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  • Monthly, Founded in 1950
    Supervisor:Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Sponsor:Institute of Zoology,Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The Entomological Society of China
    Domestic postal code: 2-153
    Foreign issuance code: Q61
    ISSN 0454-6296
    CN 11-1832/Q
Table of Content
20 November 2018, Volume 61 Issue 11
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  • RESEARCH PAPERS
    Dynamic localization of histone H3 Thr3 phosphorylation in Sf9 cells during mitosis
    ZHANG Bing, XU Qian, TANG Cun-Duo, WANG Jiao-Ling, WU Pan-Pan, ZHU Lu-Lu, KAN Yun-Chao
    2018, 61(11):  1247-1252.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.001
    Abstract ( 319 )   PDF(mobile) (4413KB) ( 41 )     
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    Aim To study the function of histone H3 Thr3 phosphorylation, an epigenetic marker, in Sf9 cells during mitosis. Methods One peptide of ARTKQTARKC containing the 1st-9th amino acids of histone H3 was synthesized by solid phase method, and the antibody was prepared by phosphorylation of H3 at threonin 3 (P-Pep 226555) or non-phosphorylation (NP-Pep 080472). The specificity of the antibody was detected through Western blot. Sf9 cells were cultured, slides of the mitotic cells at different stages were prepared by cell climbing, and the localization characteristics of phosphorylated H3 Thr3 (H3 Thr3ph) antibody at different stages of mitotic Sf9 cells were detected by cytology immunofluorescence. Results In Sf9 cells, the H3 Thr3 phosphorylation began to appear on chromosomes at the prophase with a specific distribution pattern, and the fluorescent signals of H3 Thr3 phosphorylation gradually increased and reached the maximum in metaphase as the cell cycle went on. At the anaphase, the fluorescent signals of H3 Thr3 phosphorylation were distributed uniformly on the equatorial plate where the new daughter cells form, and only very weak signal vestigital was located at specific places at the telophase. Conclusion Histone H3 Thr3 phosphorylation is associated with cytokinesis in Sf9 cells during mitosis.
    Cloning of heat shock protein gene SmHsp40 and its expression during diapause and under extreme temperature stress in Sitodiplosis mosellana (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae)
    ZHAO Jia-Jia, LI Xue-Jiao, LIU Zhen-Zhu, CHENG Wei-Ning, ZHU Ke-Yan
    2018, 61(11):  1253-1262.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.002
    Abstract ( 407 )   PDF(mobile) (3673KB) ( 56 )     
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    Aim The orange wheat blossom midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, escapes temperature extremes during hot summer and cold winter by undergoing obligatory larval diapause. This study aims to explore the potential roles of heat shock protein 40 gene (Hsp40) during diapause of S. mosellana. Methods The full-length cDNA of Hsp40 was cloned from S. mosellana larvae at pre-diapause stage by using RT-PCR and RACE technologies, and its nucleotide and amino acid sequences were subjected to bioinformatic analysis. The mRNA expression level of Hsp40 inpre-diapause, diapause and post-diapause larvae of S. mosellana, over-summering diapausing larvae exposed to short-term heat stress (35-50, 120 min) and over-wintering diapausing larvae exposed to short-term cold stress (0--15, 120 min) were detected with real-time quantitative PCR. Results The full-length cDNA sequence of Hsp40 was obtained from S. mosellana, and named SmHsp40 (GenBank accession number: MH001167), which is 1 553 bp in length and contains a 1 074 bp ORF encoding a protein of 357 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 40.87 kD and a theoretical pI of 5.31. The deduced amino acid sequence contains the conserved J-domain and HPD motif of Hsp40 protein family. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated that SmHsp40 was most similar and closely related to Hsp40s from the Nematocera including Anopheles gambiae. The expression of SmHsp40 differed significantly among different diapause stages, and was up-regulated during the diapause period, with significantly higher expression level during summer (July to August) and winter (December to January of the following year). The expression of SmHsp40 was induced in over-summering diapausing larvae exposed to heat stress (40for 1 h) or over-wintering diapausing larvae exposed to cold stress (-10for 1 h) as compared to the untreated control, but not induced significantly under extreme temperatures higher than45or lower than-15. Conclusion SmHsp40 is involved in diapause process of S. mosellana and may contribute to diapause maintenance as well as heat and cold tolerance during diapause.
