】 Bombyx mori nucleopoyhedrovirus (BmNPV) causes nuclear polyhedrosis which is one of the most important prevalent diseases and results in significant economic losses in sericultural areas in Yunnan, southwestern China. This study aims to determinate the virulence of BmNPV isolates from Yunnan and to investigate the epidemic trend of BmNPV diseases in Yunnan, so as to provide a basis for surveillance and control of the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis. 【Methods】 The infectivity of 19 BmNPV isolates from Yunnan was estimated by the mortality of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori and the virulence to BmN cells caused by BmNPV. The bro-d genes of 19 BmNPV isolates were cloned, sequenced and subjected to phylogenetics analysis. 【Results】 The per os infectivity varied in different BmNPV isolates from Yunnan by comparing the mortality of the 5th instar larvae of B. mori caused by BmNPV isolates. The virulence test results showed that the titers of budded virus (BV) of the 19 BmNPV isolates were significantly different. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 19 BmNPV isolates from Yunnan were separated into two main clades, i.e., clade I and II. Clade I isolates were distributed in eastern, central and western parts of Yunnan province, which are sub-tropical regions with high temperature, while clade II isolates were mainly distributed in northern part of Yunnan province, which has plateau moosoon climate with relatively low temperature. 【Conclusion】 There are abundant BmNPV strains in sericultural areas of Yunnan. The virulence of BmNPV isolates from Yunnan to B. mori varies widely, and the evolutionary relationship of these isolates is related with geography and climate in a certain degree.
    Effects of temperature on the growth,development and reproduction of Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)
    LI Si-Yi, WANG Ji-Rui, LAI Qiu-Li, ZHANG Sheng-Juan, SHAO Wei-Dong, XU Zhi-Hong
    2018, 61(10):  1170-1176.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.006
    Abstract ( 628 )   PDF (805KB) ( 145 )     
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    【Aim】 Phenacoccus solani (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) has been found as one of important alien species in recent years in China. For the alien pest, temperature is always a crucial factor for constructing stable population. This study aims to clarify the effects of temperature on the growth, development and reproduction of P. solani population on the host Lactuca sativa. 【Methods】 The developmental duration, developmental rate, survival rate and fecundity of P. solani on L. sativa were compared in the laboratory under the conditions of 20, 23, 26, 29 and 32℃, photoperiod of 14L∶10D, and RH 80%±5%, and the life table of the laboratory population was constructed. 【Results】 The developmental duration of various stages of P. solani all decreased with increasing temperature. The nymphal duration was the longest at 20℃ (35.75 d), and the shortest at 32℃ (17.90 d). Temperature significantly impacted its survival. The highest survival rate was recorded at 26℃ for the nymphal stage (67.33%). The developmental threshold temperature was 12.23℃, and the effective accumulated temperature was 770.90 day-degrees. Both preoviposition duration and adult longevity decreased with increasing temperature, and the highest fecundity was 88.02 eggs laid per female at 20℃, and the lowest 37.61 eggs laid per female at 32℃. The population trend index was greater than 1 from 20 to 32℃, implying that the population increases at these temperatures and P. solani can adapt to a wide range of temperatures. However, the survival rate at the preoviposition stage was significantly reduced at 32℃, indicating that high temperature is not conducive to P. solani reproduction. 【Conclusion】 Temperature significantly affects the growth and development, survivorship, reproduction and population increase of P. solani, and the most suitable temperature for this pest is 26℃.