    Cloning and expression localization of ionotropic receptor gene HarmIR8a in Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)
    ZHANG Xia-Xuan, GUO Meng-Bo, LIU Yi-Peng, WANG Bing, WANG Gui-Rong
    2018, 61(11):  1263-1271.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.003
    Abstract ( 439 )   PDF(mobile) (21714KB) ( 46 )     
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    Aim Ionotropic receptors (IRs) are newly discovered chemosensory receptors in insects, which play an important role in insects in sensing acids and amines in the environment. The studies of cloning, sequence alignment and expression localization of genes of IRs will help their preliminary functional analysis in Helicoverpa armigera. Methods Based on the results of antennal transcriptome analysis, the full-length sequence of an ionotropic receptor gene of H. armigera was cloned by PCR, and its sequence structure was analyzed. The relative expression levels of this gene in different tissues of female and male adults of H. armigera were analyzed by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR assay, and its expression localization in male antennae was detected by in situ hybridization. Results The full-length cDNA sequence of HarmIR8agene (GenBank accession no.: MH638313) was cloned from H. armigera. The HarmIR8a sequence comprises a 2 688 bp ORF and encodes a protein of 895 amino acids with three predicted transmembrane domains. HarmIR8acontains one amino-terminal domain (ATD), one ligand binding domain (LBD) consisting of two lobes (S1 and S2), one pore loop (P), three transmembrane domains (M1, M2 and M3) and one C-terminus. The qPCR results revealed that HarmIR8awas mainly expressed in the head (with appendages removed) and antennae of female and male adults of H. armigera, with the highest relative expression level in the antennae. The results of in situ hybridization of the male adult antennae of H. armigera showed that HarmIR8awas mainly expressed in the antennal coeloconic sensilla. Conclusion The transcriptional level and expression localization of HarmIR8awere preliminarily determined. This study lays a foundation for further functional characterization and physiological activities of ionotropic receptor genes in H. armigera.
    Analysis of the larval midgut transcriptome and SSR markers in Grapholitha molesta (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
    LENG Chun-Meng, LI Yin, HU Di, WU Jun-Xiang, LI Yi-Ping
    2018, 61(11):  1272-1283.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.004
    Abstract ( 361 )   PDF(mobile) (3551KB) ( 54 )     
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    Aim The oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta is an important worldwide fruit pest. The midgut of insects plays an important role in digestion, immune response, growth and development. The aim of this study is to establish the larval midgut transpcriptome database of G. molesta, and to tap its genetic information. Methods The larval midgut transcriptome of G. molesta was sequenced, assembled and subjected to bioinformatics analysis by using a high throughput sequencing platform (Illumina HiSeq X Ten), and then the SSR molecular markers from the larval midgut were identified by using the transcriptome data. Results A total of 96 419 unigenes in the larval midgut transcriptome of G. molesta were obtained, and 57 300 unigenes were annotated in the public databases. All unigenes were assigned to 55 functional sub-categories of three categories (biological processes, cellular components and molecular function) using Gene Ontology, and a lot of unigenes were annotated to be related to cellular process, cell and cell part, and binding. The results of KOG showed that 10 090 sequences were classified into 25 gene families, with the most annotated to the general function. In the KEGG database, 10 250 unigenes were annotated to 232 metabolic pathways, and the number of genes annotated to ribosomes was the most. In addition, using MISH software, 12 690 SSR loci were searched in 10 600 unigenes, and six SSR loci were developed by PCR. Conclusion In this study we successfully assembled the larval midgut reference transcriptome of G. molesta, which provides a theoretical basis for pest control targeting the midgut.
    Screening of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Sympiezomias velatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)
    LI Xiao, LI Jian-Wen, CHENG Bo, LI Wei, SUN Wen-Xiu, GAO Hua-Yuan, JU Qian, JIANG Xiao-Jing, DU Long, QU Chun-Juan, QU Ming-Jing
    2018, 61(11):  1284-1294.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.005
    Abstract ( 584 )   PDF(mobile) (1253KB) ( 66 )     
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    Aim This study aims to screen out the suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in different tissues of adult Sympiezomias velatus. Methods The house-keeping gene sequences of S. velatus were acquired and adopted as the candidate reference genes through transcriptome sequencing technique. Their mRNA expression levels in different tissues (antenna, head, thorax, abdomen and leg) of male and female adults of S. velatus were investigated by qRT-PCR. The expression stabilities of these candidate genes were evaluated by using three software-based (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper) and one web-based (RefFinder) comprehensive analysis tools. And the expression stabilities of the candidate reference genes in different adult tissues of S. velatus were further validated by using the odorant binding protein 1 gene (OBP1) as the target gene. Results Nine house-keeping genes, including beta-actin gene (ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), 60S ribosomal protein L12 gene (RPL12), 60S ribosomal protein L32 gene (RPL32), 40S ribosomal protein S20 gene (RPS20), elongation factor 2 gene (EF2), α-tubulin gene (TUA), and β-tubulin gene (TUB), were identified for the first time based on the S. velatus transcriptome data. It was revealed that RPL12 and RPS20 were the most stable reference genes based on the geNorm analysis, while TUA and TUB were the most stable reference genes based on the BestKeeper analysis and NormFinder analysis, respectively. Comprehensive analysis showed that TUB, TUA, RPS20 and RPL12 were the most stable reference genes, while three of the most widely used reference genes including 18S rRNA, ACT and GAPDH, were the least stable. Finally, the validation result of expression stability of four candidate reference genes with OBP1 as the target gene showed that the expression patterns of OBP1 indifferent tissues of adult S. velatus were basically coincident when TUB and RPL12 acted as the reference genes, while the expression pattern was a little different from that with TUB as the reference gene when RPL32 acted as the reference gene, and completely different from that with TUB as the reference gene when 18S rRNA acted as the reference gene. Conclusion TUB, TUA, RPS20 and RPL12 proved to be acceptable as reference genes for gene expression analysis in different tissues of adult S. velatus. This study lays a foundation for future studies on gene expression in S. velatus.
    Effects of photoperiod and LED light on the behavior of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae) adults
    FANG Mei, XIE Jian-Kun, ZHU Min, WANG Min, TU Xiao-Yun
    2018, 61(11):  1295-1299.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.006
    Abstract ( 619 )   PDF(mobile) (576KB) ( 63 )     
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    Aim This study aims to clarify the effects of photoperiod and LED light on such behaviors as feeding, walking, mating and egg-laying of Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata adults, so as to provide a scientific basis and technical guidance for forecasting and integrated management of this pest. Methods Experiments were conducted under the conditions of white fluorescent light intensity about 500 lx in photophase, and RH 75%±2%. The feeding, walking, mating and egg-laying behaviors of H. vigintioctopunctata adults were observed under different photoperiods (16L8D,15L9D,14L10D,13L11D,12L12D and11L13D) at30, and under different LED light (red, yellow, blue, green, and white light, represented by12L12R,12L12Y,12L12B,12L12G, and12L12W, respectively) with no light (12L12D) as the control in scotophase at26. Results When the photophase length increased from 13 h to 16 h, the feeding frequency of H. vigintioctopunctata adults increased. When the photophase length increased from 12 h to 15 h, the number of eggs laid also increased. The feeding frequencies in14L10D and13L11D groups (45.25 and 25.00 times/5 pairs, respectively) were significantly lower than those in other groups. Significantly fewer eggs were laid in11L13D group (only 7.25 eggs/5) than in other groups. The feeding frequency (112.50 times/5 pairs) in the blue light group in scotophase was significantly higher than those in the yellow and green light groups (77.0 and 66.25 times/5 pairs, respectively). Significantly more eggs were laid in the yellow and green light groups (261.50 and 285.50 eggs/5, respectively) than in the control group. Conclusion With the increase of photophase, the feeding frequency and number of eggs laid of H. vigintioctopunctata adults increase. Blue light in scotophase can increase the feeding frequency of H. vigintioctopunctata adults, while the yellow and green light lead to the increase in the number of eggs laid. Photoperiod and LED light have no significant effect on the walking and mating behaviors of H. vigintioctopunctata adults.