    Effects of maternal starvation on the development and reproduction of the offspring of alate adults of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)
    Lü Nan-Nan , SHI Qi, WU Jun-Xiang, XU Xiang-Li
    2018, 61(10):  1177-1183.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.007
    Abstract ( 550 )   PDF (1849KB) ( 104 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to determine the maternal effects of alate adults of Sitobion avenae under starvation stress so as to provide a foundation for future study of the successful establishment at a new habitat and continuous reproduction of alate migratory aphids. 【Methods】 The survival rates of alate adults of S. avenae starved for 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h, and the number of offsprings produced within 24 h of resumption of feeding, body size at birth, development and reproduction of the offspring were examined and compared with those of the fed aphids at the same period. The potential effects of maternal starvation on its offspring were evaluated. 【Results】 The survival rate of alate adults of S. avenae in the starvation group was lower than that in the feeding group at the same period. Few offsprings were born during starvation but the number of offsprings produced within 24 h of resumption of feeding in the starvation group was higher than that in the feeding group at the same period. With the increase in the degree of maternal starvation, the body size of offsprings at birth decreased significantly within 24 h of resumption of feeding. Offsprings from mothers starved for over 96 h were smaller in body size significantly than those from the fed mothers at the same period. When the offsprings from starved mothers within 24 h of resumption of feeding were raised individually under normal food conditions, their nymphal duration increased significantly with the increase in the degree of maternal starvation. The nymphal duration of offsprings from mothers starved for 120 h and 144 h delayed significantly (15.1% and 158%, respectively), as compared with that from the fed mothers at the same period. However, no significant differences were observed in the nymphal survival rate, proportion of apterous individuals, adult longevity, and total fecundity of offsprings within 24 h of resumption of feeding among the starvation treatments. 【Conclusion】 Alate adults of S. avenae display a lower survival rate under starvation stress, but the number of offsprings from the starved mothers within 24 h of resumption of feeding is higher than that from the fed mother at the same period. With the increase in the degree of maternal starvation, the body size of offsprings at birth decreases significantly and the nymphal duration increases significantly within 24 h of resumption of feeding. However, maternal starvation experience has no effects on the nymphal survival rate, proportion of apterous individuals, adult longevity, and total fecundity of offsprings within 24 h of resumption of feeding. The adaption of the offspring in response to maternal starvation stress may be one of the important factors for the successful establishment of new colonies of the alate migratory aphids.
    Identification of the trace sex pheromone components of Conogethes punctiferalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) female adults on maize and optimization of their ratio in sex pheromone lures used in maize fields
    XU Xiang, KONG De-Sheng, FENG Bo, QIAN Kai, DU Yong-Jun
    2018, 61(10):  1184-1191.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.008
    Abstract ( 567 )   PDF (1748KB) ( 116 )     
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    【Aim】 The purpose of this study is to further clarify the complete composition of female sex pheromone of the yellow peach moth, Conogethes punctiferalis, infesting maize and its olfactory profile. 【Methods】 The extracts of pheromone glands from sexually mature female moths of C. punctiferalis infesting maize were analyzed by gas chromatography -mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and sex pheromone components were confirmed with the synthetic compounds. The olfactory responses were detected and analyzed by electroantennogram recording technique. The mixtures of sex pheromone components were screened and optimized by field trapping tests in Sichuan and Shandong in 2014. 【Results】 E10-16∶Ald was the main component of sex pheromone of female adults of C. punctiferalis on maize, while traces of Z10-16∶Ald and Z10-16∶OH were also detected. The unmated female adults did not respond to the five sex pheromone compounds including E10-16∶Ald, 16∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald, Z10-16∶OH and E10-16∶OH, while the unmated male adults responded strongly to E10-16∶Ald and Z10-16∶Ald, and also responded to E10-16∶OH and Z10-16∶OH. In the field tests with lures containing three components (E10-16∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald and 16∶Ald) and four components (E10-16∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald, 16∶Ald and E10-16∶ OH) at different ratios in Sichuan and Shandong in 2014, the lure containing E10-16∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald and 16∶Ald at the ratio of 95∶5∶10 trapped the highest number of adults. The trace component Z10-16∶OH in Sichuan showed no significantly synergistic effect, while showed significantly synergistic effect in Shandong, and the lure containing E10-16 ∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald, 16∶Ald and E10-16∶OH at the ratio of 95∶5∶10∶5 showed the highest trapping efficacy. 【Conclusion】 The complete composition of the sex pheromone of C. punctiferalis on maize includes E10-16∶Ald, Z10-16∶Ald, 16∶Ald and E10-16∶OH, and their optimal ratio is 95∶5∶10∶5.
    Observation of the antenna and antennal sensilla of adults of the leafhopper Chlorotettix nigromaculatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) with scanning electron microscope
    GUO Fu-Zhen, YUAN Shui-Xia, WANG He-Ran, GUO Ke-Jian
    2018, 61(10):  1192-1201.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.009
    Abstract ( 840 )   PDF (1880KB) ( 122 )     
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    【Aim】 This study aims to compare antennae and the types, number, and distribution of the antennal sensilla between male and female adults of the leafhopper Chlorotettix nigromaculatus, so as to lay a basis for studying the behavior biology, chemical ecology and electrophysiology of this pest. 【Methods】 The antennal morphology and the types, number, distribution and ultrastructure of antennal sensilla in C. nigromaculatus adults were observed under scanning electron microscope. 【Results】 The types, number, and distribution of the antennal sensilla are similar between male and female adults of C. nigromaculatus. The adult antenna of this leafhopper is bristle-like, and consists of scape, pedicel and flagellum. The scape and pedicel are short and wide, with numerous squamiformia denticles. The long and slender flagellum consists of 60-64 flagellomeres, and there are numerous squamiformia denticles on the 1st flagellomere. There are seven sensilla types on antennae, including Böhm bristles (BB), sensilla trichodea (ST), sensilla basiconica (SB), sensilla campaniformia (SCa), sensilla chaetica (SCh), sensilla coelocomica (SCo) and forficate sensilla (FS). Among them, the Bhm bristles are distributed on the basal scape and the lower-middle pedical, the sensilla trichodeaⅠ and Ⅱ exist on the scape, pedical and the 3rd flagellomere, the sensilla basiconica are on the tips of the 1st and 2nd flagellomeres, the sensilla campaniformia Ⅰ and Ⅱ on the basal scape and the tips of the 3rd and 5th flagellomeres, the sensilla coelocomica Ⅰ and Ⅱ on the 1st-5th flagellomeres, the sensilla trichodea Ⅰ and Ⅱ on the middle-upper pedicel and the tip of the 4th flagellomere, and the forficate sensillum on the basal pedicel. No differences were observed in the shapes and basic structures of the antennal sensilla between the male and female individuals. 【Conclusion】 The types, distribution and number of the antennal sensilla between male and female adults of C. nigromaculatus are not significantly different. The distribution of various sensilla shows certain patterns. It was the first report for this leafhopper that the Bhm bristles are located on the scape and pedicel, the sensilla trichodea and forficate sensill are distributed on the pedical, and the sensilla coelocomica are distributed on the 1st-5th flagellomeres.
    Revision of scientific names and re-description of five important buprestid species (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) in China
    WANG Xiao-Yi, CAO Liang-Ming, YANG Zhong-Qi
    2018, 61(10):  1202-1211.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.010
    Abstract ( 1234 )   PDF (10178KB) ( 318 )     
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     【Aim】 Buprestid beetles are important wood boring insect pests in agriculture and forestry in China. However, there are many problems of scientific names of these buprestid beetles for years in Chinese literatures, including some college textbooks, e.g., the scientific names revised in the world but not updated in China over a long period of time, wrong identifications, synonyms, records of mistaken species names, etc. In this article, we revised the scientific names of five important buprestid species. 【Methods】 Based on our collections of buprestid specimens for many years, the morphological and biological characteristics of five important buprestid species in China were compared and analyzed through checking literatures and discussion with associated taxonomists, inspection of specimens, dissection of genitalia, and observations of infestation symptoms. 【Results】 The diagnostic morphological characteristics of the five important buprestid species were re-described, and their distribution ranges, host plants and feeding habits were also noted. The correct scientific names of these five buprestids are Lamprodila limbata (Gebler), Trachypteris picta picta (Pallas), Capnodis miliaris metallica Ballion, Meliboeus ohbayashii primoriensis (Alexeev), Agrilus pekinensis pekinensis Obenberger, respectively. 【Conclusion】 Some errors in scientific names of species of Buprestidae in Chinese literatures for a long time have been corrected in this study, which is helpful to clarify the confusions in the research and control of buprestid pests in China.
    Antimicrobial and insecticidal activities and evolution of inhibitor cystine knot peptides  
    ZHAO Jing-Ru, YUAN Shou-Li, GAO Bin, ZHU Shun-Yi
    2018, 61(10):  1212-1221.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.011
    Abstract ( 598 )   PDF (3162KB) ( 83 )     
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    Inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) peptides are one of the three family members of cystine knot (CK) peptides. Peptides of this kind consist of a triplet-stranded antiparallel β-sheet stabilized by three disulfide bonds to form a topological knot. They are widely distributed in animals, plants, fungi and even prokaryotes, exhibiting a diversity of biological functions including protease inhibitors, ion channel toxins, and antimicrobial, antimalarial and antiviral activities. In this article, we firstly summarized the ICK peptides found in insects with antimicrobial and ion channel toxin activities, and then introduced some neurotoxic ICK peptides in poisonous animals especially spiders and scorpions, as well as plants. These toxins usually target various ion channels of insects to exert their insecticidal activity. Finally, we discussed the evolutionary diversity of ICK peptides in combination with their gene sequence characteristics, the numbers of their domains and disulfide bonds and species distribution.