    Feeding preference and adaptation of Ectropis grisescens (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to different tea cultivars and their relationship with nutritional components in leaves of tea plants
    GE Chao-Mei, ZHANG Jia-Xia, SUN Qin-Yu, YE Tao, XIA Xian-Jiang, ZHANG Ran, DING Yong
    2018, 61(11):  1300-1309.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.007
    Abstract ( 467 )   PDF(mobile) (1523KB) ( 94 )     
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    Aim This study aims to determine the feeding preference of Ectropis grisescens Warren to leaves of different tea (Canmellia sinensis) cultivars and the influence of leaves of different tea cultivars on the growth and development of this insect, so as to explore the adaptation mechanism of E. grisescens to tea cultivars. Methods The feeding preferences of E. grisescens larvae to leaves of 11 tea cultivars were measured, and five tea cultivars were screened based on the results of preference test. The contents of biochemical components (water, soluble sugar, tea polyphenols and free amino acids) in leaves of five tea cultivars were determined, and then the relationship between the feeding preference of E. grisescens and the contents of biochemical components in leaves of tea plants was analyzed. The effects of different tea cultivars on the growth and development of E. grisescens feeding with leaves of the five tea cultivars were measured. Results The feeding preference of E. grisescens larvae to leaves of 11 tea cultivars in descending order was Pingyangtezao>Shuchazao>Zhonghuang 2>Yuexiangzao>Zhonghuang 1>Lanlixiang>Caoxi 1>Yulu 1>Fudingdabai>Shancha 1>Suyuhuang. The linear regression analysis showed that the feeding preference of E. grisescens was positively correlated with the water content and soluble sugar content in tea leaves, and negatively correlated with the contents of tea polyphenols and free amino acids, suggesting that E. grisescens prefers the tea leaves with higher contents of water and soluble sugar, but not those with higher contents of tea polyphenols and free amino acids. After the larvae fed on leaves of different tea cultivars, their low instar larval, prepupal and pupal duration were significantly different, but their adult longevity, weight of the last instar larva, pupal weight, larval survival rate, adult emergence rate, number of eggs laid per female, leaf consumption and food utilization rate showed no significant difference. Conclusion The biochemical components of tea plants influence the feeding selection of E. grisescens, which can adapt to host plants by changing the feeding strategy.
    Variation of the composition of attractants in lures for Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in the field and its influence on trapping efficacy
    HU Qin, JIN Jing, DU Yong-Bin, FAN Jian-Ting
    2018, 61(11):  1310-1318.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.008
    Abstract ( 541 )   PDF(mobile) (1059KB) ( 76 )     
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    Aim In order to further elucidate the variation of plant volatiles (α-pinene and ethanol) and the aggregation pheromone (2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol) of attractants in lures for Monochamus alternatus in the field and its influence on the trapping efficacy of lures. Methods The variation in the proportion and composition of the plant volatiles (α-pinene and ethanol) and the aggregation pheromone 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol of attractants in lures for M. alternatus after being hung in the field for different time were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, 20 traps were set up in the forest, and one lure was suspended on each trap. Ten traps were replaced with new lures on the 30th day, and the lures of the other 10 traps were not replaced. The corresponding field trapping efficacy was investigated. Results The results of variations in the contents of plant volatiles of attractants in lures showed that the initial total content of α-pinene and ethanol accounted for more than 97% in plant volatiles, and there were seven impurities including camphene, pinene oxide, pinocarveol, pinocarvone, myrtenal, verbenone, and myrtenol. The average release rate of plant volatiles was 5.05 mL/d within the first 15 days, and only 0.58 mL/d from the 45th to the 60th day. The results of the composition analysis of plant volatiles showed that the composition and contents of various components in plant volatiles changed with time. The ethanol content was zero on the 15th day, and another three new impurities including verbenol, campholenal and verbenylethylether were present during the 15th-45th day. The contents of the original impurities, i.e., pinocarveol, pinocarvone, myrtenal and verbenone, were significantly increased on the 60th day. The variation in the concentration of the aggregation pheromone 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol showed that the average release rate of 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol was 1.05 μL/d within the first 15 days and dropped to 0.52 μL/d from the 30th to the 45th day, and the content of the aggregation pheromone was almost zero on the 45th day. The field trapping test results showed that there was no significant difference in the trapping efficacy between the old lures (hung already for 30 d) and the new lures (newly replaced lures on the 30th day) on the 45th day, but significantly different on the 50th day (P<0.05), and extremely significantly different after the 60th day (P<0.01). Conclusion The results show that the release rate of attractants for M. alternatus shows the variation tendency of being fast first and then slow in the field, the proportion of each component changes with time, and the main components are oxidized, affecting the trapping efficacy. The high-efficiency duration of the self-made attractants for M. alternatus for field trapping is not less than 45 d, and the validity duration is not less than 60 d. How to better control the release rate of attractants in lures for M. alternatus and delay the component variations is worth further study.
    Genetic diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of Lucilia sericata (Diptera: Calliphoridae) populations in Chinaand its implication in forensic medicine for speculating death location
    LIU Qin-Lai, XIU Shi-Peng, LÜ Pin, TANG Guang-Feng, ZHANG Jie, WANG Xiao-Jun, ZHAO Ying-Jian, SUN Wen-Ping
    2018, 61(11):  1319-1327.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.009
    Abstract ( 435 )   PDF(mobile) (2088KB) ( 22 )     
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    Aim To sequence the mitochondrial cytochrome b (CYTB) gene of populations of the green bottle fly, Lucilia sericata from different localities in China, to investigate the effect of geographical isolation on the genetic diversity of L. sericata inChinaand to assess its application in forensic medicine for speculating death location. Methods The mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of 55 individuals of L. sericata collected in 2016 from 11 localities inChinawas amplified by PCR and sequenced. Then we used a variety of biological software for data analysis, including MEGA 6.0 for the analysis of genetic diversity, phylogeny and genetic distance, Primer 5 for cluster analysis, WinArl35 for genetic differentiation analysis, DnaSP 5.0 for haplotype statistical analysis and SPSS for data reduction. In 2017, two of the 11 localities (Qitaihe and Chuxiong) were selected using random sampling, and more L. sericata flies from the two localities were captured to verify the SNP locus of regional features. Results A total of 55 CYTB sequences (GenBank accession no.: MG696659-696663; MG734397-734446) of L. sericata were obtained with 19 mutation sites. The overall nucleotide polymorphism (Pi) was 0.00205, and the average genetic distance within the group was 0.00178. The main-coordinate clustering analysis showed that all the samples clustered into three clusters. The fixation index (Fst) values in six groups were statistically significant among the populations, ranging from 0.056 to 0.350. There was a high correlation between cumulative genetic distance and cumulative latitude. A total of 11 regional private SNP loci and 14 private haplotypes were found in all the samples. In the SNP verification experiment, there were no new SNP loci in Chuxiong samples, and three new SNP loci in Qitaihe samples, including two regional private SNP loci.Conclusion Geographic isolation has an impact on the genetic diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene of L. sericata in China, and this effect may be helpful to speculate death location in forensic medicine.
    REVIEW ARTICLES

    Progress in the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of innate immunity by 20-hydroxyecdysone in insects

    WANG Yuan, ZHANG Ruo-Nan, CHEN Xue, GU Ruo-Cheng, SU Rui, ZHONG Yang-Jin, YANG Wan-Ying
    2018, 61(11):  1328-1339.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.010
    Abstract ( 488 )   PDF(mobile) (8734KB) ( 82 )     
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    The innate immunity of insects includes cellular immunity and hurmoral immunity. Recent studies have shown that 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), one of the key hormones in the regulation of insect growth and development, is involved in the regulation of insect innate immunity. In this article we focus on the molecular mechanisms of 20E regulating the innate immunity in insects and the influence of microorganisms on 20E titer based on the mechanisms of insect immunity. 20E can activate cellular and humoral immunity against invasive microorganisms, and the stimulation of exogenous microorganisms can promote the increase of 20E titer by 3-dehydroecdysteroid--reductase (3DE--reductase). 20E has a significant effect on the immune system of insects, and the increase of its titer can activate cellular immunity, including phagocytosis, encapsulation and nodulation, while the effect on humoral immunity is more complex. Besides accelerating melanization, whether 20E promotes or inhibits the expression of antimicrobial peptides is not clear yet. Researchers identified a number of key genes through which 20E regulates humoral immunity, and they can be grouped into three categories according to the pathways they are involved in: the first is dependent on innate immune pathways such as Toll and IMD, the second is dependent on insulin signaling pathways, and the third is the direct regulation by 20E signaling pathway via such transcription factors as BR-C. However, the way these pathway factors interact with each other and their molecular regulatory mechanisms are still unclear and deserve further study.