    Biosynthesis of isoprenoid aggregation pheromones in bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae)  
    FANG Jia-Xing, ZHANG Su-Fang, LIU Fu, ZHANG Zhen, KONG Xiang-Bo
    2018, 61(10):  1222-1236.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.012
    Abstract ( 741 )   PDF (3129KB) ( 148 )     
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      The bark beetles (Scolytidae) are important wood boring pests, which can severely damage the water and nutrient transport systems of their hosts and cause significant economic loss to the damaged forest in a relatively short time. The aggregation pheromones of bark beetles play an important role in the process of their mass attack. Many aggregation pheromone components of bark beetles have been identified and applied successfully to manage and control bark beetle outbreak in the field. Among them, isoprenoid aggregation pheromones are the most important ones which include several kinds of components, such as ipsenol, ipsdienol, verbenol and their derivatives. In this article, in order to clarify the biosynthesis and regulation mechanism of isoprenoid aggregation pheromones of bark beetles in genera Ips and Dendroctonus, we focused on such six aspects as biosynthesis precursors, biosynthesis sites, biosynthesis pathway, feeding and JHШ regulation, relationships of microbes and biosynthesis, and the future research prospects. Firstly, we mainly introduced the de novo biosynthesis pathway of ipsdienol via mevalonate pathway and the transformation process of host volatile alpha-pinene to verbenol. Then, we summarized and elaborated the responses of key enzymes and genes in the biosynthesis pathway of juvenile hormone Ш and feeding treatments as well as the effects of gut microbes and associated fungi in bark beetles on aggregation pheromone biosynthesis. Finally, we put forward some research expectations concerning biosynthesis of isoprenoid aggregation pheromones in bark beetles. These information provide a theoretical basis for developing and applying aggregation pheromones to control bark beetles.
    Molecular cloning and expression profiling of bursicon genes in the fruit fly Zeugodacus tau (Diptera: Tephritidae)
    ZHANG He-He, ZHANG Qi-Wen, LIN Jia, JI Qing-E, CHEN Jia-Hua
    2018, 61(10):  1237-1246.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.10.013
    Abstract ( 441 )   PDF (4986KB) ( 80 )     
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    【Aim】 To clone bursicon genes from the fruit fly Zeugodacus tau and to analyze their molecular characteristics and spatiotemporal expression patterns, so as to develop a basis for further study of their physiological functions. 【Methods】 The complete cDNAs of bursicon-α and bursicon-β genes were cloned from the newly emerged adults of Z. tau by using homology-based cloning and RACE technology, and the phylogenetic trees were constructed with the homologous sequences of other insect species by using neighbor-joining method. The expression patterns of the two genes in different developmental stages (egg, 1st-3rd instar larva, prepupa, pupa and newly emerged adult) of Z. tau were detected by qPCR. 【Results】 The full-length cDNAs of two bursicon genes bursicon-α (GenBank accession no.: MH421861) and bursicon-β (GenBank accession no.: MH421862) were cloned from Z. tau. bursicon-α contains a 551 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 183 amino acid residues, and bursicon-β has a 467 bp ORF encoding 156 amino acid residues. Phylogenetic tree analysis based on the amino acid sequences of the two bursicon genes showed that Bursicon-α and Bursicon-β of Z. tau had a closest genetic relationship with the homologous proteins of Zeugodacus cucurbitae, and clustered into one independent group with the homologous proteins of other dipterous insects. The qPCR results indicated that both bursicon-α and bursicon-β were expressed in all developmental stages of Z. tau, and highly expressed in 5 d-old pupae and in the wing expansion stage of the newly emerged adults. 【Conclusion】 The expression levels of bursicon-α and bursicon -β are different in different developmental stages of Z. tau, suggesting a crucial role of bursicon genes in cuticular tanning and wing formation. This study provides a foundation for further exploring the functional mechanisms of bursicon in cuticle sclerotization and wing reconstruction of Z. tau.
    Contents of Vol. 61 Issue10
    2018, 61(10):  1247-1247. 
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