    Current research status of diapause hormone and its receptors regulating embryo diapause in the silkworm, Bombyx mori
    SHEN Zhang-Fei, XIE Hong-Qing, SHI Lian-Gen
    2018, 61(11):  1340-1349.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.011
    Abstract ( 428 )   PDF(mobile) (2224KB) ( 31 )     
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    Diapause is an adaptive developmental strategy and state adopted by insects to survive in challenging environments. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, is a typical egg diapause insect, and the diapause happens in the early stages of its embryonic development. The diapause hormone (DH) is secreted by the suboesophageal ganglion of B. mori, playing a key role in the process of egg diapause. DH transmits signals via diapause hormone receptor (DHR) on the surface of silkworm ovarian cells, regulating the material metabolism and then determining the diapause of eggs. In this article, we summarized the discovery process and structure and function of DH, reviewed the gene cloning and expression, signal transduction and mechanism of DHR in the silkworm, and put forward the research prospects. It is expected to provide a molecular theoretical basis for studying the whole process of induction, inhibition and termination of embryonic diapause and further utilizing silkworm embryo diapause to improve the technology of traditional silkworm rearing.
    Progress in the regulating factors of behavioral transition between nurses and foragers in honeybees
    LIU Fang, SHI Teng-Fei, QI Lei
    2018, 61(11):  1350-1355.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.012
    Abstract ( 346 )   PDF(mobile) (642KB) ( 43 )     
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    As eusocial insect, Apis mellifera is one of the ideal models for studying human cognitive behavior. In a normal colony, workers show agedependent behavioral transition. Workers are mainly engaged in the work in nest in three weeks after emergence, and then they start to work outside the colony, especially to collect pollen and nectar. The behavioral transition of workers from working in nest to working outside is related to many factors. In this article, we reviewed the progress in the research on the behavioral transition of honeybees resulted from colony environment, physiology and expression change of genes including mRNAs and microRNAs, hoping to provide references for further exploring the factors and mechanisms regulating the behavioral transition of honeybees.
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    An orange-eye mutant of the white backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) (In English)
    GE Jia-Zhen, LOU Yu-Ting, ZHANG Chuan-Xi
    2018, 61(11):  1356-1362.  doi:10.16380/j.kcxb.2018.11.013
    Abstract ( 570 )   PDF(mobile) (13470KB) ( 30 )     
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     Aim This study aims to investigate the gene controlling the eye color of the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera and to explore the potential influence of eye color mutants on mating capacity. Methods An orange-eye mutant was established in our insectary, and the gene symbol related to this mutant was designated as org. The genetic basis of this phenotype was determined by designing eight groups of cross-mating experiment containing three genotypes (+/+, +/org, org/org). Whether the eye color related genes influence the mating capacity in WBPH was tested in a mating competition experiment. Results This orange-eye mutant had a pair of bright orange ommatea which was distinctly different from the wild type WBPH. The orange-eye phenotype occurred in all developmental stages of WBPH: the eyespot of eggs (3 d after ovipisition) and the compound eyes of nymphs and adults of both sexes and wing morphs. Reciprocal crosses between homozygous normal-eye WBPH and orange-eye WBPH produced F1 progeny with only normal-eye color. The sex ratio in the offspring produced from all groups was not biased to a specific sex based on Chi-square test (α=0.05, χ2c=0.19-1.53). The mating competitiveness of the orange-eye mutant was significantly weaker than that of the wild type phenotype in WBPH. Conclusion Our results indicate that the inheritance of the orange-eye trait is controlled by an autosomal recessive allele, and eye color related gene has significant impacts on mating capacity in WBPH.
    CONTENTS
    Contents of Vol. 61 Issue11
    2018, 61(11):  1363-1363. 
    Abstract ( 380 )   PDF(mobile) (488KB) ( 13 )     
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    Contents of Vol. 61 Issue12
    2018, 61(11):  1497-1497. 
    Abstract ( 316 )   PDF (490KB) ( 19 )     
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